English grammar practice практикум по грамматике английского языка составители: Т. В. Кагукина


НазваниеEnglish grammar practice практикум по грамматике английского языка составители: Т. В. Кагукина
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*We do not use an article before:

- The plural form of a countable noun when it is used in a general sense: I buy magazines about computers.

- An uncountable noun when it is used in a general sense: She hates dishonesty.

- The name of the language: She speaks fluent German. Do you know any French?

- An adjective, unless the adjective is followed by a noun: ^ Her husband is tall. (Compare: She is married to a tall man.)

- An airport or train station: Gatwick Airport/ Charing Cross Station.

- A university: Cambridge University / London University.

- A shop or bank named after people: ^ Barclays Bank /McDonald's / Harrod's.

- A church or a cathedral: St Martin's Church /St Paul's Cathedral.

- A meal: have lunch/dinner.

- A disease or illness: Cancer causes a lot of suffering.

- A street or road: Oxford Street / Fifth Avenue.

- A mountain or continent: Mount Olympus /Mount Everest; Europe/Asia.

- A country, county, state, etc.: ^ Holland / Brixton / Texas / Devon.

- A lake: Lake Geneva/Lake Ontario.

- A school, college, church, prison when we are not focusing on the particular one: He was sent to prison. She goes to school.

- A hospital, university, etc. when we think of the purpose of the institution, not the building: He's in hospital.

- A way of traveling: go by car /bus /train; go on foot.

- We do not use an article in common phrases such as at work/home, in bed.
1. Supply a/an where necessary.

1. We have a/an nice flat.

2. There is a/an university in our town.

3. He can drive a/an car.

4. - What time is now? – Half a/an hour.

5. I’ve got a/an apple.

6. This is a/an table.

7. They bought a/an arm-chair.

8. It was a/an nice story.

9. It is a/an interesting book.

10. It was a/an hard year.
^ 2. Compare the use of the articles in the following sentences.

1. A cat often purrs when it is connected.

2. The cat sleeping on the porch belongs to our friends.

3. I bought a new book yesterday. The book has turned out interesting.

4. He is a doctor.

5. I know the doctor who lives by the river.

6. He is such a clever man.

7. His trust in man was destroyed.

8. Paris is not only a big city but also a capital.

9. London is the capital of England.

10. The city I was born has changed since I last saw it.

11. It is a most interesting book.

12. It is the most interesting book I’ve ever read.
^ 3. Supply “a” or “the”.

1. It happened in a/the small town of Siberia.

2. She is quite a/the young girl.

3. Ann looked everywhere for a/the badminton net. It was in a/the attic.

4. Who is a/the person who borrowed you umbrella?

5. They gave a/the guitar for Christmas.

6. Can you play a/the guitar?

7. Where is a/the guitar you parents gave you for your birthday?

8. There is a/the note on your table.

9. When was a/the telephone invented?

10. It is a/the highest mountain in this aria.
^ 4. Translate from Russian into English paying attention to the usage of the articles with common nouns.

А.1. Мне нужно снять комнату. 2. Проветри комнату. 3. У тебя есть нож? 4. Осторожно! Нож острый. 5. Здесь недалеко есть озеро. 6. Озеро глубокое и холодное. 7. Замок сломался. 8. У вас есть замок. 9. Дверь закрыта. Это дверь, а не окно 10. У тебя есть телефон? 11. Телефон не работает. 12. У вас есть ключ от этой двери?

Б.1. Он ходит в бассейн два раза в неделю. 2. Любой ребенок может это объяснить. 3. Это достаточно трудная работа. 4. Какой замечательный день! 5. Какая чудесная погода! 6. Он вчера простудился. 7. Сосна растет на Севере.8. Солнце встает на Востоке. 9. Ты тот самый человек, который может мне помочь. 10. Существуют специальные школы для глухих и слепых. 11. Ты умеешь играть на скрипке?
5. Compare the use of the articles in the following sentences.

1. This table is made of stone.

2. Find a stone to insert the stick into the wall.

3. The doctor forbade him to drink coffee.

4. The coffee she had made was better than he had expected.

5. He ordered a coffee.

6. Bring some cheese.

7. Are you enjoying the cheese?

8. She was as pale as snow.

9. The snow was deep.
^ 6. Insert the appropriate article.

1. While there is … life there is … hope. 2. Last night I heard “Carmen” and enjoyed … music. 3. She was wearing … little hat of … black straw. 4. She harried in and found … water almost boiled away. 5. The ground was covered with … deep snow. 6. Could you buy me … ice-cream? 7. I have … egg and … coffee for breakfast. 8. It is useful to drink … juice. 9. … juice is sweet and refreshing.10. She taught children to work with … paper and … scissors.
7. Translate from Russian into English paying attention to the usage of the articles with nouns of material and abstract nouns.

А. 1.Вода в реке очень холодная. 2. Вода необходима для жизни. 3. Принеси мне воды. 4. Снег был глубокий. 5. Я люблю чай. 6. Дай мне, пожалуйста, молока. 7. Детям полезно пить молоко. 8. Из чего сделан стол? Это красное дерево. 9. Хочешь мороженое? - Да. Купи мне одну пачку. 10. Погода была теплая.

Б. 1. Это очень полезный совет. 2. Совет хороший. 3. Ты слышал новость? 4. Он привез хорошие новости. 5. Такие сведения нам нужны. 6. Это бесполезная информация. 7. Где деньги? 8. У него не было денег. 9. Ты любишь такую погоду? 10. Погода была дождливая. 11. Какая теплая погода. 12. У них нет мебели. 13. Это тяжелая работа. 14. Он ходит на работу каждый день. 15. Работа интересная.
^ 8. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the usage of articles with proper nouns and names of persons.

1. Africa and Australia are continents.

2. Moscow is the capital of Russia.

3. The United Kingdom of Great Britain consists of four countries.

4. The Sahara is the greatest desert in North Africa, extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Nile.

5. Elbrus is the highest peak in Europe.

6. There is a letter from Susan inviting me to the party.

7. Young Jolyon was standing by the piano.

8. Aunt Polly was looking for Tom.

9. Doctor Brown was a short stout man in a black suit.

10. The doctor was sent for an hour ago.

11. “Where is your mother?”

12. “Mother, do you hear me?”

13. I have a mother, a father, and a sister.

14. He is very different from the Kents.

15. Is he the Sheldon who is a writer?

16. I heard it from a certain Mr. Jagger.
^ 9. Insert articles where necessary.

A. … North America, … England, … South, … Bermudas, … Madagascar, … Everest, … Urals, … United States of America, … America, … South America, … Baikal, … lake Baikal, … English Channel, … British Isles, … south of France, … southern France, … Atlantic Ocean, … Mediterranean, … North Sea, … Scotland, … Netherlands, … Hague, … Vatican City, … Argentina, … Argentine, … Crimea.

B.1. Lots of people go for … exotic holidays in … Asia. 2. We decided to go to … island of Secily last summer and we’ve decided to go to an island again this year; either to … Rhodes or … Canaries. 3. Many people go trekking in … mountains like … Alps or … Cheetah. 4. … Vatican City is one of … most beautiful places in … Rome. 5. … month I spent in ... France was one of … best times in my life. 6. … Nile flows from near … Lake Victoria to … Mediterranean. 7. … Falklands are islands in … South of … Atlantic Ocean. 8. When I visited … Netherlands I always stay at the Park Hotel in … Amsterdam. 9. He has visited a number of places including … USA, … Middle East and … Asia.
10. Study the use of the following nouns paying attention to the articles with the names of places (streets, squares, bridges, parks, hotels etc.), public organizations, historical references and events.

The Plaza (cinema), The Savoy (hotel), The Prado (museum), The Palladium (theatre), The Independent (magazine), The Cutty Sark (ship), The British Council (Institution), The Tate (gallery), The Russian Revolution, The Renaissance, The Cold War (but World War II), Carnaby Street (but The High Street, The Strand, The Mall), Trafalgar Square, Tower Bridge (but: The Bridge of Sighs, The Golden Gate Bridge, The Severn Bridge, The Forth Bridge), Central Park, Euston Station, The White House, John Kennedy Airport, Windsor Castle, Tom’s bar, The Red Lion (pub), Leoni’s, The Globe theatre, London University, Oxford Circus.
11. Fill in a/an or the where necessary.

1 … Tower of … London is on … north side of … Thames. 2. … University of Cambridge is one of … most famous … United Kingdom if not in Europe. 3. New Year celebrations are held in … Times Square in … New York. 4. … Sunset Boulevard is … most famous street in … Hollywood. 5. His car crashed into the back of our car in … Green Street yesterday. 6. You will find my house if you walk along … Green Street and turn right into … High Street. 7. Many of … England’s young men died in … First World War. 8. We went to … Brown’s to have our evening meal. 9. You can’t visit … London without seeing … Buckingham Palace. 10. Two famous works of art were exhibited in … Tate Gallery.
^ 12. Insert a or an if necessary.

1. We had … fish and … chips for ... lunch. - That doesn't sound . . . very interesting lunch. 2. I had . . . very bad night; I didn't sleep . . . wink. 3.He is ... vegetarian; you won't get. . . meat at his house. He'll give you . . . nut cutlet. - Last time I had . . . nut cutlet I had . . . indigestion. 4. ... travel agent would give you . . . information about. .. hotels. 5. We'd better go by ... taxi - if we can get . . . taxi at such . . . hour as 2 a.m. 6. ... person who suffers from . . . claustrophobia has . . . dread of being confined in ... small space, and would always prefer … stairs to ... lift. 7. Do you take . . . sugar in ... coffee? - I used to, but now I'm on ... diet. I'm trying to lose . . . weight. 8. ... man suffering from . . . shock should not be given anything to drink. 9. You'll get. . . shock if you touch . . . live wire with that screwdriver. Why don't you get. . . screwdriver with . . . insulated handle? 10. ... Mr Smith is ... old customer and . . . honest man. - Why do you say that? Has he been accused of ... dishonesty? 11. I'm not … wage-earner; I'm … self-employed man. I have . . . business of my own. - Then you're not. . . worker; you're . . . capitalist! 12. When he was charged with . . . murder he said he had . . . alibi. 13. ... friend of mine is expecting … baby. If it's … girl she's going to be called Etheldreda. What … name to give … girl! 14. I hope you have … lovely time and ... good weather. - But I'm not going for ... holiday; I'm going on ... business. 15. He looked at me with . . . horror when I explained that I was . . . double agent. 16. I have . . . headache and . . . sore throat. I think I've got. . . cold. – I think you're getting . . . flu. 17. ... Mr Jones called while you were out (neither of us knows this man). He wants to make . . . complaint about. . . article in the paper. He was in ... very bad temper. 18. If you go by ... train you can have quite . . . comfortable journey, but make sure you get. . . express, not. . . train that stops at all the stations. 19. ... few people know (hardly anyone knows) that there is ... secret passage from this house to ... old smugglers' cave in the cliffs. 20. I'm having . . . few friends in to ... coffee tomorrow evening. Would you like to come? - I'd love to, but I'm afraid I'm going to ... concert. 21. It's time you had . . . holiday. You haven't had . . . day off for . . . month. 22. He broke . . . leg in ... skiing accident. It's still in ... plaster. 23. I want. . . assistant with . . . knowledge of French and . . . experience of ... office routine. 24. I see that your house is built of ... wood. Are you insured against . . fire? 25. The escaping prisoner camped in ... wood but he didn't light. . . fire because . . . smoke rising from the wood might attract. . . attention.
^ 13. Insert the if necessary.

1. ... youngest boy has just started going to ... school; . . . eldest boy is at... college. 2. She lives on ... top floor of an old house. When . . . wind blows, all . . . windows rattle. 3. ... darkness doesn't worry . . . cats; . . . cats can see in ... dark. 4. My little boys say that they want to be ... spacemen, but most of them will probably end up in ... less dramatic jobs. 5. He was sent to ... prison for . . . six months for . . . shop-lifting. When ... six months are over he'll be released; . . . difficulty then will be to find . . . work. - Do you go to ... prison to visit him? 6. I went to ... school to talk to ... headmistress. I persuaded her to let Ann give up ... gymnastics and take . . . ballet lessons instead. 7. I am on ... night duty. When you go to ... bed, I go to ... work. 8. Peter's at... office but you could get him on ... phone. There's a telephone box just round ... corner. 9. He first went to ... sea in a Swedish ship, so as well as learning ... navigation he had to learn ... Swedish. 10. ... family hotels are ... hotels which welcome . . . parents and ... children. 11. On ... Sundays my father stays in ... bed till ten o'clock, reading ... Sunday papers. 12. Then he gets up, puts on ... old clothes, has . . . breakfast and starts ... work in ... garden. 13. My mother goes to ... church in ... morning, and in ... afternoon goes to visit. . . friends. 14. Like many women, she loves ... tea parties and ... gossip. 15. My parents have ... cold meat and ... salad for ... supper, ... winter and ... summer. 16. During ... meal he talks about ... garden and she tells him .. . village gossip. 17. We have a very good train service from here to ... city centre and most people go to ... work by train. You can go by ... bus too, of course, but you can't get a season ticket on ... bus. 18. ... dead no longer need … help. We must concern ourselves with … living. We must build … houses and … schools and … playgrounds. 19. ... most of... stories that … people tell about … Irish aren't true. 20. ... married couples with … children often rent… cottages by ... seaside for ... summer holidays. … men hire boats and go for ... trips along … coast; … children spend … day on ... beach and ... poor mothers spend … most of … time doing … cooking and cleaning. 21. When . . . Titanic was crossing … Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge hole in her bow … captain ordered … crew to help … passengers into … boats. 22. Everywhere … man has cut down … forests in order to cultivate … ground, or to use … wood as ... fuel or as ... building material. 23. But … interference with … nature often brings … disaster … tree-felling sometimes turns … fertile land into a dustbowl. 24. ... windows are supposed to let in ... light; but … windows of this house are so small that we have to have … electric light on all ... time. 25. There'll always be a conflict between ... old and . . . young. … young people want. . . change but... old people want … things to stay … same.
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