English grammar practice практикум по грамматике английского языка составители: Т. В. Кагукина


НазваниеEnglish grammar practice практикум по грамматике английского языка составители: Т. В. Кагукина
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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«МОГИЛЕВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМ. А.А.КУЛЕШОВА»


ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

ПРАКТИКУМ ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА


Составители:

Т.В. Кагукина

К.А. Комарова

Пособие предназначено для студентов неязыковых специальностей, а также широкого круга лиц, желающих совершенствовать свои знания по грамматике английского языка.

Издание состоит из шести разделов: The Noun, The Article, The Pronoun, The Adjective, The Verb (the Verb to Be; the Verb to Have; English Tenses Active; English Tenses Passive), Direct and Indirect Speech. Каждый раздел включает теоретическое введение и разнообразные упражнения, направленные на развитие и закрепление грамматических знаний, умений и навыков студентов. Языковой материал отобран из аутентичных источников, а также работ отечественных авторов, список которых приведен в конце издания.

Пособие может быть использовано как для работы в аудитории с преподавателем, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов

CONTENTS

UNIT 1. THE NOUN……………………………………

UNIT2. THE ARTICLE ………………………………..

UNIT 3. THE PRONOUN ……………………………..

UNIT 4. THE ADJECTIVE……………………………..

UNIT 5. THE VERB ……………………………………

UNIT 6. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH………….

UNIT 1. THE NOUN
1. Form nouns from the given words with the help of the suffixes.

A. – er and –or.

Model: to read – reader, to sail – sailor.

Paint, talk, drive, manage, dream, research, compute, strike, lead, visit, design, invent, direct, translate.

B.ness, - ist.

Model: to employ – employment, to type – typist.

Appoint, move, enjoy, mad, science, advertise, judge, entertain, govern, develop, improve, material.

C. – tion, - hood, - ship, - ity.

Model: to examine – examination, dark – darkness, relative – relativity, child - childhood.

To imagine, happy, minor, cold, to consider, popular, to isolate, brother, relative, to direct, man, generous, to translate, personal, neighbour, to contribute.
^ 2. Complete the sentences using nouns formed from the verbs in brackets.

1. The staff at the hotel is excellent. They give very good … (serve).

2. The police said they were waiting further … (develop).

3. There is a … at the bottom of the letter ... (sign).

4. It will be very helpful if you continue your … (investigate).

5. She has a very wide … of modern arts (know).

6. The college expects a high standard of … from its students (behave).
^ 3. Complete the sentences using nouns formed from the adjectives in brackets.

1. I was told that you have a … for a computer operator. (vacant)

2. If you want to find a good job you should gain more … . (confident)

3. I am sure that his … was caused by overwork. (ill)

4. In the … we couldn’t make out if there was anyone at the entrance. (dark)

5. Jack was proud. He got a new job with more money and. … (responsible)

6. Though it was his first visit to the town he found the right hotel without any. … (difficult)
^ 4. Form nouns from the italicised words with the help of suffixes.

Model: Many people visited us during the summer. – We had many visitors.

1. He suggested that I should study French. – I like his …. 2. We couldn’t agree. We couldn’t reach an … . 3. The detective investigated the murder. During his … he questioned dozens of people. 4. She described the trip. Her … was very interesting. 5. His health has improved since last week. The … is very noticeable.
^ 5. Form compound nouns from two.

Model: sun, glass – sunglasses

A road, workers; tea, a pot; a bed, a room; a post, a man; a week, an end; news, paper; a class, a room; a side, a board; a man, a craft; a milk, a man; a chair, a man; trade, union, a man, war; a craft, space; a day, a birth; keep, a hotel; a boy a school; a wife, a house.
^ 6. Change the meaning of the following words from positive into negative by using one of the negative prefixes: -un, -dis, -in, -mis:

Ability, employment, qualification, agreement, connection, difference, dependence, understanding, fortune, importance.
7. Use the word given in brackets to form a noun.

Choosing a career

Choosing the right career to suit (personal) and one that lives up to your (expect) rather difficult. We usually take certain factors into (consider) when making such a (decide). First of all, what are the (require) of the job? You need to find out what (qualify) are necessary before you hand in you (apply) form. Then, think of your career prospects and consider if there is ample (opportune) for (promote). Finally, you need to decide on the level of (responsible) you would be happy with and whether you will achieve a sense of job (satisfy) equal to the work you put in.
*Uncountable nouns are:

  • Mass nouns (fluids, solids, gases, particles): beer, blood, bread, butter, air, oxygen, corn, flour etc.

  • Subjects to study: history, literature, maths, physics, accountancy, chemistry, economics etc.

  • Languages: Spanish, French, Japanese, Portuguese, Italian, Chinese etc.

  • Games: baseball, billiards, football, golf, darts, rugby, cricket, cycling etc.

  • Diseases: flu, pneumonia, measles, mumps, chickenpox, tuberculosis etc.

  • Natural phenomena: darkness, fog, gravity, hail, snow, sunlight, shade etc.

  • Some nouns: accommodation, advice, anger, applause, assistance, behaviour, business, chaos, countryside, courage, dirt, education, evidence, homework, housework, information, intelligence, knowledge, luck, music, news, peace, progress, seaside, shopping, traffic, trouble, truth, wealth, work etc.

  • ^ Collective nouns: baggage, crockery, cutlery, furniture, jewellery, luggage, machinery, money, rubbish, stationery etc.

Note: With expressions of duration, distance or money meaning “a whole amount” we use a singular verb.

Two months was too long to spend in hospital.
Many uncountable nouns can be made countable.

a piece of paper/cake/information/advice/furniture; a glass/bottle of water/beer/ wine; a jar of jam; a rasher of bacon; a pint of beer; a box/sheet of paper; a packet of tea; a slice/loaf of bread; a pot of yoghurt; a pot/cup of tea; a kilo/pound of meat; a tube of toothpaste; a bar of chocolate/soap; a bit/piece of chalk; an ice cube; a lump of sugar; a bag of flour; a pair of trousers; a game of soccer; a(n) item/piece of news; a drop/can of oil; a can of Coke; a carton of milk; a block of wood; a flash/bolt of lightning; a clap/peal of thunder etc.

*Plural nouns

  • objects consisting of two part: garments (trousers, pyjamas etc), instruments (binoculars, compasses etc), tropics, wages, contents, clothes, proceeds

  • arms, ashes, barracks, clothes, congratulations, earnings, (good) looks, outskirts, people, police, premises, riches, stairs, surroundings, wages etc.

The police are looking for the bank robbers.

  • Group nouns (army, audience, class, club, committee, company, council, crew, crowd, headquarters, family, jury, government, press, public, staff, team etc.) can take either a singular or plural verb depending on whether we see the group as a whole or as individuals.

^ The staff of the company works really hard to increase production (the staff as a group).

The staff were given a bonus at Christmas. (each member of the staff separately as individuals)

Note how certain nouns can be used in the singular and plural with a different meaning.


Singular
Give me a glass of water, please.
Has she always had short hair?

How would you rate this on a scale of 1 to 10?

In Japan it is not a custom to kiss your friends.

Have you got any lined paper I could use?
She’s wearing a ring made of wood.
I can’t talk now; I have a lot of work to do.

We had at least 200 people at our wedding.

The rain is falling really heavily now.
You need experience for this job.
We use a compass to find our direction.


Plural
I’ve been wearing glasses since I was 8 years old.

There are so many hairs in the sink!

Can you put that fish on the scales for me please?

Our bags were thoroughly searched at customs.

He showed his papers to the customs officer.

John loves his Sunday afternoon walk in the woods.

A lot of Daly’s works are on display in this museum.

The peoples of Europe are hoping for change.

The villagers are hoping for the rains to come soon.

I had a lot of interesting experiences visiting Asia.

Use your compasses to draw some circles.



8. Write the countable and uncountable nouns into two different columns using the indefinite article where necessary.

Wall, air, chalk, picture, water, match, tea, time, hour, bread, river, friend, copper, cigarette, tobacco, cheese, teacher, glass (стекло), glass (стакан), paper (бyмaгa), paper (гaзетa), music, coffee, armchair, gold, ship, chalk, idea, ice, furniture, butter, happiness, wood, tree, wood, money, coin, advice, work (произведение), work (работа).
^ 9. Explain the difference between the following pairs of words.

1. glass – a glass

2. paper – a paper

3. wood – a wood

4. iron – an iron

5. string – a string

6. coffee – a coffee

7. cloth – a cloth

8. rubber – a rubber

9. lamb – a lamb

10. language – a language

11. tin – a tin

12. study – a study

13. light – a light

14. air – an air

15. duck – a duck

16. gold – a gold

17. play – a play

18. thought – a thought


^ 10. Make up exclamatory sentences according to the model:

Good advice. – What good advice!

Good idea. – What a good idea!

1. terrible weather / terrible climate

2. beautiful language / beautiful suitcase

3. elegant clothes / elegant dress

4. heavy rainfall / heavy shower

5. healthy cow / healthy cattle

6. awful rubbish / awful mess

7. clever people / clever person

8. difficult job / difficult work

9. fresh bread / fresh loaf

10. delicious food / delicious meal

11. horrible song / horrible music

12. tough beef / tough steak


^ 11. Give the plural of the following nouns if possible.

A.

1. a lottery

2. a fisherman

3. a fish

4. a series

5. a Japanese

6. progress

7. a person

8. a woman

9. advice

10. a mouse

11. petrol

12. a chef

13. information

14. a foot

15. weather

16. a tomato

17. a means

18. a photo

19. a leaf

20. an ox

21. a species

22. a carp

23. a tooth

24. a cuckoo

25. a taxi

26. a menu

27. toast

28. a mongoose

29. a disco

30. a Swiss

B.

1. a class-mate

2. a forget-me-not

3. a man-of-war

4. a man-servant

5. a merry-go-round

6. a mother-in-law

7. a passer-by

8. a woman-driver

9. a grow-up

10. a hanger-on

11. a boy-friend

12. an office-block

13. a cupful

14. a court-martial

15. a school-inspector

12. Complete the table. Note that some of these words of foreign origin have regular plurals.

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

1.

cacti

13.

memoranda

2. analysis




14. stadium




3.

stimuli

15. museum




4.

strata

16.

addenda

5. datum




17.

radii

6. curriculum




18. drama




7. basis




19. genius




8. fungus




20.

appendices

9.

genera

21. axis




10. index




22.

media

11.

crises

23. album




12.

criteria

24.

phenomena

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