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1.3. Глагол то Ве
1.4. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на употребление глагола то Ве в разных временах.
1.5. Составьте отрицательные и вопросительные (общий и специальный) предложения
1.6. Переведите текст
2. Грамматические особенности
2.2. Определите время
2.3. Переведите на русский язык
2.4. Составьте отрицательные и вопросительные (общий и специальный) предложения
2.5. Переведите на английский язык
2.6. Переведите текст.
2.7. Переведите текст.
3. Грамматические особенности
3.1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времен.
3.2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времен.
3.3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времен.
3.4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времен.
3.5. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в правильной форме.
4. Грамматические особенности
4.1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времен
ВВЕДЕНИЕ ………………………………………………………. 4
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ …………………………………………… 35
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ ……………………………… 36
Настоящий практикум предназначен для аспирантов очной и заочной форм обучения, обучающихся по экономическим специальностям.
Данный практикум построен в соответствии с тематическим планом действующего учебно-методического комплекса по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» и рассчитан на аспирантов с разным уровнем владения английским языком.
Основная цель практикума — практическое освоение или повторение грамматических моделей английского языка в сравнении с грамматическими нормами русского языка для обеспечения формирования учебной деятельности обучающихся в процессе выполнения грамматических действий.
Практикум представляет собой комплекс заданий и упражнений, систематизирующий изучаемый материал как по основным языковым аспектам (грамматика, лексика), так и по видам речевой деятельности (чтение, говорение, письмо). Объем материала, структура и содержание практикума достаточны и необходимы для овладения основами научного стиля речи на английском языке.
ТЕМА 1. Грамматические особенности
ГЛАГОЛа ТО ВЕ
1.1. Прочитайте текст и переведите его
Good afternoon! Let me introduce myself. My name`s John. My surname`s Carter. I am thirty-one. I am from England. I am a post-graduate student.
I graduated from institute in 2006. Then I was working as a HR – manager in a firm for three years. I liked my job very much, I got a lot of experience there. And now I would like to continue my education, because I am very interested in researching human resources. I am fond of creative work.
My scientific advisor is Prof. Peterson from Gordon University. Post – graduate courses in Great Britain are different from Russian ones.
I have already passed my exam on Philosophy. And now I am getting ready to take my exam on English.
to be interested in – быть заинтересованным в
to get interested in – заинтересоваться чем-то
to get ready – готовиться
to be given a rise – получить повышение
to be promoted – получить продвижение
to be placed in charge of the laboratory (department) – быть назначенным начальником лаборатории (отдела)
to be going to – собираться сделать что-то
to be assigned to job – быть направленным на работу
to be rich in – быть богатым чем-то
to be afraid of – бояться чего-то
to be different from – отличаться от
to be famous for – быть знаменитым чем-то
to be fond of – обожать что-то
to be full of – быть наполненным
to be good at – преуспевать в чем-то
to be interested in – интересоваться чем-то
to be late for – опаздывать
to be like – быть похожим на
to be made of – быть сделанным из чего-то
to be on holiday – быть на каникулах или в отпуске
to be proud of – гордиться чем-то
to be responsible for – быть ответственным за
to be sorry for – сожалеть о
to be tired of – быть усталым
Our department is famous for its personnel.
Our department isn`t famous for its personnel.
Is our department famous for its personnel?
Yes, it is. No, it isn`t.
What is our department famous for?
Добрый день! Разрешите мне представиться. Меня зовут Питер Джексон. Я родом из Великобритании, из Кембриджа. Мне 29 лет. Я аспирант Кембриджского университета. Я интересуюсь человеческими ресурсами в экономике. В данный момент я также являюсь менеджером по работе с персоналом. Я обожаю свою работу, так как она креативна. Недавно я получил продвижение по службе. В университете я собираюсь изучать экономику Китая, поскольку она не похожа ни на английскую, ни на другую европейскую экономику. Эта страна богата исследовательским материалом. И я надеюсь преуспеть в своем исследовании.
There TO BE…
a debated question – спорный вопрос
a detail – деталь
a diploma – диплом
a disadvantage – недостаток
a fact – факт
a field – поле, область
a fundamental problem – фундаментальная проблема
a Master`s degree – степень кандидата наук
a method – метод
a model – модель
a reader – читатель
a result – результат
a solution – решение
a subject – тема
a task – задание
a term – термин
a theory – теория
a thesis (dissertation) – диссертация
an advantage – преимущество
an aim – цель
an area – область
an aspect – аспект
an attempt – попытка
an author – автор
an enormous literature – обширная литература
an example – пример
an experiment – эксперимент
an object – предмет (исследования)
an open question – открытый вопрос
data – данные
extensive bibliography – обширная библиография
key references – ссылки
Конструкция There tо Ве переводится как есть, имеется что-то (где-то). Цель говорящего – показать месторасположение предмета.
1) There is an article in this journal. – В этом журнале статья.
2) Аn article is in this journal. – Статья в этом журнале.
There is an article in this journal.
There are articles in this journal.
There was an article in this journal.
There were articles in this journal.
There has been an article in this journal.
There have been articles in this journal.
There had been an article in this journal.
There are some methods in this work.
There are not any methods in this work.
Are there any methods in this work?
Yes, there are
No, there aren`t
How many methods are there in this work?
Здравствуйте, разрешите представиться. Меня зовут Александр Иванов, мне 24 года, я родом из России, из Волгограда.
Я закончил Волгоградский институт бизнеса в 2008 году. В настоящий момент я работаю менеджером в туристической фирме. Я преуспеваю в работе. Совсем недавно я получил продвижение по службе.
Меня интересует развитие туристического бизнеса в России. Мне бы хотелось повысить свою квалификацию, заниматься исследовательской деятельностью. Я собираюсь поступить в аспирантуру Волгоградского института бизнеса. В этом институте много специалистов, ученых, которые могут помочь мне в моей исследовательской деятельности.
Существует несколько исследований в области развития туристического бизнеса в России. В Российской научной библиотеке есть несколько работ по исследованию влияния мировой экономики на российский туристический бизнес. Мне бы хотелось исследовать туристический бизнес в Волгоградской области. Есть несколько аспектов этой проблемы. Я думаю, в моей работе будет много примеров и методов исследования. Я надеюсь, я преуспею в исследовательской работе.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am happy to have this opportunity to present my paper at this working group session. The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanism of intersubband scattering in two-dimensional electron gas in heterostructures. It is well known that some interesting research has been done in this field in recent years. Yet It is not clear why interband scattering rate does not increase with temperature. So the aim of this work was to find an explanation for the temperature - dependent intermodulation. We suggest an explanation in terms of oscillations in the Fermi level, which is confirmed by a model calculation. Now let me discuss in some detail the data we have obtained and the conclusions we have drawn.
I would like to start by showing some slides. (To the projectionist.) The first slide, please. Here we see the intermodulation as a function of temperature. The data have been multiplied by a factor of 2.5 to better display the low-field region. Let’s have a look at this plot. Next slide, please. This is a Dingle plot for a sample with only one subband occupied. I would like to stress that the amplitude of the resistance oscillations has been corrected for temperature. Full circles are for a temperature of 4.10 Kelvin.
(To the projectionist.) Next slide, please. Could we make a picture a bit brighter? Thank you. Here we see Dingle plots for the data when two subbands are occupied. Full circles are for the low frequency, that is for the upper subband. The open circles are for the high frequency, or the lower subband. Please, note the difference between the two lines which are least-square fits to the data. I’m afraid we’ll have to skip the next two slides, because we are short of time. (To the projectionist.) Can we see the last slide, please? This slide demonstrates the relationship between the experimental data and the model calculations, and you can see a good agreement. This enabled us to make the following conclusion. When a semiclassical treatment of the amplitude of the low-field oscillations in two-dimensional systems is extended to the case of the two occupied subbands, the intercept of the Dingle plots depends on the intersubband fraction of scattering for most of the carriers. Experimental results agree with this theory and show that in the heterojunction investigated approximately one-third of the scattering is inter-subband.
In contrast with the previous interpretation, we attribute the phenomenon to oscillations in the Fermi energy rather than to the acoustic phonons. Our explanation is supported by a model calculation. With this I would like to finish. If there are questions I’ll be glad to answer them. Thank you.
a research supervisor (a scientific advisor) – научный руководитель
entrance requirements – вступительные экзамены
obligatory requirements – обязательные требования
the theme of the thesis (the dissertation) – тема диссертации
to enter post-graduate courses – поступить в аспирантуру
to have recommendations of the Scientific Council – иметь рекомендации Ученого совета
to improve one`s qualification – повысить квалификацию
to join the scientific society – вступить в научное сообщество
to pass an exam – сдать экзамены
to take up a post-graduate course – учиться в аспирантуре
to work (to do research) in the chosen speciality – работать (проводить исследования) по избранной специальности
l) I (to graduate) from the university two years ago.
2) He (to take part) in many conferences by the time he (to submit) his thesis.
3) They already (to discuss) this problem.
4) My colleague (to work) at this article for 2 weeks.
5) Scientists (to solve) this problem by the end of the I9th century.
6) He (to complete) his tests by the tenth of April
7) She (to work) at her candidate thesis under the supervision of Professor Ivanov.
8) They (to develop) a new method and (to write) a paper on it now.
9) We (to analyze) the results of our work since Monday.
10) They (to adjust) a new device when I came.
1l) I (to work) at the university for 5 years before I (to take) a post-graduate course.
12) He (to submit) his candidate thesis next year.
13) We (to assemble) a new machine yesterday from 5 to 9 o'clock p.m. 14) They (to develop) this project since last year.
15) We (to work out) this technique in collaboration with several research institutes and industrial enterprises.
to collect data – собирать данные
to continue (to carry on, to keep) – продолжать
to do (to study, to take up) Economics – изучать экономику
to do research – проводить исследование
to graduate from – оканчивать вуз
to intend – намереваться
to make an experiment – проводить эксперимент
to obtain a diploma – получить диплом
to obtain a Master`s degree – получит степень кандидата наук
to present the thesis (the dissertation) on the subject – представить диссертацию на тему
to process data – обрабатывать данные
to prove the thesis (the dissertation) – защищать диссертацию
to specialize in – специализироваться в
to work under the direct supervision of – работать по непосредственным руководством
l) In the course of further scientific developments extensive use will be made of modern computing machines and electronic devices.
2) Mention has already been made of this new phenomenon.
3) The experiment had been carried out by prof. Zaicrevstey by 6 o'clock yesterday.
4) The opening session of the Congress was preceded by a meeting of the General Assembly to elect a new president.
5) When he entered the laboratory a new device was being tested.
6) It is often argued that in the XX century we are left with no expansion of wisdom and with greater need for it.
7) No attempts have been made to list all the contributions in which different procedures have been developed and later used.
8) The data are being collected and studied now.
9) The article had been translated by the time the chief of the laboratory came back.
10) So far no notice has been taken of the obvious advantage of this technique.
11) The candidate thesis is submitted.
12) More evidence will be obtained to support the idea.
13) When he returned to the university an interesting experiment was being made.
14) The report has been listened to with great attention.
15) The hypothesis was proposed by Petrov after a number of experiments.
16) The work will have been finished by noon tomorrow.
17) The experiment had been carried out by 6 o'clock yesterday.
18) These ideas are hardly recognized as mathematics at all by the people trained in the classical branches of the subject.
19) Recent discoveries in all sciences have been greatly assisted by the developments in contemporary research techniques.
20) More exact methods are being developed now for obtaining lower temperature.
21) The discovery was made by the team of our laboratory.
22) The article has been published.
1) At the conference the speaker was asked a lot of questions.
2) We have been told about the discovery.
3) Unfortunately he was not offered any help.
4) They have been given all the necessary information.
5) The laboratory was promised financial support.
6) He was told to sign his papers.
7) Next week you will be sent to Moscow on business.
8) The team of the laboratory was given a difficult problem to solve.
9) The new lab assistant is being taught to use modern equipment by the chief of the laboratory now.
10) The best of treatment was generally agreed upon.
l) Some people are easily influenced by other people's opinions.
2) The distribution of goods is greatly affected by local conditions.
3) The seminar was attended by all the participants.
4) His lectures are always followed by heated discussions.
5) In several areas of research the efforts of scientists are joined by those of philosophers and sociologists.
6) At the university students are offered a curriculum of study which is followed by a test and the award of a degree.
l) This method, has been referred, to in an earlier paper.
2) I do not think this instrument can be relied upon.
3) The data cannot be accounted for by the existing theory.
4) At the beginning of the lecture the laboratory assistant was sent for by the lecturer.
5) The invention was spoken of at the meeting of our stuff.
6) He is a good specialist; his advice can always be relied on.
7) The report is very interesting; the speaker is being listened to with great attention.
8) The latest research is much spoken about.
9) Some aspects of the foregoing topics are dealt with in the next chapter. 10) The prolongation of life may be thought of as a feat of endurance rather than a race against time.
It can be said that science is a cumulative body of knowledge about the natural world, obtained by the application of a peculiar method practiced by the scientist. It is known that the word science itself is derived from the Latin “scire”, to know, to have knowledge of, to experience. Fundamental and applied sciences are commonly distinguished, the former being concerned with fundamental laws of nature, the latter engaged in application of the knowledge obtained. Technology is the fruit of applied science, being the concrete practical expression of research done in the laboratory and applied to manufacturing commodities to meet human needs.
The word “scientist” was introduced only in 1840 by a Cambridge professor of philosophy who wrote: “We need a name for describing a cultivator of science in general. I should be inclined to call him a scientist”. “The cultivators of science” before that time were known as “natural philosophers”. They were curious, often eccentric, persons who poked inquiring fingers at nature. In the process of doing so they started a technique of inquiry which is now referred to as the “scientific method”.
Briefly, the following steps can be distinguished in this method. First comes the thought that initiates the inquiry. It is known, for example, that in 1896 the physicist Henri Becquerel, in his communication to the French Academy of Science, reported that he had discovered rays of an unknown nature emitted spontaneously by uranium salts. His discovery excited Marie Curie, and together with her husband Pierre Curie she tried to obtain more knowledge about the radiation. What was it exactly? Where did it come from?
Second comes the collecting of facts: the techniques of doing this will differ according to the problem which is to be solved. But this is based on the experiment In which anything may be used to gather the essential data – from a test-tube to an earth-satellite. It is known that the Curies encountered great difficulties in gathering their fact, as they investigated the mysterious uranium rays.
This leads to step three: organizing the facts and studying the relationships that emerge. It was already noted that the above rays were different from anything known. How to explain this? Did this radiation come from the atom itself? It might be expected that other materials also have the property of emitting radiation. Some investigations made by Mme Curie proved that this was so. The discovery was followed by further experiments with “active” radioelements only.
Step four consists in stating a hypothesis or theory: that is, framing a general truth that has emerged, and that may be modified as new facts emerge. In July 1898, the Curies announced the powerful radioactivity. This was the beginning of the discovery of radium.
Then follows the clearer statement of the theory. In December 1898, the Curies reported to the Academy of Sciences: “The various reasons enumerated lead us to believe that the new radioactive substance contains a new element to which we propose to give the name of Radium. The new radioactive substance certainly contains a great amount of barium, and still its radioactivity is considerable. It can be suggested therefore that the radioactivity of radium must be enormous”.
And the final step is the practical test of the theory, i.e. the prediction of new facts. This is essential, because from this flows the possibility of control by man of the forces of nature that are newly revealed.
Rote should be taken of how Marie Curie used deductive reasoning in order to proceed with her research, this kind of “detective work” being basic to the methodology of science. It should be stressed further that she dealt with probability – and not with certainty – in her investigation. Also, although the Curies were doing the basic research work at great expense to themselves in hard physical toil, they knew that they were part of an international group of people all concerned with their search for truth. Their reports were published and immediately examined by scientists all over the world. Any defects. In their arguments would be pointed out to them immediately.
5.1. Переведите на русский язык.
1) If you apply this method, you will obtain better results in your research.
2) In case they told him everything, what would he try to do?
3) The new operator would not have broken this device on condition that you had instructed him how to operate it.
4) He would possibly come to another conclusion in case be tried a new approach.
5) If he had used this method of analysis, he would have solved the problem.
6) Provided you had modified the conditions at the very beginning of the experiment, you would have obtained better results.
7) If you stay another two days you will have the chance of seeing the results of our research.
8) We should certainly inform you of the opening of the session, if you gave us your address or telephone number.
9) It you compare these two forces, you will see that the difference is negligible.
10) If be had been able to speed up his research, he would have completed his dissertation by now.
11) He would willingly accept this post in case he were offered it.
12) If you analysed the data in tine you could write a paper on the subject.
13) If he tried a new approach he would possibly come to another conclusion.
I4) He might have done the work quite easily if he had prepared the material beforehand.
15) If he states his requirements clearly we shall try to meet them.
16) They would finish the work in time, provided they had the necessary material.
17) If you observe the rules of operating this machine, you will be able to increase its productivity.
18) I should not have been able to realize what a wonderful instrument it was unless I had seen it in action.
1) Could we have a few more examples to judge we might change the hypothesis.
2) Were I permitted to carry out this test myself I should be really happy. 3) Had he noticed his mistake before, he would certainly have corrected it.
4) Were it possible we should begin this work at once.
5) Should anyone offer them to take part in this research, they would willingly agree.
6) Had they tested this compound before, the results would have been quite different.
7) Should life be discovered on another planet it would be a monument to our age.
8) Had there been something more realistic to motivate the research, our attitude towards it would, have been different.
9) Had we begun a new series of experiments last year, we would have received reliable results by now.
10) Should our plane become unsuitable for humanity, the fault would be ours.
11) Should the prediction come true, there will be no lake here to speak of in about a decade.
12) The tendency would be more popular were it not for the recent dramatic history which everybody remembers only too well.
6.1. Переведите предложения.
1) One can assume this to be self-evident.
2) One can expect the scope of research to expand steadily.
3) One can watch more and more people move into biology from other areas of research.
4) One can hardly tolerate one's ideas being criticized, without an attempt to defend them.
5) One can hardly expect a true scientist to keep within the limits of one narrow long-established field.
6) One should always keep an open mind receptive to new ideas, so one should not completely oppose speculation, but one must take care not to get too involved in it.
7) One should start a new subject of research with collecting experimental evidence and classifying it.
8) One should be able to pick out the most important things from the great wealth of information.
9) To be a successful scientist one must at the very least be able to ask questions.
10) One has to test the validity of a theory by experiments.
11) One need not solve a great many problems to be a great scientist.
12) One does not have to accept this viewpoint.
1) Most primitive tools and devices must have been invented independently by different civilizations.
2) If there was someone to put a question there must be somebody, sooner or later, to answer it.
3) There has to be a way out of any situation.
4) By that time the resources of the planet nay have been completely exhausted.
5) A scientist may freely choose his line of research.
6) Everyone might be granted the right to be occasionally wrong.
7) They might have put the sample in freezer; it would be more effective. 8) At all the times there were ideas which should have been given more attention than they actually were.
9.) Good ideas should be written down before they are forgotten.
10) Not a single scientist shall work on the problems whose solution may be a threat to mankind.
11) They cannot have reached the same level of development.
12) Nature would never be exhausted to challenge man with more riddles. 13) With our present-day technology such phenomena could not have been observed in the laboratory; what was registered must, in fact, have been due to some malfunctioning of the recorder.
14) Intelligence of human quality is not to be achieved overnight; there ought to pass plenty of time for anything comparable in complexity to human brain to evolve.
15) A true scientist will enjoy his work more than anything else and would often be prepared to sacrifice his weekends and vacation in order to proceed with his research.
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Человеческое искание. Искаженный ум. Традиционный подход. В плену респектабельности. Человек и индивидуум. Существование как борьба....