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6.3. Переведите текст.



Science problems can be roughly classified as analytic and synthetic. In analytic problems we seek the principles of the most profound natural processes, the scientist working always at the edge of the unknown. This is the situation today, for instance, within the two extremes of research in physics – elementary particle physics and astronophysica – both concerned with the properties of matter, one on the smallest, the other on the grandest scale. Research objectives in these fields are determined by the internal logic of the development of the field itself. Revolutionary shocks to the foundations of scientific ideas can be anticipated from these very areas.

As to synthetic problems, they are more often studied because of the possibilities which they hold for practical applications, immediate and distant, than because their solution is called for by the logic and science. This kind of motivation strongly influenced the nature of scientific thinking and the methods employed in solving problems. Instead of the traditional scientific question: “How is this to be explained?” the question behind the research becomes “How is this to be done?” The doing involves the production of a new substance or a new process with certain predetermined characteristics. In many areas of science, the division between science and technology is being erased and the chain of research gradually becomes the sequence of technological and engineering stages involved in working out a problem.

In this sense science is a Janus-headed figure. On the one hand, it is pure science, striving to reach the essence of the laws of the material world. On the other hand, it is the basis of a new technology, the workshop of bold technical ideas, and the driving force behind continuous technical progress.

In popular books and journals we often read that science is making greater strides every year, that in various fields of science discovery is followed by discovery in a steady stream of increasing significance and that one daring theory opens the way to the next. Such may be the impression with research becoming a collective doing and scientific data exchange a much faster process. Every new idea should immediately be taken up and developed further, forming the initial point of an avalanche-like process.

Things are, in fact, much more complex than that. Every year scientists are faced with the problems of working through thicker and tougher material, phenomena at or near the surface having long been explored, researched, and understood. The new relations that we study, say, in the world of elementary particles at dimensions of the order of 10-13 cm or in the world of super stellar objects at distances of billions of light years from us, demand extremely intense efforts on the part of physicists and astrophysicists, the continuous modernization of laboratories with experimental facilities becoming more and more grandiose and costing enormous sums. Moreover, it should be stressed that scientific equipment rapidly becomes obsolete. Consequently, the pace of scientific development in the areas of greatest theoretical significance is drastically limited by the rate of building new research facilities, the latter depending on a number of economic and technological factors not directly linked to the aims of the research. It may take, for example, more than 10 years from the initial decision to build a 100-200 billion electron volt accelerator to its completion. It should be borne in mind, too, that few measurements and readings given by these great facilities push science forward, results of any great significance being very rare for instance, tens of thousands of pictures taken during the operation of an accelerator will have to be scrutinized in the hope of finding, among typically trite processes, signs of a new interaction or of a new event whose presence or absence may confine a theoretical idea.
ТЕМА 7. реферирование, рецензирование и Аннотирование текстов
7.1. Переведите следующие фразы
1) I must admit that...

2) He has found that...

3) Everybody accepts that...

4) I believe that...

5) The author hopes that...

6) Scientists sometimes say that...

7) Most people assume that...

8) Physicists recognize nowadays that...
^ 7.2. Переведите клишированные обороты, используемые для реферирования и аннотирования текстов.


  1. The author of the text is…

  2. The article was written by …

  3. The text is taken from an article that has appeared in…

  4. The author has published an article under the title…

  5. The title already indicates the subject…

  6. This extract help us in understanding the title of the article.

  7. The passage is taken from…

  8. The text deals with the issue of…

  9. The text

  10. The dialogue is about…

  11. It is clear from the text that…

  12. Among other things the text raises the issue of…

  13. The problem of … is of great importance.

  14. The main problem of the text is…

  15. One of the main points to be singled out is…

  16. Great importance is also attached to…

  17. The article narrates the events of…

  18. The article tells of…

  19. The article relates…

  20. The text can be divided into … parts.

  21. The introduction presents the principal ideas.

  22. The article opens with…

  23. We draw the attention of … to the fact that…

  24. I suggest…

  25. I remind…

  26. I promise…

  27. At the end of the article the author centres his attention on…

  28. At the end of the article the reader's attention is drawn to…

  29. The article ends with…

  30. Finally, the experts come to the conclusion that…

  31. In this connection, I'd like to say…

  32. It further says that…

  33. I find the question of … very important because…

  34. The theory of… leads to…

  35. The one point functions are reduced to…

  36. I conclude with an example…

  37. The aim of the discussion

  38. The task of the research group

  39. The original idea of the book

  40. The objective of the experiment

  41. The subject of the report

  42. to point out general tendencies

  43. to suggest some fresh ideas for research

  44. to review recent development in the field

  45. to develop a special apparatus suited for research

  46. to take into consideration all the essential factors


^ 7.3. Обратите внимание на перевод союзов и союзных слов


  1. As well/as - так же как (и);

  2. as ... as - так (же), как (и);

  3. as soon as - как только,

  4. as long as - пока;

  5. as if; as though - как если бы, как будто;

  6. so as - так чтобы;

  7. as to - что касается, относительно;

  8. as far as - до, насколько;

  9. so far as - насколько;

  10. as much ... as - столько, сколько;

  11. according to - согласно чему;

  12. in accordance with - в соответствии с;

  13. on account of - по причине, из-за;

  14. because of - из-за;

  15. due to - благодаря, из-за, в силу;

  16. owing to, thanks to - благодаря чему-либо;

  17. with respect to - no отношению к;

  18. in addition to - кроме, в дополнение к;

  19. by means of - посредством, при помощи;

  20. by virtue of - посредством чего, благодаря чему-либо, на основании чего-либо;

  21. instead of - вместо;

  22. in spite of, in despite of - несмотря на;

  23. in case of - в случае, если;

  24. both...and - как...так и;

  25. either ...or -или...или;

  26. neither ... nor - ни... ни;

  27. not only ... but (al­so) - не только... но (также) и.


^ 7.4. Обратите внимание на перевод глаголов, после которых не употребляются предлоги.


  1. to affect – влиять(на),

  2. to approach – подойти(к),

  3. to ans­wer – отвечать(на),

  4. to attend – присутствовать (на) и активно участвовать,

  5. to consult – консультироваться (у, с),

  6. to enjoy – получать удовольствие (от),

  7. to follow – следовать, следить (за),

  8. to influence – влиять (на),

  9. to join – присоединяться (к),

  10. to watch – наблюдать (за).



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