Красноярск, 30 августа, 2005 The Art of Living in XXI yoga ayurveda medicine proceedings Krasnoyarsk, 30 August 2005 Красноярск, 2005 Krasnoyarsk, 2005


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P^ OSSIBLE BIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR PSYHO-PHYSICAL BENEFITS OF PRANAYAMA PRACTICES
Prof. N.Kochupillai

Professor & Head, Department of Endocrinology,

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
The word 'Abhyasa' can be crudely translated to English language as 'practice'. However a more precise translation encompassing all the literal dimensions of the Sanskrit word would be "sustained & successful practice". In my mother tongue 'Malayalam' the word 'Yoga' is not used in isolation. It is commonly known as 'Yogabhyasa'. It is a self-evident truth to anyone who has been successful in sustained yogic practices that success in the practice depends on learning from positive experiences (Anubhava) gained along the practice. Practice perfected by experience is at the core of progress in Yogabhyasa. Adherence to rigid rules of practice can be obstructive to yogic progress. The Hatha Yoga Pradeepika1 for example warns:



7 lathayoga Pradeepikn'

Meaning : Excessive adherence to 'rigid rules of Practice' among other things, destroys 'Yoga'.

Why should sustained practice and experience related innovations be critical to progress in Yogabhyasa? To my mind this is so because the psycho-physical and spiritual (Holistic) practice of yogabhyasa is also, simultaneously, a subjective exploration of its 'body-mind impact and related individualization of the Practice, on course, to achieve unwavering progress. Yogic practices are astutely designed on the basis of compelling subjective experiences of powerful minds with the creative elan to explore Existential Truths beyond the edge of objectivity, aeons before modern psyho-neuro-biology began exploring the science of "self" with sophisticated technology. Indeed, every genuine practitioner of yogabhyasa is in search of the 'self adopting 'contour maps' of practice left behind by those inveterate explorers of our mind-body mystery! However, despite adoption of those authoritative contour maps, exploration of the 'self necessarily remains an individual adventure. Therefore the need for 'abhyasa' guided by 'anubhava'.

In this presentation I would strive to explore the Neurobiology of 'Pranayama Practices' in the light of (a) state of the art understanding of the biology of breathing2 & (b) Inter-relating those facts of objective biology with the experiential gestalt of Pranayamic Practices. I shall be doing so using concepts & phraseology intelligible to the uninitiated, keeping in mind the general nature of the participants of the conference.

The Neurobiology of Breathing

Breathing can truly be described as "blowing the bellows of the 'Tire of Life'. Anyone who has practiced Pranayama in a 'sustained & successful' manner for a sufficiently long time would vouch for the positive physical and psycho-spiritual impact of these practices. Indeed, as stipulated by Patanjali3 , Pranayama is a pivotal component of the Ashtanga yoga prescribed for aspirants of spiritual life through the path of 'Raja Yoga'. The Hathayoga Pradeepika itself stipulate this practice as an important step in the ascent to Rajayoga.

Before briefly dealing with the neurobiology of Pranayama it will be helpful to dwell on the meaning & significance of the word itself for a moment. Literally the word means "the ebb & flow of PRAN". The Sanskrit word 'Prana' do not yield to English translation readily. It perhaps represents a comprehensive concept of an energising-integrating current that weave Life out of 'Prakriti'. It is there in the air currents of our breath, as also in the flux of bioelectricity through the myriad of axons and dendrites of the billions of nerve cells that energize & integrate our Being. It is there in the energetics of the tens of thousands of equilibrated bio-chemical reactions integrated within and across cell barriers, tissues & organ systems to engender the marvelous phenomenon of 'Life'. The word Pranayama perhaps represent the ebb &flow of this 'Life giving energy'.

To my mind it is difficult to reconcile the apparent incompatibility between the over arching concept of 'Prana' on the one hand and the mundane act of breathing and related exercises that the word 'Pranayama' come to represent in popular parlance! While oxygen intake & carbon dioxide expulsion are central to the physiology of breathing, it is important to realize that there are other equally vital neuro-biological dimensions to that physiology - the rhythmic respiratory drive that originate in the cardio-respiratory center of brain stem reticular formation. There is now recognition that the brain stem reticular formation & the chemo-electrical influences that emanate upward from it impinge on all the important cortical & sub-cortical neural structures that, in concert, structure 'Human consciousness'4. As we learn today, adopting sophisticated & state of the art technology like functional Nucleo-Magnetic Resonance & PET scanning, focussing conscious awareness on any bodily activity enhances blood supply and metabolic activity in the corresponding part of the brain that represent/control that activity. Based on this fact, it can be deduced that rhythmic breathing and its variants, as prescribed in various pranayma practices, with fully focussed awareness of the process, cannot but neuro-biologically influence the brain stem reticular formation & related Brain-Activity Gestalt involved in the elaboration of Human Consciousness. We also now understand the elaborate ways in which the ascending influences of the mind-brain reticular formation impinge on all key ingredients Human Consciousness. In the light of these insights on the neurobiological correlates of breathing and its linkages with the neural substrate of Human Consciousness, it is easy to understand how pranayamic practices are key elements in the Ashtanga Yoga Practice of spiritual sadhana prescribed for the natural expansion of 'Human Consciousness'.

The Experiential Gestalt of Pranayama

As already mentioned, Patanjali's Yogasuthra envisages Pranayama practice as a pivotal component of the eight-fold practices of 'Asthanga yoga' for spiritual development. Long practice of various yogic asanas and related mind-body disciplines enable the sadhaka to get rid of the mechanical awareness of breathing and through almost imperceptible slow rhythmic breathing anchor ones 'Conscious awareness' on the 'sound element' ofbreathing.

Pranayama practices are a powerful set of practices that help exclusively settle ones conscious awareness in the sound element of breathing and ultimately reach the higher & purer states of 'Dhyana'. To a beginner, it is difficult to hold on for long to such pure states of Dhyana, where one is in tune with ones pure Being without the perturbations of the 5 types of Vritties* that infest our 'normal' awareness. However long, devoted & dedicated practice of pranayama would enable one to enter & remain in Dhyana for varying lengths of time. As one proceeds with this, one recognizes a large number of one's habits & character traits, which intrude & interfere with successful practice of Dhyana. Realizing the positive impact of successful Dhyana, one gradually eschews all those intruding habits & traits to make progress. Patanjali stipulates 'Abhyasa' & 'Vairagya' as two pivotal frames of mind required to eliminate 'chittavrittis' and achieve progress in Dhyana and ascend higher in yogic states. But much before reaching higher states like Samadhi, one can clearly discern large number positive transformations in ones nature. These include a sense of serene imperturbability, reinforcement of positive emotions & weakening of negative emotions, a desire to be silent and avoid loud and aggressive people, a longing to be non-violent and helpful, a sense of compassion & concern for the deprived and above all a sense of contentment & peace within oneself!

These positive traits, as they emerge pari-passu with success in Dhyana, re-inforce mutually to further promote yogasadhana, enabling one to enter some of the most exhilarating journies of Self discovery & self fulfillment! How Pranayama and related dhyana bring about this wonderous transformation has been an abiding mystery to me. However

careful perusal of emerging scientific literature & interpreting them in the light of Pranayama related 'Swanubhava'has been an engaging Jigsaw! This has also become part of my Abhyasa!!5

* The five types of Vrittis described by Patanjali are (1) Pramana (2) Viparyaya (3) Vikalpa (4) Nidra & (5) Smrithi

Bibliography

1. The Hath yoga Pradeepika (Translation)(1991); Pancham Singh; Sri Satguru Publications, Shakti Nagar. New Delhi.

  1. Annual Rev. Physiol (1998) 60; 385-405

  2. 'Patanjali Yoga Sutra' as published in "Raja Yoga" by Swami Vivekananda (Malyalam Translation) (1963). Sri Ramakrishna Mutt, Puranattukara. Trichur, Kerala.

4. 'The Brainstem' Lorna W. Role & James P Kelley. Chapter 44. Pages 683-699 in " Principles of Neuroscience" (1991) 3rd edition. Eric R.Kandall, James H. Sehwartz & Thomas E. Jessel (Editors). Elsevier, New York, Amsterdam, London, Tokyo.

5. "Yoga" & Neural Plasticity : Possible Neuro-Endocrine

Mechanism: N Kochupillai. Paper presented in the "12th International Conference on Frontiers in Yoga Research & Applications" Bangalore, India Nov 2001. Organisers :' Swami Vivekanand Yoga Anusadhana Samsthana, Bangalore-560018 INDIA
^ ВОЗМОЖНЫЕ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ ПСИХО-ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЯ ПРАКТИКИ ПРАНАЙАМЫ
Проф. Н. Кочупиллаи, зав. кафедрой эндокринологии, Всеиндийский институт медицинских наук, Нью-Дели
Слово Абьяса можно перевести на английский язык как «практика», однако наиболее точный перевод, охватывающий все буквальные значения этого слова на санскрите, был бы «постоянная и успешная практика». В моем родном языке малайалам слово йога не используется изолированно. Обычно говорят Йогабьяса. Для любого, кто постоянно занимается йогой, совершенно очевидно, что залогом успеха в практике является учение на позитивном опыте (Анубава), полученном во время практики. Практика, совершенствуемая с опытом, и лежит в основе успеха в Йогабьяса. Приверженность строгим правилам практики может препятствовать прогрессу в йоге. Хатха-йога Прадипика предупреждает: «Чрезмерная приверженность жестким правилам практики, помимо всего прочего разрушает йогу».

Почему же постоянная практика и новшества, возникающие с опытом, критичны для прогресса в йоге? На мой взгляд, это объясняется тем, что психофизическая и духовная (холистическая) практика Йогабьясы также одновременно является субъективным исследованием ее влияния на ум и тело и связанной с этим индивидуализации Практики для достижения устойчивого прогресса. Практика йоги была мудро разработана на основе увлекательного субъективного опыта сильных умов в творческом порыве исследовать Экзистенциальную Истину за гранью объективности тысячелетия до того, как современная психонейробиология начала исследовать науку «о себе» с помощью сложных методик. Действительно, каждый истинный практик Йогабьясы находится в поисках «себя», как бы адаптируя к себе «контурные карты» практики, оставленные нам неутомимыми исследователями тайн ума и тела! Однако, несмотря на применение этих авторитетных «контурных карт», познание себя остается индивидуальным исследованием. Поэтому необходимость Абьясы зависит от Анубава.

В данной статье я попытаюсь рассмотреть нейро-биологические аспекты «практики Пранайамы» в свете: а) новейшего понимания биологии дыхания и б) взаимосвязанных фактов объективной биологии с опытом Гештальт в практике Пранайамы.

^ Нейро-биологические аспекты дыхания

Дыхание можно описать как выдувание мехов «огня Жизни». Любой, кто «постоянно и успешно» занимался Пранайамой в течение довольно длительного времени, подтвердит положительное физическое и психо-духовное воздействие этой практики. Действительно, как говорит Патанжали «Пранайама – это важный компонент Аштанга йоги, предписанной тем, кто стремится к духовной жизни через Раджа йогу». Хатхайога прадипика считает эту практику важным шагом в восхождении к Раджайоге.

Прежде, чем говорить о нейробиологии Пранайамы, было бы полезно остановиться на значении и важности самого слова. Буквально оно означает «отлив и прилив праны». Слово «прана» нелегко перевести с санскрита на английский. Оно скорее представляет всеобъемлющее понятие энергетического интегрирующего потока, который плетет Жизнь из «Пракрити». Именно здесь, в воздушных потоках нашего дыхания, а также в потоке биоэлектричества через мириады аксонов и дендритов миллиардов нервных клеток наполняется энергией и интегрируется наше Существо. Именно в энергетике десятков тысяч сбалансированных биохимических реакций, происходящих внутри клеток и через клеточные барьеры, ткани и системы органов рождается удивительное явление – Жизнь. Слово «Пранайама» скорее означает «отлив и прилив» этой «Энергии, дающей жизнь».

На мой взгляд трудно сочетать очевидную несовместимость всеобъемлющего понятия «Прана» с одной стороны и приземленного акта дыхания и связанных с ним упражнений, которые слово «Пранайама» представляет в обиходном понимании! Хотя вдыхание кислорода и выдыхание углекислого газа являются центральными в физиологии дыхания, важно понимать, что есть другие жизненно важные нейробиологические показатели этой физиологии – ритмическое дыхательное движение, которое порождается в кардиореспираторном центре ретикулярной формации ствола мозга. Сейчас признается тот факт, что ретикулярная формация ствола мозга и химикоэлектрическое влияние, индуцируемое им, подают на все важные корковые и подкорковые нервные структуры то, что структурирует «Человеческое Сознание». Как мы знаем сегодня благодаря использованию сложных новейших технологий, таких как функциональный ЯМР и ПЭТ (эмиссионная позитронная томография), сознательная концентрация на любой деятельности тела усиливает кровоснабжение и обменные процессы в соответствующей части мозга, которая представляет/контролирует эту деятельность. Основываясь на этом факте, можно заключить, что ритмичное дыхание и его варианты, как предписано в различных практиках Пранайамы, с полной сознательной концентрацией на процессе может нейробиологически влиять на ретикулярную формацию ствола мозга и регулировать сознательную деятельность человека. Сегодня мы также понимаем сложные пути, по которым восходящее влияние ретикулярной формации влияет на все ключевые составляющие человеческого сознания. В свете этих знаний о нейробиологических коррелятах дыхания и его связи с нервным субстратом человеческого сознания, легко понять, почему практика Пранайамы является ключевым элементом Аштанга йоги «Духовной саданы», предписываемой для естественного расширения человеческого сознания.

T^ REATING DEPRESSION USING SUDARSHAN KRIYA
B. N. Gangadhar, Addl. Professor of Psychiatry

N. Janakiramaiah, Professor of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore
Summary

Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder. Available effective treatments have certain limitations. Role of traditional methods for treating depression has come under investigation. Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) is one such traditional approach gaining attention. The yoga research group at NIMHANS has conducted clinical trials of SKY in depression. Results indicate that SKY has significant antidepressant effects and also SKY compares favorably with imipramine - an established antidepressant medication. Following successful treatment with SKY, a neurophysiological 'correction' occurred. P300 event related potential's amplitude was smaller during depression and became 'normal' after treatment with SKY. SKY produced specific neurohormonal responses. Acutely following SKY plasma levels of prolactin were elevated but not that of cortisol. Regular practice of SKY (for two weeks) even lowered plasma cortisol. Role for SKY in the routine treatment of depression deserves to be explored. Mechanisms of therapeutic action of SKY also merit investigation.

^ Depressive Disorder

Depression is the most prevalent among mental disorders in the community. Today, an estimated 350 million people suffer from depression worldwide. It will be the number-two cause of "lost years of healthy life" in future years, next to ischaemic heart disease. It also is a condition that contributes to most loss of productive human days adding to personal, psychosocial and economic costs1. WHO global burden study identifies depression as one of the four most disabling illnesses in the world2. High rates of recurrences, chronicity and associated medical &/or psychiatric co-morbidity add to this disability3. Both directly and indirectly it also contributes to mortality; suicide and myocardial infarctions. Prompt recognition and effective treatment of depression hence are top-priority public health issues.

Feelings of sadness, loss of interest, psychomotor retardation, low self-esteem including suicidal ideas/plans and vegetative symptoms (loss of appetite, loss of weight, sleeplessness, loss of libido and autonomicity of mood) characterize depressive disorder4. Major depression is typically a recurring disorder. Starting in half the subjects before 40 years, it tends to have frequent recurrences as age advances. The prevalence rates are hence highest in middle-aged. When severe, psychotic Ih symptoms color the illness. Dysthymic disorder is other chronic, milder but more prevalent condition. Depression is also a phase in the cyclical bipolar disorder, the bipolar depression. Depression coexists with several primary psychiatric conditions causing a pathoplastic influence on them. Depression is also a presenting/coexisting feature of several medical conditions. This is either a biological or the psychological consequence of the medical condition.

^ Treating depression

Biological treatments for depression include electro convulsive therapy (ECT) and medications. Other therapies include psychological (psychotherapies, behavior therapies, cognitive therapy, etc.) and yogic.

ECT was the first and most effective treatment known for depression. In the second half of 20th century potent antidepressant medications were introduced. Notable among them are the mono amino oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and the other newer antidepressants. By this time the standards of treatment trials too had improved remarkably. All these drugs proved successful in rigorous, controlled, prospective, double blind trials. ECT too was tested in depression using these standards. The efficacy of ECT was confirmed in many double blind, sham-ECT controlled trials. In its status report the Royal College of Psychiatrists5 noted that the role of ECT in depression is 'incontrovertible'. Interest in ECT increased with drug-nonresponsiveness in a sizeable proportion of depressives. Trials on ECT confirmed its effectiveness in patients who failed to respond to drugs. Yet, a proportion of patients have either no response or unsatisfactory response to the available therapies.

The 'drug' therapies have other limitations; their side effects and a lag in onset of antidepressant effect. Research was hence focused on developing side-effect-free and fast-acting drugs, with no breakthrough. Refinements have also occurred in ECT practice; modification, optimizing the stimulus standards, lowering the ECT frequency are a few to note. These treatments make the patient feel that the improvement occurred due to the drugs and not by his/her own 'mental strength'. This may indirectly add to the low self-esteem, which is already haunting the patient. This leads us to the 'heel-thyself psychological treatments.

A good number of psychotherapeutic approaches are in use in different forms and with varying success. There are of course some limitations. These therapies are culture-based and lack universal standards. There is difficulty in conducting controlled trials, double blind in particular, to evaluate these therapies. Severely depressed patients or those with psychotic/melancholic symptoms may not be suitable for psychotherapies. Patients with milder/chronic depression, which is determined by individual's personality or psychosocial situations, can be treated by this approach. Lack of trained personnel, longer contact desired and hence, increased cost of these treatments have prompted search for alternative treatments for this widely prevalent disorder. Yogic practice could be a potential alternative. Yoga is a major Indian tradition, which is relevant to medicine and psychiatry. According to Patanjali's Yogasutras, Yoga aims at "the calming of the operations of consciousness". Chronic anxiety and stress are implicated in depression. Stress-reduction procedures such as Yoga can therefore be expected to reduce depression.

^ Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY)

Sudarshan Kriya is an innovative yoga procedure developed and popularized by Sri Sri RaviShankar from Bangalore, India. It could be useful in treating depression for two reasons: 1. Several individuals attending the Sudarshan Kriya courses for stress management conducted by the Art-of Living foundation, reported relief from negative emotions, insomnia and fatigue. It had significant neurobiological effects; it elicited high amplitude discharges in the EEG of regular practitioners6. Hence, using contemporary scientific methods we examined its antidepressant effects.

^ Clinical Trials on SKY

We have conducted three clinical studies at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) Bangalore. We have omitted the initial philosophical, inspirational briefing to exclude cognitive/suggestion elements and minimize activation of positive expectations. This was 'abbreviation', Sudarsha Kriya Yoga (SKY), was done for the research purpose of operationalizing the procedure to specific/replicable elements as for as possible. We have documented this (SKY) in a videocassette that is available for reference and education7.

SKY has three sequential breathing components interspersed with normal breathing: ^ Ujjayi (slow breathing, 2-3/min), Bhastrika (rapid, forced expiration, 20-30 cycles/min), and cyclical breathing (going through increasing frequencies of 20-40, 40-60, and 60-80 cycles/min). All these rhythmic breathing components are practiced while sitting with eyes closed and awareness focused on incoming and outgoing breath, over a period of about 30 minutes. A state of relaxed I sleepiness descends by the end of the last round of cyclical i breathing and the procedure closes with a period of about 10- 1 15 minutes of Yoga Nidra (tranquil state) in supine position. | The entire session lasts for about 45 minutes. The sessions are I prescribed once a day for six days a week. In the studies | conducted here, the patients learnt SKY before the end of the | first week. The Yoga teacher was trained at the Art-of-Living foundation. Subsequently the same teacher supervised SKY either daily for inpatients or at weekly intervals for the outpatients.

The first study8 was an open clinical trial on 46 drug-free, consenting, hospital outpatients (22 males) with a diagnosis of DSM-IV dysthymic disorder9. After learning, they had to practice SKY everyday for half an hour and avoid any medication for three months. Regular practice was defined as three or more practice sessions each week. They were assessed on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD)10 and Clinical Global Impression (CGI)11 initially, at one and three months. Remission was defined as CGI score of 2 or less at both one and three month as well as absence of criterion symptoms that justified a diagnosis of dysthymia at these assessment points. Thirty-seven patients had regular SKY practice in the three-month trial period and 25(68%) remitted. A higher proportion of those practicing SKY regularly showing remission suggested a dose-response relation. No clinically significant side effect was noted during the trial period.

The second study12 was a controlled trial in drug-free patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder with melancholic features9. These patients were not treated for this episode and had not received ECT or antidepressants in the past six months. All scored 17 or more on the 17-item HRSD10. Patients (n=45; males=20) were hospitalized for four weeks and were randomly but equally assigned to receive ECT, imipramine or SKY. No other treatment was allowed during the study.

Bilateral ECT on alternate days was used under anaesthetic modification. ECT was withheld if patients reached a HRSD score of 7 or less on two consecutive weekly assessments. Imipramine was used in a fixed dose of 150 mg per day orally at bedtime. SKY was initially taught as mentioned above. The sessions were practiced under supervision in the hospital six days a week. The depression severity was assessed before starting treatment and weekly thereafter for four weeks. Data on depression scales showed that ECT group responded best but the imipramine and SKY groups were comparable. The number of responders (total HRSD score less than 8) was 14, 11 and 10 respectively in ECT, imipramine and SKY groups. Major limitation of both these studies was lack of rater bias.

In a more recent study13 therefore, we randomized 30 inpatients with major depressive disorder into two equal groups. One practiced SKY as in earlier studies. The other group however, received 'partial' SKY. This latter was similar to SKY except that the third part, rapid cyclical breathing, was replaced by normal breathing for the same period. Each group of patients practiced separately. Clinician who assessed the depression scores during the study too was blind to the treatment groups. During the trial period patients were not given any drugs except tablet lorazepam (upto 4 mg per day) or zopiclone (upto 7.5 mg/day) if they reported significant distress on account of insomnia. The two groups showed significant reductions in the depression scores. Responder was defined as one having 50% reductions in Beck Depression Inventory14 (BDI) scores. More patients in SKY group responded than partial SKY group although at trend worthy level of significance (p=0.058; OR=4.6; 95% CI=0.9-23).

Neurobiological effects of SKY

We also studied other neurobiological effects of SKY in depression. P300 event related potential is an electrophysiological measure of cognitive function in CNS. P300 amplitude was significantly lower in both dysthymia and MDD patients than in normal control group15-16. P300 'normalized' after a course of SKY treatment, paralleling clinical remission from depression16. Plasma prolactin levels significantly rose acutely after one SKY session in male dysthymia patients (n=12)8 as well as in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients of both sexes (n=36)17. Levels of a stress-hormone -cortisol- did not change8 suggesting that prolactin elevation was a selective neurobiological effect (through hypothalamo-pituitary system).

Twenty of the 36 patients with major depressive disorder completed three-week therapy with SKY in the hospital17. Significant reductions in BDI and HRSD scores occurred over three weeks. Blood was sampled at pre- and post-SKY session on day-3 (n=36) and similarly on day-21 (n=20). Cortisol levels were assayed in these coded serum samples. The pre- and post-SKY cortisol levels (mcg/dl) on day-3 did not differ (11.0±4.2 and 10.7±4.2). On day-21 however, the post-SKY cortisol levels were significantly lower than pre-SKY levels (9.7±3.7 and 7.5±3.0; P<0.02). Significant reduction in cortisol level following the SKY session at third week suggested anti-stress effects of continued SKY practice.

In summary, clinical trials on using SKY as a treatment in depression are encouraging. There are some challenges. We have not demonstrated efficacy of SKY against a placebo treatment. Although ethically difficult, this is a desired standard in clinical trials. Other clinical questions are: I) Is SKY a good alternative in place of drugs for outpatient depressives and II) Is SKY effective in drug-resistant depression. Biological effects and their relation to therapeutic effects of SKY is another potential area for further research. This can bring to light the therapeutic mechanisms of action of SKY.

References

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  2. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 1997; 349:1436-1442.

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^

ЛЕЧЕНИЕ ДЕПРЕССИИ С ПОМОЩЬЮ ЙОГИ

SUDARSHAN KRIYA



Б.Н.Гангадхар, профессор психиатрии

Н.Джнакирамайа, профессор психиатрии

Национальный Институт психического здоровья и нейронаук, Бангалор




Депрессия – распространенное психическое расстройство. Доступное эффективное лечение имеет некоторые ограничения. В настоящее время исследуется роль традиционных методов лечения депрессии. SK – один из таких традиционных методов, заслуживающих пристального внимания. Научная группа по исследованию йоги в NIMHANS проводила клиническое использование SK при депрессии. Результаты показали, что SK оказывает значительный антидепрессивный эффект, сопоставимый с эффектом антидепрессивного препарата – имипрамина. Последующее успешное лечение с применением SK обеспечивает нейрофизиологическую коррекцию. Значение P300, связанное с амплитудой потенциала, было меньше при депрессии, но после лечения SK становилось «нормальным». SK в организме вызывала специфические нейрогормональные реакции. Резко возрастал уровень пролактина в плазме крови после занятий SK, в то время как уровень кортизола не менялся. Только регулярные занятия SK (в течение двух недель) приводили к снижению содержания кортизола в плазме. SK заслуживает внимания как способ лечения депрессии и требует изучения, равно как и механизмы терапевтического действия занятий нуждаются в исследованиях.
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