IV. Объясните употребление предлогов, прочтите предложения и переведите их


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XIII. Переведите следующие словосочетания, используя причастие I или II :

развивающиеся страны; развитые страны; лечение, предупреждающее заболевание; заболевание, предупрежденное с помощью лечения; статья, описывающая новые методы; новые методы, описанные в научной статье; хирург, выполняющий операцию; операция, выполненная хирургом; студенты, читающие текст; текст, прочитанный студентами
XIV. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на причастия и роли определения:

1. Every educated person should speak English.

2. A new treatment described in the scientific article was very useful/

3. The students translating texts used dictionaries.

4. The operation performed by the surgeon was successful.

5. The doctor told us about methods preventing heart diseases.

6. The findings included in the report were very important.

7. I read an interesting article published in a medical journal.

8. The lecturer answered the questions asked by the students.

9. He made a discovery contributing to the development of plastic surgery.


XV. Прочтите и переведите текст:
MEDICINE: HISTORY ( Part I)
In prehistoric times people believed that angry gods or evil spirits caused diseases. The first known surgical treatment was an operation called trepanation. It involved use of a stone instrument to cut a hole in a patient’s skull, perhaps to release evil spirits.

By about 3000 B.C. the Egyptians who had developed one of the world’s first great civilization began making began making important medical progress. Egyptian physicians began to specialize. Some physicians treated only diseases of the eyes or teeth. Others specialized in internal diseases. Other ancient Middle Eastern civilizations also contributed to medical progress. The ancient Chinese for example developed medical practices. They developed the practice of acupuncture.

In ancient India the practice of medicine stressed the prevention as well as the treatment of illness. Indian surgeons successfully performed many kinds of operations, including amputations and plastic surgery.

The civilization of ancient Greece was at its peak during the 400’s. The great physician Hippocrates began showing that disease has only natural causes. He thus became the first physician known to consider medicine a science and art separate from the practice of religion.

The Romans got most of their medical knowledge from Egypt and Greece. Their own medical achievements were largely in public health. The Greek physician Galen who practiced medicine in Rome during the A.D. 100’s made the most important contributions to medicine in Roman times. He performed experiments on animals and used his findings to develop the first medical theories based on scientific experiments. For this reason he is considered the founder of experimental medicine.

During the Middle Ages the Islamic Empire of Southwest and Central Asia contributed greatly to medicine. Avicenna, an Arab physician produced a great medical encyclopedia called Cannon of Medicine. It summed up the medical knowledge of the time and accurately described meningitis, tetanus, and many other diseases. The work became popular in Europe where it influenced medical education for more than 600 years.
TASKS
^ 1.Define the odd word. Translate all the words into Russian:

1. to treat, to cure, to heal, to develop

2. operation, religion, trepanation, amputation

3. priest, god, spirit, physician, religion

4. achievement, skull, eye, teeth


II. Find in the text English equivalents to the following:

Доисторические времена, злые духи, вызывать болезни, каменные инструменты, великие цивилизации, прогресс в медицине, египетские врачи. Болезни глаз и зубов, древние китайцы, профилактика и лечение заболеваний, многие виды операций, естественные причины, наука и искусство, древние греки, важный вклад в медицину, научные эксперименты, по этой причине, точно описать менингит, влиять на медицинское образование
III. Make the sentences complete:

1. The first known surgical treatment was …

2. Egyptian physicians began …

3. Some physicians treated only …

4. Others specialized in …

5. The ancient Chinese developed …

6. Indian surgeons successfully performed …

7. The great physician Hippocrates began …

8. The Greek physician Galen performed …

9. He is considered the founder …

10. The Arab physician Avicenna produced …
^ IV. Express your agreement or disagreement with the following statements:

1. The first known surgical treatment was an operation called appendectomy.

2. It involved use of a stone instrument to cut a hole in a patient’s skull.

3. Some physicians treated diseases of eyes and teeth.

4. Other physicians treated only heart diseases.

5. The ancient Chinese developed the practice of acupuncture.

6. In ancient India the practice of medicine stressed the prevention only.

7. Egyptians became the first physicians considering medicine a science and art separate from religion.

8. The Hippocratic Oath reflects Hippocrates’ high ideals.

9. The Romans got most of their medical knowledge from Egypt and Greece.

10. Galen performed experiments on healthy people.
V. Change the sentences using the predicate into the Past Simple and the markers: yesterday, years ago, much time ago, in prehistoric times, etc. Translate the sentences:

1. People believe that angry gods or evil spirits cause diseases.

2. The first known surgical treatment is an operation called trepanation.

3. Egyptian physicians begin to specialize.

4. They treat only diseases of eyes and teeth.

5. The ancient Chinese develop medical practices.

6. Indian surgeons successfully perform many kinds of operations.

7. The civilization of ancient Greece is at its peak.

8. He becomes the first physician known to consider medicine a science and art.

9. His work is popular in Europe.
^ VI. Answer the following questions:

1. What did people believe in prehistoric times?

2. What was the first known surgical instrument?

3. How did they perform operations?

4. What did the Egyptians begin doing by about 3000 B.C.?

5. How did other ancient Middle Eastern civilizations also contribute to medical

progress?

6. Who developed the practice of acupuncture?

7. When was the civilization of ancient Greece at its peak?

8. What is Hippocrates famous for?

9. Where and when did the Greek physician Galen practice medicine?

10. What did Avicenna produce?
VII. Make up the plan to the text:
VIII. Retell the text using your plan:
LESSON 4
Грамматика: вопросительные предложения, -ing в роли существительного
^ MEDICINE: HISTORY (PART II)
Запомните:

- ate – суффикс глаголов

- ous, - ful, - ive, - ar - суффиксы прилагательных

- ance ( -ence)- суффикс существительных
^ I. Прочтите и переведите слова:

1. circulate, initiate, operate

2. numerous, various, infectious, famous

careful, beautiful, useful, successful, painful, colorful

effective, active, passive, positive, negative, relative

particular, molecular, cellular

3. resistance, difference, dependance, importance, science
^ II. Прочтите слова и определите части речи( глаголы, существительные,

прилагательные, наречия):

scientific, movement, dissection, numerous, careful, prevention, resistance, really,

effective, dramatic, independent, safely, infectious, brilliant, particular, structure,

circulate, alcoholic, improvement, invention
^ III. Прочтите слова и дайте их русские эквиваленты:

Renaissance [ri’neisqns], dissection [di’sekSqn], human anatomy [‘hHmqn q’nxtqmi], university [,jHni’vWsiti], structure [‘strAkCq], army [‘Rmi], technique [tek’nJk], pulse [pAls], circulate [‘sWkjuleit], artery [‘Rtqri], vein [vein], initiate [I’niSIeIT], resistance [ri’zistqns], immunology [,imju’nOlqGi], alcohol [‘xlkqhOl], infectious [in’fekSqs], chemist [‘kemist], microbe [‘mQikroub], bacterium [bxk’tiqriqm] (pl. bacteria [bxk’tiqriq]
^ IV. Выучите новые слова и выражения:

advances [qd’vRnsiz] - достижения, успехи

Middle Ages [‘midl’eiGqz] - средние века

to dissect [di’sekt] - проводить вскрытие

numerous [‘njHmqrqs] - многочисленный

to improve [imp’rHv] - улучшать

blood [blAd] - кровь

heartbeat [‘hRtbJt] - сердцебиение

to conclude [kqn’klHd] - делать вывод

to pump - качать, нагнетать

safe - безопасный

smallpox - оспа

to dull pain - притуплять боль

to administer [qd’ministq]- назначать

various [‘vFqriqs]- различный

drug - лекарство

certain [sWtn] - некоторый, определенный

to invent [in’vent] - изобретать

to determine [di’tWmin] - определять, устанавливать
^ V. Прочтите и переведите:

advances [qd’vRnsiz] - medical advances, scientific advances, technical

advances, advances in field of surgery

numerous [‘njHmqrqs]- numerous subjects, numerous experiments, numerous

drugs, numerous advances

blood [blAd] - blood group, blood circulation, blood disease, blood gases, to pump

blood

to administer [qd’ministq] - to administer drugs, to administer treatment, to

administer diet, doctor’s administrations

to determine [di’tWmin] - to determine blood group, to determine causes of the

disease, to determine heartbeat, to determine a method of treatment

pain [pein] - to feel pain, to dull pain, bad pain, to reduce pain, to make pain less,

painful
^ VI. От следующих существительных образуйте глаголы и переведите их:

dissection, findings, improvement, conclusion, invention, administration, determine, resistance, prevention, operation, movement
VII. Прочтите и переведите словосочетания:

during the Middle Ages, during the Renaissance, the great cultural movement, across Western Europe, numerous dissections, on human anatomy, to improve surgical techniques, human beings and animals, blood circulates through the body, pulsebeat and heartbeat, to discover a safe method of treatment, the heart pumps blood, immunity to smallpox, the prevention of the disease, to dull pain during surgery, the causes of infectious diseases, certain kinds of microbes, to invent a new method
^ VIII.Прочтите и переведите словосочетания, обращая внимание на - ing форму в роли существительного:

the founding of many hospitals, to record the findings, 750 drawings, dissections on human beings, to prevent diseases by building up resistance to it, effective drug in reducing the pain, progress in learning the causes of infectious diseases, a method for determining the causes of diseases
^ IX. Найдите и переведите предложения, где –ing форма переводится существительным:-

1. Swimming is very useful for our health.

2. Understanding the symptoms you can diagnose diseases.

3. He is preparing a paper on infectious diseases.

4. Don’t be afraid of meeting him.

5. Vitamins are very effective in improving our health.

6. Feeling bad he could not go with us.

7. The questions were connected with the publishing of his new book.

8. Translating the text the students came across some difficulties.

9. The approaching car will take the patient to the hospital.

10. Take this medicine before sleeping.

11. Biochemistry studies the chemistry of living tissue.

12. His being at the conference was quite unexpected.
^ X.Задайте все возможные вопросы к предложению:

European scientists performed many experiments to learn more about human anatomy.

XI. Задайте вопросы к подчеркнутым словам:

1. The scientists determined causes of numerous diseases.

2. Leonardo da Vinci performed many dissections.

3. He recorded his findings in drawings.

4. He made more than 750 drawings.

5. Andreas Vesalius was a physician and a professor of medicine.

6. Ambroise Pare improved surgical techniques.

7. William Harvey performed many experiments in the early 1600’s.

8. Edward Jenner discovered a safe method of immunization to smallpox.

9. Immunology is the prevention of disease by building up resisrance to it.

10. Ether gas can be used to put patients to sleep during surgery.

11. Microbes are living organisms.

12. Bacteria cause particular diseases.
XII.Прочтите и переведите текст:
MEDICINE: HISTORY (Part II)
The chief medical advances in Europe during the Middle Ages were the founding of many hospitals and the first university medical schools. A new scientific spirit developed during the Renaissance, the great cultural movement that swept across Western Europe from 1300 to the 1600’s. During the late 1400’s and early 1500’s the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci performed many dissections to learn more about human anatomy. He recorded his findings in more than 750 drawings.

Andreas Vesalius a physician and professor of medicine at the University of Padua in Italy also performed numerous dissections. He used his findings to write the first scientific textbook on human anatomy, a work called “ On the Structure of the Human Body” (1543).

A French army doctor named Ambroise Pare improved surgical techniques to such an extent that he is considered the father of modern surgery. The English physician William Harvey performed many experiments in the early 1600’s to learn how blood circulates through the body. He performed dissections on both human beings and animals and made careful studies of the human pulsebeat and heartbeat. Harvey discovered that the blood returns to the heart through the veins.

In 1796 an English physician named Edward Jenner discovered a safe method of making people immune to smallpox. The success of the experiment initiated the science of immunology – the prevention of disease by building up resistance to it. For thousands of years physicians tried to dull pain during surgery by administering alcoholic drinks, opium, and various other drugs but no drug proved to be really effective in reducing the pain and shock of operations.

Then in the 1840’s two Americans – Crawford Long and William T.G. Morton - discovered that ether gas could safely be used to put patients to sleep during surgery. Long, a physician, and Morton, a dentist, made the discovery independently. Scientists of the 1800’s made dramatic progress in learning the causes of infectious diseases. Pasteur, a brilliant French chemist, proved that microbes are living organisms and that certain kinds of microbes cause disease.

Koch, a German physician, invented a method for determining which bacteria cause particular diseases.
TASKS
^ I. Translate the following word combinations:

достижения в области медицины, в средние века, эпоха Возрождения, культурное движение, по анатомии человека, многочисленные вскрытия, строение тела, как циркулирует кровь по телу, люди и животные, пульс и сердцебиение, сердце прокачивает кровь по артериям, открыть безопасный способ, профилактика заболеваний, пытаться притупить боль, уменьшение боли, причины инфекционных заболеваний, живые организмы, некоторые виды микробов, вызывать определенные болезни
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