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Ex. I. Read the following words and word combinations. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Ex.II. Match these words to their definitions.
Before you read
Discuss these questions with your partner.
Text 1 A
What is Law?
Law is a system of rules within a country, region or community dealing with people’s behavior and activities. A law is also an official rule that people must obey. The word also refers to the law as practiced by lawyers, who either prosecute or defend a client.
The English word “law” means various forms of behavior. Some laws are descriptive: they simply describe how people or even natural phenomena usually behave. An example is the law of gravity. Other laws are prescriptive – they prescribe how people should behave. For example, the speed limits are laws that prescribe how fast we should drive.
In all societies relations between people are regulated by prescriptive laws. Some of them are customs – or informal rules of social and moral behavior. Some are rules we accept if we belong to particular social and cultural groups. And some are laws made by nations and enforced against all citizens within their society. The rules of social institutions are more formal than customs carrying precise penalties for those who break them. Sport clubs, for example, often have detailed rules for their members. But if a member breaks a rule and refuses to accept any punishment, the club may ask him or her to leave the club.
Law prohibits certain actions because they are against the interests of most citizens. Laws are enforced in two ways: first by the Police whose duty is to catch offenders; secondly by the law courts which find out whether a person is innocent or guilty. If he is guilty, the courts then award a punishment, either a fine or a term of imprisonment.
The laws of all countries are to be found in written records – the legal codes of countries with continental systems, the statutes and case judgments of common law countries.
Ex. I. Read the text and answer the following questions:
Ex. II. Read the text and decide if the following statements are True, False or No information.
Ex.III. Find English equivalents in the text.
Ex. IV. Mind the English words and phrases with their Russian equivalents.
Ex. V. Find the English equivalents for the words and word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own.
10. противоречить чьим-либо интересам
14. назначить наказание
15. срок тюремного заключения
18. судебное решение; приговор
19. континентально-европейская система
20. общее право
Ex. VI. Complete the following sentences.
Ex.VII. Will you tell us about law, please?
Text 1 B
Read the text and answer the following questions.
Kinds of Law
Law is a system of rules that controls and regulates the behavior of members in the society.
One important distinction made in all countries there is between private (civil) and public law. Private law concerns with disputes among citizens within a country, and public law concerns with disputes between citizens and the state, or between one state and another.
The system of law consists of different categories of Law.
^ is a leading category of the whole system of Law. Its principal source is the country Constitution. Most countries have a formal written Constitution describing how laws are to be made and enforced.
Many countries face similar social, economic and political problems. Nations have always signed political and economic treaties with each other. ^ is created to regulate relations between governments and also between private citizens of one country and those of another.
Criminal Law defines the general principles of criminal responsibility, individual types of crimes and punishment applied to criminals.
^ deals with individual rights, duties and obligations towards one another.
Administrative Law refers to a body of laws which governs the activities of administrative agencies of government and is exercised by the executive branch of the government. This body of laws regulates international trade, manufacturing, pollution, taxation and the like.
^ covers business and commerce relations including sales and business.
Common Law is derived from Anglo-Saxon customary law. It is a system of laws used in England, in many of the states of the United States (except California and Louisiana) and in other former British possessions such as Australia, Canada, India and Ireland.
Law is to be public, effective, and legitimate and it has to be available to the knowledge of the citizens.
10.legitimate – законный; соответствующий законодательству
Translate the following text in a written form. Use a dictionary if necessary.
Law is a system of rules a society sets to maintain order and protect harm to persons and property. Laws are enforced by the police, supported by the court and prison systems. Laws are written by legislators, such as senators or congressmen. Laws must not contradict the Constitution.
There are many categories of law. These include contract law, property law, tort law, criminal law, constitutional law, administrative law, and international law. Each of these sets the rules for a distinct area of human activity.
Tort law is a branch of the law which deals with civil wrongs. Under tort law, if someone suffers a physical, legal, or economic harm, he or she may bring a suit. If the suit is valid, damages may be awarded to the victim to compensate for his or her troubles. Most tort laws are found in regional, state, and national civil codes.
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