English grammar practice практикум по грамматике английского языка составители: Т. В. Кагукина


НазваниеEnglish grammar practice практикум по грамматике английского языка составители: Т. В. Кагукина
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^ 4. Add one of the negative prefixes in each space to make the word which follows opposite in meaning.

1. It is the most … believable story, I’ve ever heard.

2. I am afraid this is a very … convenient way to solve the problem.

3. The country has become … dependant.

4. When the ambulance came, the woman was … conscious.

5. They were … agreeable on all the points.

6. Last summer I was in Rome. It was an … forgettable experience.

7. I don’t like … tidy people.

8. The English verbs fall into two groups: regular and … regular.

9. It is … legal to bring goods into the country without paying taxes.

10. It was … possible to reach the office within two hours.
^ 5. Use the words below to form a word that fits in the space.

stress success compete nerve exhaust active benefit pleasure confidence energy suit

The Benefits of Exercise

Working full-time can be a very (0) stressful experience for most people; long hours and the pressure to be (1) … in a (2) society both contribute to the build-up of anxiety. If you’re feeling (3) … , there’s no better way to relax than to exercise. However, many people return from work to (4) … to move. People are criticized for being lazy and (5) …, and for watching too much television which is not (6) … to our health. Taking regular exercise can be both relaxing and (7) … and people who feel healthy often also feel more (8) … .You don’t need to be especially (9) … to make up a sport; simply choose one that is (10) … to your character.
^ 6. Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

excite fashion fright spectacle alarm characterise advise caution prevail afraid marvel

For an (0) exiting holiday destination, few cities can compare to New York. From (1) … Fifth Avenue to the run-down and (2) … ghettos of the Bronx, New York is a city of (3) … contrasts. However (4) … it may seem, it is worthwhile wandering the streets on your own to get a feeling for the (5) … areas of the city. Of course it is (6) … to use your common sense. You should be (7) … when approached by strangers, and always keep in mind that violence is (8) … and that acting (9) … is the best protection against attack. Keeping this in mind, you can be assured of having a (10) … time.
^ 7. Write the opposites of the following adjectives.

1 active

2 existent

3 well-adjusted

inactive

……………

……………

4 legible

5 religious

6 moral


…………..

………….

………….

7 available

8 responsible

9 respectful

………..………..………..


^ 8. Make compound adjectives to describe the following:

1. An award that is well deserved. … a well-deserved award …

2. A product that lasts a long time. …………………………….

3. A suit that isn’t made well. ………………………………….

4. A story that never ends. ……………………………………..

5. A meal that has three courses. ………………………………

6. An employee who isn’t paid well. …………………………..

7. A house that has two storeys. ………………………………..

8. An office that isn’t organized well. ………………………….
* Certain adjectives are used with the as nouns to talk about groups of people in general. These are: the elderly, the middle-aged, the old, the young, the blind, the deaf, the disabled, the living, the sick, the poor, the rich, the homeless, the hungry, the strong, the weak, the unemployed etc. Young people are full of curiosity. / The young are full of curiosity. (refers to young people in general) The young people in our town are planning a concert. (refers to a specific group of young people)
^ 9. Fill in “the” where necessary.

1. The Government is cutting benefits for the unemployed and … unemployed people all over the country are organizing protest marches.

2. … Homeless in our town are being helped by … young people who are organizing a sale to raise money for … needy people in general.

3. A friend of mine works in a school for … deaf, where she teaches … deaf children.

4. … middle-aged people tend to criticize … young for their disrespectful attitude.

5. After the earthquake, … dead were buried in mass graves while … living tried to make shelters for … injured.
Order of Adjectives

Opinion Adjectives

Fact adjectives


noun


size


age


shape


colour


origin


material

used for

be about

It’s a beautiful big old round brown Italian oak dining table.
* Afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, content, ill, glad etc are never followed by a noun. The baby is asleep. (not: asleep baby)

* Nouns of material, purpose or substance can be used as adjectives: a cotton skirt, a winter dress, a shopping bag. However, certain adjectives derived from such nouns are used metaphorically. silky hair (hair like silk), but a silk scarf (a scarf made of silk); a stony expression (cold expression), but a stone cottage (a cottage made of stone); golden hair (hair like gold), but a gold pen (a pen made of gold); feathery leaves (leaves which look like feathers), but a feather duster (a duster made of feathers); metallic colour (colour that looks like metal), but a metal chair (a chair made of metal); leathery skin (skin looking/feeling like leather), but a leather wallet (a wallet made of leather); a leaden feeling (an unpleasant feeling), but lead pipes (pipes made of lead); a steely look (a strong, determined look),but steel framework (framework made of steel).
^ 10. Rewrite tile sentences putting tile adjectives into tile correct place. Identify what kind of adjectives they are.

1. He was carrying a briefcase. (leather, nice, black, new) - He was carrying a nice new black.

2. He gave her a scarf. (silk, fantastic, French, red)

3. I bought chairs from an antique shop. (American, three, oak, old)

4. She is an actress. (English, intelligent, young, dramatic)

5. The table lamp was broken by the children. (metal, white, small)

6. She bought a carpet. (expensive, Persian, antique, woollen)

7. He crashed his car yesterday. (sports, brand new, yellow)

8. It was a dress. (hand-made, gorgeous, wedding, lace)

9. I saw a film on TV last night. (Italian, exciting, detective)

10. They live in a house. (big, lovely, country, old-fashioned, brick)

11. She is a salesperson. (young, computer, successful)

12. I bought a book. (old, poetry, Latin)

13. We watched a programme. (short, English, interesting, educational)

14. She bought a raincoat. (plastic, long, cheap)

15. They found a trunk. (wooden, rectangular, antique, interesting)

16. He bought a yacht. (Swedish, second-hand, huge)
^ 11. Underline tile correct adjective.

1. She gave him a stone/stony look when he criticized her daughter.

2. These metal/metallic chairs are suitable for outdoor use as they are weatherproof.

3. The sky was full of light feather / feathery clouds.

4. She is admired for her gold / golden hair and metal/metallic blue eyes.

5. The old farmer had dark leather / leathery skin.

6. This new body milk gives you smooth, silk / silky skin in a matter of days.

7. She had a lead / leaden expression on her face.

8. The gold / golden candlesticks were very expensive so we bought some silver / silvery ones instead.

9. He wears woolly / woollen suits and expensive leather/leathery shoes.

10. She has a steel / steely manner towards her colleagues.
Formation of Adverbs from Adjectives

Adverbs are formed from adjectives + -ly: quick - quickly, calm – calmly.

* adjectives ending in consonant + -y - -ily: sleepy - sleepily, weary - wearily, weepy – weepily.

* adjectives ending in -ic add –ally:. tragic - tragically, franticfrantically.

* adjectives ending in -le drop -le and add –ly: irritable - irritably, reliable – reliably.

* adjectives ending in -e add –ly: false - falsely, but: whole - wholly, true – truly.

* adjectives ending in –ly (elderly, fatherly, friendly, lively, lonely, lovely, motherly, silly, ugly etc) form their adverb with in a(n) ... way/manner: in a motherly manner, in a lively way etc.

^ Adjectives and Adverbs which have the same form:

best, better, big, cheap, clean, clear, close, cold, daily, dead, dear, deep, direct, dirty, early, easy, extra, far, fast, fine, free, further, hard, high, hourly, inside, kindly, last, late, long, loud, low, monthly, past, quick, quiet, right, slow, straight, sure, thin, thick, tight, weekly, well, wide, wrong, yearly etc.

Ann was our last guest. She came in last. Those adverbs with an asterisk (*) can be found with -ly ending without a difference in meaning, but then they are more formal. Walk slow! (informal), also Walk slowly! (formal)
^ Adverbs with two forms and differences in meaning

deep = a long way down;

deeply = greatly;

direct = by the shortest route;

directly = immediately;

easy = gently and slowly;

easily = without difficulty;

free = without cost;

freely = willingly;

full = exactly, very; fully = completely;

hard = intently*, with effort;

hardly = scarcely;

high = at/to a high level;

highly = very much;

last = after all others;

lastly = finally;

late = not early;

lately = recently;

near = close;

nearly = almost;

pretty = fairly;

prettily = in a pretty way;

short = suddenly;

shortly = soon;

sure = certain;

surely = without a doubt;

wide = off-target;

widely = to a large extent;

wrong = incorrectly;

wrongly = unjustly (wrongly goes before verbs/past part.,but – wrong/wrongly go after verbs)
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