English grammar practice практикум по грамматике английского языка составители: Т. В. Кагукина


НазваниеEnglish grammar practice практикум по грамматике английского языка составители: Т. В. Кагукина
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Word Order of Adverbs

* Adverbs can be used in front, mid or end position in a sentence. Front position is at the beginning of a sentence. Mid position is normally before the main verb or after the auxiliary. End position is at the end of a sentence.

^ Front Mid End

At university I often saw her walking around confidently.

* Adverbs of manner can go in any position. When placed in front position, they give emphasis.

He climbed up the stairs quickly. Quickly he climbed up the stairs. (emphasis)

* When there is more than one adverb in the sentence, there usual order is manner-placed-time.

subject verb manner place time

^ She was studying hard in her room all night.

* When there is a verb of movement, then the order is: place – manner – time.

subject verb place manner time

He goes to school on foot every day

* Time adverbs go in end position. They also go in front position to emphasise the time.

subject + verb place manner time

or

time subject+verb place manner

He goes to the park on his bike every day.

Every day he goes to the park on his bike.

* Adverbs of frequency (sometimes, always, usually, never, often, seldom, rarely etc) go after an auxiliary but before the main verb.

You are always late.

He usually comes late.

They go before the auxiliary in short answers.

Does he help you clean the house?” “Yes, he always does.”

* Adverbs of degree (hardly, almost, nearly etc) go before the words they modify.

She works quite hard.
10. Rewrite the sentences putting the adverbs in the right place.

1. He eats his sandwiches. (at break time/always/quickly).

He always eats his sandwiches quickly at break time.

2. Birds migrate. (to warmer countries/usually/in winter)

3. The plane crashed. (into the sea/suddenly/an hour ago)

4. Politicians prepare their speeches. (thoroughly/at home/generally/in advance)

5. The thief crept into the house. (silently/at midnight)

6. Newspapers are delivered. (only/weekly/in remote areas)

7. Hundreds of people are imprisoned. (in Britain/each year/wrongly)

8. People who sunbathe can get burnt. (badly/on the beach/frequently)

9. Hotplan’s new washing machine has been designed to save you money. (cleverly/now/in the home)

10. Staff have been made aware of the consequences of a shrinking market. (rapid/recently/fully)


^ Regular Comparative and Superlative Forms

Adjectives

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

of one syllable add -(e)r/-(e)st

short

shorter (than)

the shortest (of/in)

to form their comparative

simple

simpler (than)

the simplest (of/in)

and superlative forms;

big

bigger (than)

the biggest (of/in)

adjectives of two syllables ending in

funny

funnier (than)

the funniest (of/in)

-ly, -y, -w also add -er/-est;

narrow

narrower (than)

the narrowest (of/in)

adjectives of two or more syllables

modern

more modern (than)

the most modern (of/in)

take more/most

intelligent

more intelligent (than)

the most intelligent (of/in)


* We normally use than with the comparative form.

Tim is shorter than Tony.

We normally use the…(of/in (“in” refers to places, groups etc) with the superlative form.

She’s the smartest of all.

* Certain adjectives form their comparative and superlative either with –er/-est or more/most. These are: clever, common, cruel, friendly, gentle, narrow, pleasant, polite, shallow, simple, stupid, quiet.

Quiet – quieter-quietest, also quiet – more quiet – most quiet
^ 10. Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form.

Come and visit one of 1) the most interesting ... (interesting) countries in the world - Israel, where the people are 2) … (hospitable) than anywhere else. You will see some of 3) ... (old) biblical sites in the world, as well as 4) … (modern) cities with 5) ... (good) restaurants in the Middle East. To make travel arrangements 6) … (easy), our tour includes guided visits to some of 7) … (holy) and 8) … (important) sites for a number of different religions. You will also get the opportunity to float in the Dead Sea - 9) .. (low) point 6n earth. The climate is 10) … (pleasant) than anything you will have experienced before. Even in 11) … (hot) of summers you will find places to cool off. Our company offers tailor-made tours for 12) … (small) groups than is usual on a package holiday. We provide accommodation in intimate hotels which offer 13) … (friendly) service than the larger, 14) … (impersonal) ones. Even 15) … (frequent) traveller will experience something new in this unique country. Book today!
^ 11. Read and translate the following colourful and unusual comparisons. Make up sentences with them.

1. as different as chalk and cheese 2. as scarce as hen's teeth 3. as dark as inside of a wolf 4. as happy as a pumpkin in a sunny patch 5. as ugly as home-made soap 6. as black as two o'clock in the morning 7. as happy as a dog with two tails 8. as nervous as a brick wall 9. as brave as the first man who ate an oyster 10. as cold as an ex-wife's heart 11. as big as the little end of nothing 12. as noisy as two skeletons dancing on a tin roof
^ 12. Complete the sentences using the comparative or the superlative form of the adjectives given in brackets.

1. - Boris is certainly (clever) than his brother. - Yes, and he is (attractive) than his brother Peter. In fact, he is (smart) boy I've ever taught. 2. Nothing could be (extravagant) than buying such an expensive car. You will have to be (careful) with your money in future. 3. Life is getting (hard) and (complicated) with every passing day. 4. It is (effective) method of all, but it is naturally costly. 5. Stephen is (intelligent) than any other boy in his group. 6. It has been (cold) day in Moscow for thirty years. 7. It's (little) I can do for you, I'm afraid. 8. That was (bad) than he had expected. 9. That was indeed (bad) experience in his career. 10. They naively think that things can only get (good). 11. This is (unbelievable) news I have ever heard. 12. He ate (few) French fries than you did at the picnic. 13. Angela is (little) organized than Mike. 14. If you ask me, Moscow is (beautiful) than any other city in the world. 15. They had (little) and (little) to talk about. 16. It is axiomatic that (great) the student's individual effort, (much) thorough will be his learning. 17. The (much) original a discovery, the (much) obvious it seems afterwards.
^ 13. Translate into English.

1. Из двух проектов второй более перспективный. 2. Из пятерых претендентов они выбрали самого знающе­го. 3. Какой из этих двух аппаратов более надежный? 4. Это был самый печальный опыт в моей жизни. 5. Для нее нет ничего более важного, чем ее карьера. 6. Чем скорее он перестанет проматывать деньги, тем лучше. 7. Для меня существуют два самых замечатель­ных дня в году — мой день рождения и Новый год. 8. Чем меньше ты говоришь и, фактически, чем мень­ше ты знаешь, тем это безопаснее для меня и для моих друзей. И в конечном счете для тебя тоже. 9. Вода — самый сильный напиток. Она приводит в движение (to drive) мельницы. 10. Чем образованнее человек, тем более он склонен страдать от головных болей. 11. Самые лучшие повара— мужчины. 12. «Извини­те» — самое трудное слово. 13. Чем больше я читаю о налоговой реформе, тем меньше я ее понимаю.

Adverbs

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

adverbs having the same forms as their adjectives add –er/-est

fast

faster

the fastest

early drops –y and adds –ier/-iest


early

earlier

the earliest

two syllable or compound adverbs take more/most (Compound adverbs are adjectives + -ly. Thoughtful - thoughtfully)

often

patiently

more often

more patiently

the most often

the most patiently


Irregular forms

Positive
good/well

bad/badly

much

many/a lot of

little

far

far

^ Well is the adverb of good. She is a good dancer. She dances well.

Comparative
better

worse

more

more

less

farther

further


Superlative
best

worst

most

most

least

farthest

furthest


a) further/farther (adv) = longer (in distance):

His house is further/farther away than John’s. further (adj) = more:I need no further help from you

b) very + positive degree: I’m very happy in my job.

c) even/much/far/a bit + comparative degree:

The weather’s even less bearable today: it’s much worse than last year.

d) most + adj/adv of positive degree = very:

He was most helpful and answered all my questions.

e) any + comparative (used in negative and questions): Can you write any quicker, please?
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