Закон Law is an academic discipline and a profession


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Unit I

LAW
Ex. I. Read the following words and word combinations. Translate the sentences into Russian.


  1. law

  1. право




  1. закон


Law is an academic discipline and a profession.

Congress makes all laws.

  1. lawyer

юрист, адвокат

Lawyer is a person who practices law.

  1. to prosecute

  1. обвинять




  1. выступать в качестве обвинителя


No one was prosecuted for the murder (убийство).

Two Scottish lawyers will prosecute the case.

  1. to obey the law

подчиняться закону

The state has many ways of making sure that citizens obey the law.

  1. rule

правило, норма права,

постановление, предписание, приказ


A society has a specific set of rules (свод правил) to regulate the behavior of its own citizens.

  1. to prescribe

предписывать


For example the speed limits are laws that prescribe how fast we should drive.

  1. to accept rules

принимать правила

We couldn’t accept their rules of behavior.

8.to belong to

принадлежать к

определенному кругу

(общества)

She belongs to the school law club.

9.to enforce the law

проводить закон в жизнь

There are two ways of enforcing laws.

10. to carry a penalty

нести наказание


The person, who committed a serious crime (to commit a crime – совершить преступление), carries a much heavier penalty in the US.

11. to break a rule

нарушать правило

Sometimes we can break rules without any penalty.

12. punishment

наказание

A crime carries a particular punishment.

13. to prohibit

запрещать

There are quite a lot of countries where the capital punishment (death) is prohibited.

14. offender

нарушитель

The fact of the crime was established and the offender was discovered.

15. innocent

невиновный

You do not have to prove that you are innocent.

16. guilty

виновный

The police have to prove you are guilty.

17. fine

штраф

In civil cases the most common punishment is a fine.

18. code

кодекс

The codes are meant to contain the main principles of each branch of the law.

19. statute

закон, законодательный

акт

A statute is a law passed by a government and formally written down.

20. court

суд, судебное заседание


Courts decide what really happened and what should be done about it.

21. judgment

судебное решение,

приговор

The judgment was handed down (официально объявлено) by the court.



Ex.II. Match these words to their definitions.


  1. to enforce the law

  1. an amount of money as punishment for breaking the law

  1. to obey the law

  1. someone who committed a crime

  1. to break a rule

  1. a place where legal cases are decided

  1. law court

  1. a punishment for breaking a rule or law

  1. a penalty

  1. not to obey a rule

  1. to prohibit

  1. to do something according to the law

  1. a term of imprisonment

  1. definite or clearly true

  1. an offender

  1. to officially stop something from being done, especially by making it illegal

  1. a fine

  1. to punish people who do not obey the law

10.code

  1. a set of rules about how something should be done or how people should behave

11. precise

  1. to state officially what should be done in a particular situation

12. to prescribe

  1. the period of time that someone must spend in prison



Before you read

Discuss these questions with your partner.


  1. Are citizens aware of the laws which affect their lives?

  2. How does the state enforce the law?


Text 1 A

What is Law?

Law is a system of rules within a country, region or community dealing with people’s behavior and activities. A law is also an official rule that people must obey. The word also refers to the law as practiced by lawyers, who either prosecute or defend a client.

The English word “law” means various forms of behavior. Some laws are descriptive: they simply describe how people or even natural phenomena usually behave. An example is the law of gravity. Other laws are prescriptive – they prescribe how people should behave. For example, the speed limits are laws that prescribe how fast we should drive.

In all societies relations between people are regulated by prescriptive laws. Some of them are customs – or informal rules of social and moral behavior. Some are rules we accept if we belong to particular social and cultural groups. And some are laws made by nations and enforced against all citizens within their society. The rules of social institutions are more formal than customs carrying precise penalties for those who break them. Sport clubs, for example, often have detailed rules for their members. But if a member breaks a rule and refuses to accept any punishment, the club may ask him or her to leave the club.

Law prohibits certain actions because they are against the interests of most citizens. Laws are enforced in two ways: first by the Police whose duty is to catch offenders; secondly by the law courts which find out whether a person is innocent or guilty. If he is guilty, the courts then award a punishment, either a fine or a term of imprisonment.

The laws of all countries are to be found in written records – the legal codes of countries with continental systems, the statutes and case judgments of common law countries.
Ex. I. Read the text and answer the following questions:


  1. What is Law?

  2. What is a law?

  3. What does a word “law” mean?

  4. What is a descriptive law? What is a prescriptive law? Can you give your own examples?

  5. How are relations between people regulated in all societies?

  6. In what ways are laws enforced?

  7. In what written records are the laws of all countries to be found?


Ex. II. Read the text and decide if the following statements are True, False or No information.

  1. In all societies the relation between people are regulated by customs and traditions.

  2. The rules of social institutions are not so formal as customs carrying precise penalties for those who break them.

  3. Aside from law being a set of rules, the word also refers to the law as practiced by lawyers, who either prosecute or defend a client.

  4. Customs need not be made by governments, and they need not be written down.

  5. Law prohibits certain actions because they are against the interests of most citizens.

  6. When governments make laws for their citizens, they use a system of courts and the police to enforce these laws.

  7. The laws of all countries are to be found in written records – the legal codes of common law countries, the statutes and case judgments of countries with continental systems.


Ex.III. Find English equivalents in the text.


  1. Право – система правил в пределах страны, региона или общины, имеющая дело с поведением людей и их деятельностью.

  2. Английское слово закон означает различные формы поведения.

  3. Некоторые законы являются описательными: они просто описывают как люди или даже природные явления ведут себя.

  4. Другие законы являются предписывающими: они предписывают, как люди должны вести себя.

  5. Во всех обществах отношения между людьми регулируются предписывающими законами.

  6. Закон запрещает определенные действия, потому что они противоречат интересам большинства граждан.


Ex. IV. Mind the English words and phrases with their Russian equivalents.


  1. descriptive law

  1. противоречить чьим-либо интересам

  1. natural phenomena

  1. назначить наказание

  1. prescriptive law

  1. письменный протокол (отчеты)

  1. the law of gravity

  1. защищать клиента

  1. to accept rules

  1. континентально-

европейская система

  1. to make laws

  1. общее право

  1. social institutions

  1. судебное решение

8. to carry a penalty

8. принять наказание

9. to accept punishment

9. понести наказание

10. to be against the interests of

somebody

10. срок тюремного

заключения

11. to award a punishment

11. природные явления

12. written records

12. определенное наказание

13. case judgment

13. предписывающий закон

14. continental system

14. принимать правила

15. to defend the client

15. обвинять кого-либо

16. common law

16. создавать законы

17.to prosecute somebody

17. общественные институты

18. a precise penalty

18. закон притяжения

19. a term of imprisonment

19. описательный закон



Ex. V. Find the English equivalents for the words and word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own.


  1. подчиняться закону

  2. описательный закон

  3. предписывающий закон

  4. принимать правила

  5. создавать законы

  6. проводить закон в жизнь

  7. нести наказание

  8. принять наказание

  9. запрещать

10. противоречить чьим-либо интересам

11. суд

12. невиновный

13. виновный

14. назначить наказание

15. срок тюремного заключения

16. штраф

17. кодекс

18. судебное решение; приговор

19. континентально-европейская система

20. общее право
Ex. VI. Complete the following sentences.


  1. Law is …

  2. Law is used …

  3. Some laws are …

  4. Other laws are …

  5. In all societies relations between people …

  6. The rules of social institutions …

  7. Law prohibits certain actions …

  8. Laws are enforced …



Ex.VII. Will you tell us about law, please?

Text 1 B

Read the text and answer the following questions.


  1. What does the Law itself provide?

  2. What does the system of law consist of?

  3. What is the principal source of Constitutional Law?

  4. What does Criminal Law define?

  5. What does Civil Law deal with?

  6. By what branch of the government is Administrative Law administered?

  7. In what countries is Common Law used?


Kinds of Law

Law is a system of rules that controls and regulates the behavior of members in the society.

One important distinction made in all countries there is between private (civil) and public law. Private law concerns with disputes among citizens within a country, and public law concerns with disputes between citizens and the state, or between one state and another.

The system of law consists of different categories of Law.

^ Constitutional Law is a leading category of the whole system of Law. Its principal source is the country Constitution. Most countries have a formal written Constitution describing how laws are to be made and enforced.

Many countries face similar social, economic and political problems. Nations have always signed political and economic treaties with each other. ^ International Law is created to regulate relations between governments and also between private citizens of one country and those of another.

Criminal Law defines the general principles of criminal responsibility, individual types of crimes and punishment applied to criminals.

^ Civil Law deals with individual rights, duties and obligations towards one another.

Administrative Law refers to a body of laws which governs the activities of administrative agencies of government and is exercised by the executive branch of the government. This body of laws regulates international trade, manufacturing, pollution, taxation and the like.

^ Commercial Law covers business and commerce relations including sales and business.

Common Law is derived from Anglo-Saxon customary law. It is a system of laws used in England, in many of the states of the United States (except California and Louisiana) and in other former British possessions such as Australia, Canada, India and Ireland.

Law is to be public, effective, and legitimate and it has to be available to the knowledge of the citizens.
Notes

  1. criminal responsibility – уголовная ответственность

  2. duties and obligations –обязанности и обязательства

  3. a body of laws – совокупность правовых норм

  4. to refer to –относится к чему-либо

  5. to govern

  6. government – 1) правительство; 2) управление

  7. administrative agencies of government – административные органы управления

  8. customary law – обычное право

  9. possessions – владения, зависимая территория

10.legitimate – законный; соответствующий законодательству

Text 1C
Translate the following text in a written form. Use a dictionary if necessary.
Law is a system of rules a society sets to maintain order and protect harm to persons and property. Laws are enforced by the police, supported by the court and prison systems. Laws are written by legislators, such as senators or congressmen. Laws must not contradict the Constitution.

There are many categories of law. These include contract law, property law, tort law, criminal law, constitutional law, administrative law, and international law. Each of these sets the rules for a distinct area of human activity.

Tort law is a branch of the law which deals with civil wrongs. Under tort law, if someone suffers a physical, legal, or economic harm, he or she may bring a suit. If the suit is valid, damages may be awarded to the victim to compensate for his or her troubles. Most tort laws are found in regional, state, and national civil codes.


  1. harm - вред, убыток, урон, ущерб

  2. tort law - деликтное право

  3. a civil wrong - гражданское правонарушение

  4. to entitle – давать право

  5. to bring a suit - предъявлять иск

  6. valid – юридически действительный; имеющий юридическую силу; правомерный

  7. to contradict the Constitution –противоречить конституции

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