IV. Объясните употребление предлогов, прочтите предложения и переведите их


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II.Match both parts of the sentences to make them complete. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. The chief medical advances in Europe during the Middle Ages were…

a. to write the first scientific human anatomy, a work called “On the Structure of the Human Body”.

2. During the late 1400’s and early 1500’s the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci performed …

b. many experiments to learn how blood circulates through the body.

3. Andreas Vesalius used his findings …

c. a method for determining which bacteria cause particular diseases.

4. A French army doctor named Ambroise Pare improved …

d. the founding of many hospitals and the first university medical schools.

5. The French physician William Harvey performed…

e. many dissections to learn more about human anatomy.

6. In 1796 an English physician named Edward Jenner discovered…

f. that ether gas could safely be used to put patients to sleep during surgery.



7. In the 1840’s Crawford Long and William T.G.Morton discovered …

g . a safe method of making people immune to smallpox.

8. Paster, a brilliant French chemist, proved…


h. surgical techniques to such an extent that he is considered the father of modern surgery.

9. Koch, a German physician, invented…

i. that microbes are living organisms and that certain kinds of microbes cause disease.

III. Express your agreement or disagreement with the following statements:

1. The founding of many hospitals and the first university medical schools were

the chief advances in Europe in the 20-th century.

2. Renaissance is the great cultural movement which took place in the USA.

3. Leonardo da Vinci was a famous Italian artist.

4. He did much to learn more about microbiology.

5. Andreas Vesalius wrote the first scientific book on human anatomy.

6. Ambroise Pare, a French army doctor, is considered the father of antibiotics.

7. William Harvey learnt how blood circulated through the body.

8. Edward Jenner, an English physician, discovered a safe method of making

people immune to tuberculosis.

9. Pasteur was a brilliant French dentist.

10. Robert Koch, a German physician, invented a method for determining causes

of particular diseases.
^ IV. Find in the text and write down the names of the greatest scientists who made the chief advances in the field of medicine. Name these advances.

V.Discuss the tendencies of the development of medicine:

a. in the Middle Ages; b. in the 18th and 19th centuries.
^ VI. Retell the text using the list of names made to the task IV.


LESSON 5
Грамматика: согласование времен, парные союзы, to have to
HIPPOCRATES
I. Прочтите слова, определите части речи (существительные, глаголы, прилагательные, наречия) и переведите их:

superstition, punishment, natural, occupation, especially, development, temperature, scientific, experience, attention, nature, respiration, appearance, affection, protective, surgical, famous, particular
^ II. Прочтите слова и дайте их русские эквиваленты:

practitioner [prqek’tiSnq] , idea [Qi’diq], effect [I’fekt], climate [‘klQimit], physiology [,fizi’OlqGi], thermometer [Tq’mOmitq], stethoscope [‘steTqskoup], temperature [‘tempriCq, prognosis [prOg’nousis], symptom [‘simptqm], nature [‘neiCq], respiration [.respi’reiSqn], reaction [rJ’qekSqn], function [‘fANkSqn], collection [kq’lekSqn]
^ III. Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания:

to free - освобождать

free - свободный

to punish - наказывать

to prove [prHv] - доказывать

occupation [,Okju’peiSqn] - род занятий, профессия

to estimate [‘estimeit] - считать, оценивать, устанавливать

chest - грудная клетка

in spite of - несмотря на

to create [krJ’eit] - создавать

accurate [‘qekjurit]- точный

sign [sQin]- признак, симптом

face - лицо

skin - кожа

to appear [q’piq] - появляться

sputum [‘spjHtqm]- мокрота

bowel [‘bQuql] - кишечник, кишка

to connect [kq’nekt] - соединять

to affect [q’fekt] - поражать. повреждать

experience [iks’piqriqns] - опыт

fever [‘fJvq]- лихорадка, жар

force [fLs] - сила

to consist of [kqn’sist] - состоять из

oath [ouT] - клятва
^ IV. Прочтите и переведите следующие пары слов:

to punish – punishment, to develop – development, to appear – appearance, to connect –connection, to affect – affection, to express – expression, to react – reaction, to operate – operation, to collect – collection, to know – knowledge
^ V. Прочтите и переведите:

to prove [prHv]- to prove facts, to prove the idea, to prove the appearance, to

prove the existence: to prove the importance, to prove the necessity

to estimate [‘estimeit] - to estimate results, to estimate symptoms, to estimate

temperature, to estimate condition

to create [krJ’eit]- to create conditions, to create instruments, to create school, to

create group: to create new methods

sign [sQin] - abnormal signs, important signs, natural signs, pathological signs,

signs of the disease, according to the signs

to appear [q’pie] - to appear in children, to appear in the body, to appear suddenly,

signs appeared, unexpected appearance

to connect [kq’nekt] - to connect organs of the body, to connect theory with

practice connect different parts, in connection

to affect [q’fekt]- to affect organs, to affect health, to affect skin, to affect the

bowel

experience [iks’piqriqns] - much experience, to gain experience, experience in the

field of medicine: experienced surgeon
^ VI. Прочтите и переведите предложения:

1. Hippocrates was the greatest practitioner of his time.

2. It is very important to connect theory with practice.

3. He created a new technique of operations on the skull.

4. The scientists estimated a real cause of this disease.

5. This infection affects the organs of the chest.

6. Abnormal signs appeared a week ago.

7. He has much experience in the field of surgery.

8. The doctor proved the importance of his method of treatment.

9. Occupation affects the development of the disease.

10. Fever is a very important sign of many diseases.

11. His scientific work consists of many connected parts.

12. The colour of the face and the skin helped the doctor to make diagnosis.
VII. Поставьте сказуемые в прошедшее время:

1. He must help us.

2. The students must take exams.

3. The scientist must prove his idea.

4. The surgeon must operate this patient.

5. The physician must use a new method of treatment.
VIII. Прочтите и переведите те предложения, где глагол to have имеет модальное значение:

1. The scientist has carried out many experiments.

2. He has much experience in the field of medicine.

3. The surgeon has to perform the operation as soon as possible.

4. The lecturer had to answer many questions.

5. I had good marks at the entrance exams.

6. The students of our group have to take part at the conference,

7. The researcher has proved his ideas.

8. The new method of treatment has been used to diagnose a disease.

9. We have to work hard to become good specialists.

10. They have knowledge and experience to perform operations by themselves.
^ IX. Прочтите и переведите предложения:

1. The cardiogram showed that the heart was normal.

2. We knew that the condition of the skin was a very important sign.

3. The scientist proved that this disease had an infectious origin.

4. The students learnt that this disease affected the organs of the chest.

5. He created a new method which helped to diagnose many diseases accurately.

6. Hippocrates proved that every disease had a natural cause.

7. In the article we read that many effective drugs produced side effects.
^ X. Закончите предложения:

1. He thought that this disease …

a. is not dangerous

b. was not dangerous

c. was not be dangerous

2. The surgeon said that the operation …

a. was necessary

b. is necessary

c. had necessary

3. The teacher told us that we …

a. were to work harder

b. have to work harder

c. had to work harder

4. I knew that he …

a. is a famous surgeon

b. was a famous surgeon

c. will be a famous surgeon

5. He estimated that this disease …

a. affected many organs

b. had affect many organs

c. was affected many organs
^ X. Переведите предложения на английский язык:

1. Мы узнали, что он работает в хирургическом отделении. 2. Ученые установили, что это заболевание имеет несколько причин. 3. Лектор сказал, что такие симптомы могут появиться только у детей. 4. Я слышал, что он известный врач. 5. Мы прочитали, что врачи используют это лекарство от головной боли.
^ XI. Прочтите и переведите предложения:

1. Both human anatomy and physiology are very interesting subjects.

2. Both the effect of food and the occupation affect the organism.

3. Hippocrates was both a good practitioner and a good surgeon.

4. You can make a report either in biology or in chemistry.

5. The physician recommended either to make injections or to take tablets.

6. Neither tablets nor injections helped the patient.

7. I could find the necessary material neither in the textbooks nor in the Internet.

8. Hippocrates had neither thermometer nor stethoscope.
XII. Прочтите и переведите текст:
HIPPOCRATES

Hippocrates was born in Greece. He was the son of a doctor. Hippocrates studied medicine and was the greatest practitioner of his time.

Hippocrates freed medicine from superstition. He hated the idea that a disease was the punishment of gods. In his works he proved that every disease had a natural cause. He noted the effect of food, occupation and especially climate on the development of the disease.

Hippocrates knew little of anatomy and physiology and he had few instruments. In fact he had neither thermometer nor stethoscope. He had to estimate the temperature by his hand; he had to listen to the heart placing his ear to the chest. But in spite of all that his method was scientific.

Hippocrates created medicine on the basis of experience. He taught that every physician had to study the history of a disease; he had to learn how to make an accurate prognosis based on the signs and symptoms. He taught that the physician had to direct his attention to the color of the face, skin, the nature of respiration, the appearance of sputum, bowel habits. Hippocrates was the first who connected the disease of one organ with affection of the whole organism. According to his teaching the symptoms of the disease, and especially fever, are the expressions of the protective reaction of the organism and the chief function of a physician is to aid the natural forces of the body. Hippocrates was a good surgeon as well. He performed operations even on the skull.

We have his writings which are called Hippocrates Collection. The Collection consists of more than one hundred books. His works give us information about surgical knowledge and technique of that period. Some of Hippocratic thoughts are quite modern. The Collection begins with the famous Oath which teaches medical students to be a good doctor. A good doctor must have not only deep knowledge of a particular field of medicine, he must love people and have a kind heart. We call Hippocrates the father of medicine.
TASKS
^ I. Translate the following word combinations:

освободить медицину от предрассудков, иметь естественную причину, развитие заболевания, действие рода занятий, измерять температуру рукой, слушать сердце, на основе опыта, анализ заболевания, сделать точный прогноз, признаки и симптомы, цвет лица и кожи, появление мокроты, повреждение всего организма, согласно учению, защитная реакция организма, практическая область медицины, клятва Гиппократа
^ II. Give the three forms of the verbs:

to study, to know, to have, to estimate, to create, to teach, to learn, to make, to appear, to connect, to write
III. Express your agreement or disagreement with the following statements:

1. Hippocrates was born in ancient Egypt.

2. His father was a philosopher.

3. Hippocrates was the greatest practitioner of his time.

4. He proved that every disease was the punishment of gods.

5. He knew little anatomy and physiology.

6. He had very many instruments.

7. He was a good surgeon.

8. Hippocratic Collection consists of 20 books.

9. This Collection begins with the famous Oath.

10. Hippocrates is called the father of medicine.
^ IV. Make up questions to the underlined words:

1. Hippocrates studied medicine.

2. The food, occupation, and climate have the effect on the development of a

disease.

3. Every physician must study the history of a disease.

4. Hippocrates connected the disease of one organ with the affection of the whole

organism.

5. The symptoms of the disease and fever are the expressions of the protective

reaction of the organism.

6. Hippocratic Collection consists of more than one hundred books.

7. The Oath teaches medical students to be good doctors.

8. A good doctor must have deep knowledge of a particular field of medicine.

9. We call Hippocrates the father of medicine.
^ V. Complete the sentences:

1. Hippocrates was born in …

2. His father was …

3. Hippocrates studied …

4. He freed medicine …

5. He proved that every disease had …

6. Food, occupation, and climate have effect on …

7. Hippocrates had few …,

8. He estimated … by his hand.

9. He listened to the heart by …

10. Hippocrates created medicine …

11. He connected … with the affection of the whole organism.

12. He performed operations …

13. His writings are called …

14. Hippocratic Collection begins with …

15. We call Hippocrates …


VI. Answer the questions:

1. Where was Hippocrates born?

2. What was his father?

3. What did Hippocrates free medicine from?

4. What did he prove in his works?

5. Did he have many instruments?

6. How did he estimate the temperature and listen to the heart?

7. What did he create?

8. What did he teach?

9. What operations did he perform?

10. How are his writings called?

11. What do his works give us?

12. What does the Collection begin with?
VII. Say as many facts about Hippocrates as you can.
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