Методические рекомендации для обеспечения контролируемой самостоятельной работы студентов (кср) по учебной дисциплине «Функциональная грамматика» для специальностей


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НазваниеМетодические рекомендации для обеспечения контролируемой самостоятельной работы студентов (кср) по учебной дисциплине «Функциональная грамматика» для специальностей
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УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«БАРАНОВИЧСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

КАФЕДРА ГРАММАТИКИ И ФОНЕТИКИ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

ФАКУЛЬТЕТ СЛАВЯНСКИХ И ГЕРМАНСКИХ ЯЗЫКОВ

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ

Для обеспечения

контролируемой самостоятельной работы студентов (КСР)

по учебной дисциплине «Функциональная грамматика»





для специальностей:

1-02 03 06 Иностранный язык (английский). Дополнительная специальность

1-02 03 06-01 Английский язык. Немецкий язык

1-02 03 07 Иностранный язык (английский). Дополнительная специальность

1-02 03 07-01 Иностранный язык (английский). Белорусский язык и литература

1-02 03 07 Иностранный язык (английский). Дополнительная специальность

1-02 03 07-02 Иностранный язык (английский). Информатика

1-02 03 07 Иностранный язык (английский). Дополнительная специальность

1-02 03 07-03 Иностранный язык (английский). Технология (обслуживающий труд)

3-й курс



Всего КСР- 8 часов, 6 семестр

Из них: ПЗ – 8 ч.


Материалы подготовлены

преподавателями кафедры Якобсон И.А., Леон О.В. (в соответствии с Положением о контролируемой самостоятельной работе студентов БарГУ, утверждённым 18.08.2009 № 341)

Барановичи, 2012 г.

Тема: «Определение. Имя прилагательное. Наречие и прилагательное в сравнении»

  1. Краткая аннотация

Данные методические рекомендации предназначены для студентов 3 курса факультета славянских и германских языков при организации КСР по теме «Определение. Имя прилагательное. Наречие и прилагательное в сравнении». Комплекс заданий, направленных на достижение поставленных целей и задач КСР, разработан в соответствии с учебной программой по дисциплине «Функциональная грамматика».

Цель темы — совершенствование навыков построения предложения в английском языке в соответствии с правилами порядка слов и употребления инверсии.

Задачи:

  • углубить теоретические знания студентов об особенностях порядка слов в английском предложении;

  • углубить теоретические знания об использовании инверсии и ее типов при построении предложения в английском языке;

  • овладеть грамматическими навыками, достаточными для реализации коммуникативных намерений в устной и письменной речи;

  • развивать память, логическое мышление и воображение студентов.



    1. Тематический план

3 курс, 6 семестр

Тема: «Определение. Имя прилагательное. Наречие и прилагательное в сравнении»
^ III. Список основной литературы:

1.Петрашкевич, Н. П. Синтаксис : сб. упражнений по практ. грамматике англ. яз. : учеб. пособие для студентов специальности «Соврем. иностр. яз.» учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высш. образования / авт.-сост. Н. П. Петрашкевич. — Мн. : Лексис, 2005. — 268 с.

2. Французова, В. О. Морфология : Сб. упражнений по рактической грамматике англ. яз. для студентов учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высш. образования по специальности «Соврем. иностр. яз.» / Сост. В. О. Французова. — 2-е изд., испр. — Мн. : Лексис, 2003. — 276 с.

3.Шелег, Л. А. Практическая грамматика английского языка : Учеб. пособие для студентов специальности «Соврем. иностр. яз.» учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высш. образования / Л. А. Шелег, Н. П. Петрашкевич, И. В. Дмитриева. — 2-е изд. — Мн. : Лексис, 2006. — 232 с.
Список дополнительной литературы:

1.Prodromou, L. Grammar & Vocabulary for First Certificate with key/ L. Prodromou — Pearson Education Limited, 1999.

2. Thomson, A. J., Martinet A.V. A Practical English Grammar/ A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet. - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. – 140 p.



  1. Учебно-методический блок

1. Формулировка задания:

Write a test connected with the appropriate use of adjectives and adverbs.
2. Пошаговая инструкция к выполнению задания

1) Revise the information about the use of adjectives and adverbs;
2) Write the given test.
3. Материалы, необходимые для выполнения задания (при необходимости)

Test (Adjectives vs. Adverbs)
From the choices provided after each sentence select an adjective or adjectival phrase that would correctly complete the sentence.
1. Those are probably the ___________ pillows in the store.

A. certain

B. fanciest

C. most fanciest

D. successful
2. The Volkswagen used to be _________________ family car.

A. a horrible German

B. a German, horrible

C. a fine, German

D. a horrible, German
3. Officer and a Gentleman is the ____________ movie I’ve ever seen.

A. most excited

B. most exciting

C. most exciteable

D. exciting most

4. In which sentence is the word in bold type an adjective?

A. Salt adds delicious flavor to many dishes.

B. The students read four kinds of books.

C. They placed the flowers in a sunny spot.

D. Every afternoon Tim waters them.
5. In which sentence is the word in bold type an adjective?

A. Next week is my mother’s birthday.

B. I am knitting her a white scarf.

C. It has long green fringe.

D. The cloth is soft and thick.
6. Which of these sentences contains an adjective?

A. The boy is walking.

B. The girl is cooking.

C. The short man.

D. The man’s hand.
7. Select the adjective in the sentence: Tim handled the breakable glasses very carefully.

A. glasses

B. very

C. carefully

D. breakable

8. Select the adjective in the sentence: Tanya is a graceful dancer.

A. graceful

B. is

C. dancer

D. Tanya
9. Select the adjective in the sentence: The chubby baby clapped his hands excitedly.

A. his

B. excitedly

C. chubby

D. clapped
10. What are the adjective in the sentence: Jolene walked with her little sister.

A. sister

B. little

C. with

D. walked
11. What are the adjectival phrases in the sentence: Anyone capable of doing something horrible to someone nice should be punished.

A. “Anyone capable”, “something horrible”, and “someone nice”

B. “capable of doing”, “horrible”, and “nice”

C. “Anyone”, “doing”, and “horrible”

D. “Anyone”, “doing”, and “nice”

12. What is the adjectival phrase in the sentence: The boy with the hat is my brother.

A. “The boy”

B. “with the hat”

C. “is my”

D. “brother”
13. What is the adjectival phrase in the sentence: The students from Jefferson know Mr. Talbot.

A. “The students”

B. “from Jefferson”

C. “know”

D. “Mr. Talbot”
14. What is the adjectival phrase in the sentence: The magazine on the cart is my favorite.

A. “The magazine”

B. “on the cart”

C. “is my”

D. “favorite”
15. What is the adjectival phrase in the sentence: I thanked the teacher who helped me.

A. “I thanked”

B. “the teacher”

C. “thanked the teacher”

D. “who helped”

16. What is the adjectival phrase in the sentence: You can attend any one of the classes you wish.

A. “You can”

B. “attend”

C. “any one”

D. “the classes”
17. What is the adjectival phrase in the sentence: Hailie ate every one of her chips.
A. “Jenny”

B. “ate”

C. “every one”

D. “of her peas”
18. What is the adjectival phrase in the sentence: I still need some time to finish reading the book.

A. “I still”

B. “some time”

C. “to finish”

D. “reading”

19. What is the adjectival phrase in the sentence: The man with the pink slips terrorized the employees.

A. “man with the pink slips”

B. “terrorized the employees”

C. “The man”

D. “slips terrorized”
20. What is the adjectival phrase in the sentence: The price of the promotion was much too steep.

A. “The price”

B. “price of the promotion”

C. “was much”

D. “too steep”

^ Тема: «Adverbial Clauses»

  1. iКраткая аннотация

Данные методические рекомендации предназначены для студентов 3 курса факультета славянских и германских языков при организации КСР по теме «Adverbial clauses». Задание, направленное на достижение поставленных целей и задач КСР, разработано в соответствии с учебной программой по дисциплине «Функциональная грамматика».

Цель темы — совершенствование навыков анализа употребления придаточных обстоятельственных предложений в тексте.

Задачи:

  • углубить теоретические знания студентов об особенностях употребления придаточных обстоятельственных предложений в английском языке;

  • углубить теоретические знания о типах придаточных обстоятельственных предложений;

  • овладеть навыками анализа текста достаточными для реализации коммуникативных намерений в устной речи;

  • развивать память, логическое мышление и воображение студентов.



    1. Тематический план

3 курс, 6 семестр

Тема:« Adverbial Clauses»
III. Список основной литературы:

1.Петрашкевич, Н. П. Синтаксис : сб. упражнений по практ. грамматике англ. яз. : учеб. пособие для студентов специальности «Соврем. иностр. яз.» учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высш. образования / авт.-сост. Н. П. Петрашкевич. — Мн. : Лексис, 2005. — 268 с.

2. Французова, В. О. Морфология : Сб. упражнений по рактической грамматике англ. яз. для студентов учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высш. образования по специальности «Соврем. иностр. яз.» / Сост. В. О. Французова. — 2-е изд., испр. — Мн. : Лексис, 2003. — 276 с.

3.Шелег, Л. А. Практическая грамматика английского языка : Учеб. пособие для студентов специальности «Соврем. иностр. яз.» учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высш. образования / Л. А. Шелег, Н. П. Петрашкевич, И. В. Дмитриева. — 2-е изд. — Мн. : Лексис, 2006. — 232 с.
Список дополнительной литературы:

1.Prodromou, L. Grammar & Vocabulary for First Certificate with key/ L. Prodromou — Pearson Education Limited, 1999.

2. Thomson, A. J., Martinet A.V. A Practical English Grammar/ A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet. - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. – 140 p.


IV. Учебно-методический блок:
Find adverbial clauses in the text and state their types, be ready to prove your idea in oral speech:

^ THE ELVES AND THE SHOEMAKER.
There was once a shoemaker who worked very hard and was very honest; but still he could not earn enough to live upon, and at last all he had in the world was gone, except just leather enough to make one pair of shoes. Then he cut them all ready so he could work next day after he had got up early in the morning. His conscience was clear and his heart light amidst all his troubles; so he went peaceably to bed, left all his cares to heaven, and fell asleep. In the morning, after he had said his prayers, he set himself down to his work, when, to his great wonder, there stood the shoes, all readymade, upon the table. The good man knew not what to say or think of this strange event. He looked at the workmanship as though it was miracle; there was not one false stitch in the whole job; and all was so neat and true, that it was a complete masterpiece.

That same day a customer came in, and the shoes pleased him so well that he willingly paid a price higher than usual for them; and the poor shoemaker with the money bought leather enough to make two pairs more. In the evening he cut out the work, and went to bed early that he might get up and begin betimes next day: but he was saved all the trouble, for when he got up the work was finished ready to his hand. Presently in came buyers, who paid him handsomely for his goods, so that he bought leather enough for four pairs more. He cut out the work again over night, and found it finished in the morning as before. The good man soon became thriving and prosperous again.

One evening about Christmas time, as he and his wife were sitting over the fire charting, he said to her, “I should like to sit up and watch tonight, that we may see who it is that comes and does my work for me.” The wife liked the thought; so they left a light burning, and hid themselves in the corner of the room behind the curtain that was hung up there, and watched what should happen.

As soon as it was midnight, there came two little naked dwarfs; and they sat upon the shoemaker’s bench, took up all the work and began to ply with their little fingers so fast, that the shoemaker was all amazement, and could not take his eyes off for a moment.

The next day the wife asked her husband to make a shirt, and a coat, and a pair of pantaloons to each of these dwarfs considering that they had saved their family and to do them a good office in return. The thought pleased the good shoemaker very much; and one evening, when all the things were ready, they laid them on the table and hid themselves to watch what the little elves would do. About midnight they came in, and were going to sit down to their work as usual; but when they saw the clothes lying for them, they laughed and were greatly delighted. Then they dressed themselves and danced and sprang about as merry as could be. The shoemaker saw them no more: but everything went well with him from that time forward, as long as he lived.

^ Тема: «Word Order. Inversion»

  1. Краткая аннотация

Данные методические рекомендации предназначены для студентов 3 курса факультета славянских и германских языков при организации КСР по теме «Word order. Inversion». Комплекс заданий, направленных на достижение поставленных целей и задач КСР, разработан в соответствии с учебной программой по дисциплине «Функциональная грамматика».

Цель темы — совершенствование навыков построения предложения в английском языке в соответствии с правилами порядка слов и употребления инверсии.

Задачи:

  • углубить теоретические знания студентов об особенностях порядка слов в английском предложении;

  • углубить теоретические знания об использовании инверсии и ее типов при построении предложения в английском языке;

  • овладеть грамматическими навыками, достаточными для реализации коммуникативных намерений в устной и письменной речи;

  • развивать память, логическое мышление и воображение студентов.



    1. Тематический план

3 курс, 6 семестр

Тема:«Word order. Inversion»
III. Список основной литературы:

1.Петрашкевич, Н. П. Синтаксис : сб. упражнений по практ. грамматике англ. яз. : учеб. пособие для студентов специальности «Соврем. иностр. яз.» учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высш. образования / авт.-сост. Н. П. Петрашкевич. — Мн. : Лексис, 2005. — 268 с.

2. Французова, В. О. Морфология : Сб. упражнений по рактической грамматике англ. яз. для студентов учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высш. образования по специальности «Соврем. иностр. яз.» / Сост. В. О. Французова. — 2-е изд., испр. — Мн. : Лексис, 2003. — 276 с.

3.Шелег, Л. А. Практическая грамматика английского языка : Учеб. пособие для студентов специальности «Соврем. иностр. яз.» учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высш. образования / Л. А. Шелег, Н. П. Петрашкевич, И. В. Дмитриева. — 2-е изд. — Мн. : Лексис, 2006. — 232 с.


Список дополнительной литературы:

1.Prodromou, L. Grammar & Vocabulary for First Certificate with key/ L. Prodromou — Pearson Education Limited, 1999.

2. Thomson, A. J., Martinet A.V. A Practical English Grammar/ A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet. - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. – 140 p.



  1. Учебно-методический блок

Do the following exercises. Be ready to represent the fulfilled exercises to your partner in group in written form for mutual control.
EXERCISES:

  1. Rewrite the jumbled phrases to make sentences with the correct word order:

1. bought/ birthday/ new/ Mr.Blake/ had/ car/ his/ by/ a/ 40th.

2. home/ late/ mother/ to/ promised/ come.

3. rang/ hardly/ the/ opened/ telephone/ had/ door/ he/ the.

4. if/ you/ reach/ open/ it/ the/ can/ window!

5. was/ enormous/ this/ of/ platform/ size.

6. people/ the/ are/ world/ hundred/ of/ more/ years/ in/ or/ world/ old/ a/ hundred.

7. landscape/ brother/ seen/ has/ this/ your/ ever/ marvelous?

8. many/ why/ certain/ do/ old/ the/ people/ world/ a healthy/ so/ age/ to/ in/ parts/ of/ live.

9. ships/ penguins/ because/ by/ are/ pollution/ killed/ from/ of/ caused/ oil.

10. many/ there/ elephants/ now/ are/ left/ not.

11. often/ same/ fathers/ name/ sons/ and/ had/ the.

12. people/ a hundred/ how/ plenty/ give/ be/ to/ will/ advice/ of/ you.

13. put/ more/ heart/ Mr.Wonka/ hundred/ chocolate/ all/ inventing/ and energy/ his/ than/ kinds/ in/ two/ of.

14. canadian/ Greenpeace/ in/ environmentalists/ was/ by/ a group/ founded/ 1969/ of.

15. who/ upon a time/ beautiful/ a faraway/ as/ lived/ land/ princess/ in/ was/ as/ a/ wise/ there/ as/ once.

16. questions/ the boy/ there/ could/ any/ ask/ is/ would/ us/ that/ help/ we/ which ?

17. Henry the Second/ his/ long/ England,/ reigned/ troubles/ when/ had/ ago,/ many/ in/ country.

18. began/ in/ the/ actors/ performing/ yards/ public/ first/ to/ inn.

19. the/ don’t/ start/ why/ music/ we?

20. eagle/ soaring/ occasionally/ peaks/ can/ over/ a/ be/ golden/ seen/ mountain.

^ II. Comment upon the kind of inversion. Point out what it was caused by:

1. Nowhere can we see such rapid progress as in radio engineering.

2. Little do they know how lucky they are to have such a good friend

3. Only in the last few weeks has he started to feel better.

4. So dangerous did the weather become, that all the flights were canceled.

5. Were I not so tired, I would go there with you.

6. Of great significance, however, is the fact that a few of particles are deflected through large angles.

7. So successful was her song, that Ann very soon became a famous singer.

8. Rarely have I seen such a magnificent view.

9. Should my son call, ask him to wait for me at home.

10. Under no circumstances are parents allowed to leave their children alone.

11. Perhaps never was the making of an important invention shared by so many persons distributed so widely over the world.

12. Hardly had I stepped into the house when the light went out.

13. There were not many customers in the shop.

14. Not until I see it with my own eyes will I believe him.

15. Only later did I realize how important it had been.

16. At no time did she complain about the situation.

Тема: «Членение предложения»

^ I. Краткая аннотация

Данные методические рекомендации предназначены для студентов 3 курса факультета славянских и германских языков при организации КСР по теме «Членение предложений». Комплекс заданий, направленный на достижение поставленных целей и задач КСР, разработан в соответствии с учебной программой по дисциплине «Функциональная грамматика».

^ Цель — совершенствование иноязычных навыков членения предложений.

Задачи:

  • углубить теоретические знания студентов по теме;

  • развивать логическое мышление, память, воображение студентов;

  • сформировать способность студентов применять усвоенные знания в практических целях.


^ II. Тематический план

3 курс, 6 семестр
III. Список основной литературы:

  1. Блох, М.Я. Практикум по английскому языку: Грамматика. Сборник упражнений: учеб. пособие для вузов / М.Я. Блох, А.Я. Лебедева, В.С. Денисова. – М.: Астрель: АСТ, 2000. — 240 с.

  2. Каушанская, В. Л. Практическая грамматика английского языка/В.Л. Каушанская. – Мн.: Высшая школа, 1973. – I часть, стр.135

  3. Французова, В. О. Морфология : Сб. упражнений по практической грамматике англ. яз. для студентов учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высш. образования по специальности «Соврем. иностр. яз.» / Сост. В. О. Французова. — 2-е изд., испр. — Мн. : Лексис, 2003. — 276 с.

^ Список дополнительной литературы:

  1. Крылова, И. П. Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка: учебное пособие для институтов и факультетов иностранных языков/И.П. Крылова. – 3-е изд., испр. – М.: Книжный дом «Университет», 1999. – 432 с.

  2. Clarke, S. Macmillian English Grammar in Context [Kit]: essential/ Simon Clarke. – [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008]. – 208p.

  3. Oxenden, C. New English File [Text]: upper-intermediate Student’s Book/ Clive Oxenden, Christina Latham-Koenig with Brian Brennan. - [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008]. – 160 p.

  4. Prodromou, L. Grammar & Vocabulary for First Certificate with key/ L. Prodromou — Pearson Education Limited, 1999.

  5. Thomson, A. J., Martinet A.V. A Practical English Grammar/ A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet. - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. – 140 p.


^ IV. Информационный блок

Topic & Focus

Two closely related and in some ways opposite aspects of a sentence are topic and focus. They each need a more detailed write-up of their own; this one is only an overview of their relationship. Roughly, the topic is the already known information that the sentence is about, and the focus is the new information that is being said about it. In other words, topic - what the sentence is about, focus - what is being said about the topic.

In linguistics, the topic (or theme) is the part of the proposition that is being talked about (predicated). Once stated, the topic is therefore "old news", i. e. the things already mentioned and understood. For example, the topic is emphasized like this in the following sentences:

The dog bit the little girl.

The little girl was bitten by the dog.

It was the little girl that the dog bit.

The little girl, the dog bit her.

The topic is also called theme, and the predicate that gives information on the topic is also called rheme. A distinction must be made between the sentence-level topic and the discourse-level topic. Suppose we are talking about Mike's house:

Mike's house was so comfortable and warm! He really didn't want to leave, but he couldn't afford the rent, you know. And it had such a nice garden in the back!

In the example, the discourse-level topic is established in the first sentence: it is Mike's house. In the following sentence, a new "local" topic is established on the sentence level: he (Mike). But the discourse-level topic is still Mike's house, which is why the last comment does not seem out of place.

But there are numerous overlapping distinctions here, and people use the words in various ways.

There are several ways they can be marked: by intonation, by overt material such as the words 'as for' or 'it is' or by syntactic means such as fronting; or a combination of these.

Taken in isolation, a sentence like 'John was eating peanuts' said in a neutral way would probably have fairly equal stress on subject and object: 'JOHN was eating PEAnuts'. This is also how you'd read the sentence if it was the opening of a story. It introduces John, it's about him, and it's telling you what he's doing. But if part of the material was already known (the topic), the unknown material would get focused intonation by being given the main stress. This happens in answers to questions, for example:

Who was eating peanuts? - ^ JOHN was eating peanuts.

What was John eating? - John was eating PEAnuts.

Сapital letters are used here to indicate a normal intonation, not an emphatic one. There is no reason to suppose there is any particular emphasis on the stressed element. Contrast with:

^ Mary was eating peanuts. No, JOHN was eating peanuts.

John was eating walnuts. No, John was eating PEAnuts.

Here we have the same distribution of focus and topic, but contrastive emphasis in addition. Whether emphatic or not, one element is new and has focus, and the rest of the sentence is given, and is the topic. We can't always neatly divide them between new and given like this: the introductory or isolated sentence 'John was eating peanuts' has no particular focus, and if we don't know who John is, it's all new.
1. One grammatical marker of a similar distinction is the choice of definite 'the' or indefinite 'a'. As an introductory element, something is definite if it's already known.

A farmer was leading a donkey. The donkey stopped and the farmer urged it on.

Here we could say the first sentence introduces a new topic with 'a', and the second carries it on with 'the'. But which is the topic, farmer or donkey? It could be either. In speech there might be a difference in intonation that told you which was going to be the topic; in writing you need to see how the story unfolds:

^ A farmer was leading a donkey. It stopped and the farmer urged it on.

A farmer was leading a donkey. He urged the donkey on when it stopped.

Definiteness doesn't have to be derived from a previous mention. Any of the following could be the opening sentence of a story, and they give different discourse effects as to what you are supposed to take as given, or background, and what you should focus on as foreground:

^ A man was climbing the garden wall.

The man was labouring to climb the garden wall.

The man climbing the garden wall paused half way up.

2. Another grammatical device to indicate topic and focus is placement of the prominent element in other than its usual place: either at the front or at the end. Fronting is common. In English essentially the same construction can be used for both focus and topicalization, and the difference is in stress both on the fronted prominence and in subsequent material.

^ The professor, she hasn't read this BOOK yet.

This book, I haven't READ it yet.

This book I haven't READ yet, but I'm going to soon.

The topic might or might not be bracketed off with comma intonation; if it is, it is likely there is a resumptive pronoun ('she' and 'it' in the examples) in the usual place for the constituent. This phrasing looks a bit odd in isolated example sentences, at least in English: but in real speech and text it does happen.

When the stress is contrastive on the prominent element, it gives focus to it. In example sentences it's clearer if I add a contrasting clause after it:

^ THIS book I haven't read.

THIS book I haven't read, as I was busy with the OTHER one.

There is a roughly iconic principle that familiar material tends to appear early in the sentence, and new material after it. With no indication to the contrary, we would probably understand it that way. But focus fronting overrides this.

3. Another way of bringing material forward is by changing the grammatical relationship between the actants: object becomes subject when you use the passive voice. But focus and topic are intricately entangled: the passive can be used for either effect.

^ No-one has read this book.

THIS book hasn't been read by anyone.

This book hasn't been read by ANyone.

4. Another strategy is to form a cleft sentence or pseudo-cleft sentence:

It is this book that I haven't read.

What I haven't read is this book.

These syntactic rearrangements or special forms normally carry a corresponding intonation; but note that intonation can always be used to mark focus elsewhere:

^ It is this book that Í haven't read.

What I haven't read is this book.

This book hasn't been read by anyone.

The topic and the focus are concepts commonly found in human languages. Topics are old information, which you have already talked about in a conversation. Focuses are new information, which is often the key of an answer to a question.

Let's think about topics and focuses in English. Compare the following two conversations:

^ 1. A: What did you see yesterday?

B: Yesterday I saw Akira.

2. A: When did you see the movie?

B: I saw the movie yesterday.

The underlined letters indicate topics, which are information backgrounds of the conversation. The italic letters indicate focuses, which are either important new information or requests for it. You can sometimes say only a focus, so you can just say "Akira." at 1-B, and "Yesterday." at 2-B.

The examples below show selecting topics.

^ 3. A: I saw a movie a week ago, and I saw another one yesterday.

B: What did you see yesterday?

4. A: I saw a movie and went shopping yesterday.

B: What did you see?

Underlined letters indicate selected topics. At 3-B, the speaker chooses yesterday in 3-A, not a week ago, as information background of the conversation. At 4-B, the speaker chooses saw a movie in 4-A, not went shopping.

Focuses always have a stress, and selected topics often have too. A topic should appear before a focus in plain sentences in English if possible. So it is not good to say "Yesterday I saw the movie." at 2-B.

However, there is still no agreement about the definition of theme (/ rheme) in a sentence. Some authors try to determine the theme and rheme by means of the information value for the discourse of the various parts of the sentence. According to this theory, the theme is what is known/ given in the text, and the rheme is the unknown/ new. Others assess the theme and rheme according to the contribution of parts of the sentence to the (further) development of a discourse. If the contribution is slight, then the relevant part of the sentence is described as the theme, and if it is considerable, it is called the rheme. Grammatical, lexical and contextual factors work together here to allow the contribution of a part of a sentence towards the development of the discourse to be established.

In the following examples, the underlined parts of the sentence are theme.

The duke has given my aunt that teapot.

That teapot the duke has given to my aunt.

Very carefully she put him back on his feet again.

In linguistics, the topic (or theme) is the thing being predicated (talked about), and the comment (or rheme) is the thing being said about the topic.

In grammar a predicate is one of the two constituent parts of a sentence. It is the rest of the sentence apart from the subject. For instance, in the sentence "All good things come to an end" the "come to an end" is the predicate, whereas the subject is "all good things."
V. Учебно-методический блок

1. Study the material above. Use the theoretical material and information given there.

2. Answer the questions:

a) What is the definition of the topic and the focus of the sentence?

b) What are the devices to displace a topic and a focus?

c) Are the topic and the focus fixed in all possible types of sentence?

d) What are the relations between the topic and the focus, the subject and the predicate of the sentence?

e) What are the means of changing the focus and the topic of the sentence?
VI. Контрольный блок

Find a story. Be ready to state the focus of the sentence, name the devices to displace a topic and a focus in the story.

i


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