Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011


НазваниеУчебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011
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^ 8. Look at the pictures. What adaptations do these fishes have? Why?




Working with texts

^ 9. Read and translate the text.

Text 1

FISH

Fishes have been in existence for more than 450,000,000 years, during which time they have evolved to fit into almost every type of aquatic habitat. In a sense, land vertebrates are simply highly modified fishes, for when fishes colonized the land habitat they became tetrapod (four-legged) land vertebrates.

A variety of cold-blooded vertebrate animals (phylum Chordata) can be found in the fresh and salt waters of the world. Living species range from the primitive, jawless lampreys and hagfishes to the abundant and diverse bony fishes.

The term fish is applied to a variety of vertebrates of several evolutionary lines. It describes a life-form rather than a taxonomic group. As members of the phylum Chordata, fish share certain features with other vertebrates. These features are gill slits at some point in the life cycle, a notochord, or skeletal supporting rod, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, and a tail. Living fishes represent some classes, which are distinct from one another. For example, the jawless fishes (Agnatha) are the only fishes that have a filter-feeding mouth, a feature that makes them dependent on an essentially parasitic way of life. Sharks, skates, and rays are examples of cartilaginous fishes. The bony fishes are by far the largest class. Examples range from the tiny sea horse to the 450-kilogram (1,000-pound) blue marlin, from the flat soles and flounders to the boxy puffers and sunfishes. Unlike those of the cartilaginous fishes, the scales of bony fishes, when present, grow throughout life and are made up of thin, overlapping plates of bone. Bony fishes also have an operculum that covers the gill slits.

The study of fishes, the science of ichthyology, is of broad importance. Fishes are of interest to humans for many reasons, the most important being their relationship with and dependence on the environment. A more obvious reason for interest in fishes is their role as a moderate but important part of the world's food supply. This resource, once thought unlimited, is now realized to be finite and in delicate balance with the biological, chemical, and physical factors of the aquatic environment. Overfishing, pollution, and alteration of the environment are the chief enemies of proper fisheries management, both in fresh waters and in the ocean.

Another practical reason for studying fishes is their use in disease control. As predators on mosquito larvae, they help curb malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. Fishes are valuable laboratory animals in many aspects of medical and biological research. For example, the readiness of many fishes to acclimate to captivity has allowed biologists to study behaviour, physiology, and even ecology under relatively natural conditions. Fishes have been especially important in the study of animal behaviour, where research on fishes has provided a broad base for the understanding of the more flexible behaviour of the higher vertebrates.

There are aesthetic and recreational reasons for an interest in fishes. Millions of people keep live fishes in home aquariums for the simple pleasure of observing the beauty and behaviour of animals otherwise unfamiliar to them. To many, aquarium fishes provide a personal challenge, allowing them to test their ability to keep a small section of the natural environment in their homes. Sportfishing is another way of enjoying the natural environment, also indulged in by millions of people every year. Interest in aquarium fishes and sportfishing support multimillion-dollar industries throughout the world.
^ 10. Answer these questions to Text 1.

1. Define fish as a living organism.

2. What classes do you know?

3. How do they breathe?

4. How do they reproduce?

5. What do you know about the feeding habits of fish?

6. Why do fish so important for humans?
^ 11. Read the texts using your dictionary.

Retell one of the texts.

Text 2

Flying fish

Flying fish can be seen jumping out of warm ocean waters worldwide. Their streamlined torpedo shape helps them gather enough underwater speed to break the surface, and their large, wing-like pectoral fins get them airborne.

Flying fish are thought to have evolved this remarkable gliding ability to escape predators, of which they have many. Their pursuers include mackerel, tuna, swordfish, marlin, and other larger fish. For their sustenance, flying fish feed on a variety of foods, including plankton.

There are about 40 known species of flying fish. Beyond their useful pectoral fins, all have unevenly forked tails, with the lower lobe longer than the upper lobe. Many species have enlarged pelvic fins as well and are known as four-winged flying fish.

The process of taking flight, or gliding, begins by gaining great velocity underwater, about 37 miles (60 kilometers) per hour. Angling upward, the four-winged flying fish breaks the surface and begins to taxi by rapidly beating its tail while it is still beneath the surface. It then takes to the air, sometimes reaching heights over 4 feet (1.2 meters) and gliding long distances, up to 655 feet (200 meters). Once it nears the surface again, it can flap its tail and taxi without fully returning to the water. Capable of continuing its flight in such a manner, flying fish have been recorded stretching out their flights with consecutive glides spanning distances up to 1,312 feet (400 meters).

Flying fish are attracted to light, like a number of sea creatures, and fishermen take advantage of this with substantial results. Canoes, filled with enough water to sustain fish, but not enough to allow them to propel themselves out, are affixed with a luring light at night to capture flying fish by the dozens. There is currently no protection status on these animals.
^ Text 3

White shark

The large and extremely aggressive white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, is considered by most experts to be the most dangerous shark in the world. Although the total number of attacks by white sharks on swimmers, surfers, and boats is higher than that by other sharks, the rate of attack is relatively low, certainly much lower than other fatalities on the sea such as drowning.

White sharks are large, reaching a size of at least 6 meters and perhaps as much as 8 meters in length. Large individuals may weigh as much as 2,180 kilograms. The mouth is large and located on the undersurface of the head. Large gill slits, of which there are five on each side of the head, extend onto the upper surface of the body.

The fearsome teeth of the white shark are particularly notable: large, triangular, and bladelike. These teeth, combined with the shark's powerful jaws, size, and swimming strength and speed, make the white shark a superpredator capable of exploiting a variety of prey. Its diet includes fishes and marine mammals. Young white sharks tend to favor fishes, while mature sharks appear to prefer mammals. Other sharks and invertebrates such as crabs and squid also serve as prey. Less commonly found in the stomachs of captured white sharks are sea turtles and birds such as gulls, and penguins. The remains of sheep, pigs, horses, dogs, and, rarely, humans have been found in their stomachs, as has undigestible garbage.

The white shark usually attacks its prey from behind or below, often with a sudden burst of speed. If necessary, the shark may roll over on its back or twist sideways to attack more effectively.

The white shark, like the other members of the same family, owes much of its strength and endurance to adaptations in its circulatory system that enable it to maintain a body temperature above that of the surrounding water. A series of structures called countercurrent exchangers, located near the gills, forms a thermal barrier that prevents the loss of heat from the body into the surrounding environment. The resultant increased body temperature allows for a more efficient metabolism, enabling these sharks to swim faster and with greater strength and endurance than fish that lack this adaptation.
^ 12. Text for translation into English.

Text 4

Фрагмент из книги Дэвида Эттенборо "Мадагаскарские диковины"

(Д. Эттенборо, Под тропиком Козерога, М., "Наука", 1986, с. 170-171)
Несмотря на то, что большую часть жизни он проводит не в воде, илистый прыгун (mudskipper)- самая настоящая рыба. Его тонкое, усеянное пятнами туловище длиной около пятнадцати сантиметров, увенчано непропорционально крупной головой. Глаза расположены на макушке, а огромный рот - квадратный: он напоминает удивленного миниатюрного гиппопотама. Передние плавники рыбы трансформировались в конечности, с помощью которых она выбирается из воды. Илистый прыгун закрепляется на суше, где проводит основную часть времени, присасываясь к ней второй парой брюшных плавников. Дышит он через влажную кожу, абсорбируя кислород примерно таким же образом, что и лягушка. Если кожа у прыгуна полностью высыхает, он, как и лягушка, начинает задыхаться. По этой причине он не отваживается удаляться от воды больше чем на несколько метров, чтобы в случае опасности тут же нырнуть в нее.

Я наблюдал илистых прыгунов во многих частях света - в Западной Африке, Северной Австралии, в Индонезии - и всегда отмечал, что они ведут себя в полном соответствии со своим. именем, то есть прыгают в иле. И только здесь я увидел, как они взбираются на скалы. Мне было, конечно, известно, что они выбираются из воды в поисках пищи - прыгуны едят мелких ракообразных и насекомых, но никогда не доводилось мне видеть, как они это делают. И вот, наконец, мы стали свидетелями этого любопытного процесса.

Вокруг большой заводи сидело десятка полтора илистых прыгунов. Как только мы подошли, они спрыгнули с подножия скалы в воду. И спрятались за камнями на дне. Вскоре на поверхности одна за другой стали появляться головы. Рыбы застывали на мгновение, а затем выпрыгивали на привычные места на скалах.

Удивительная способность вылезать из воды появилась у илистых прыгунов не так давно; дело в том, что эти рыбы принадлежат к эволюционной группе, развившейся в сравнительно недавнем геологическом периоде. Превращение плавников в подобие конечностей было этапом пути, пройденным древнейшими рыбами миллионы лет назад. Постепенно они обретали способность дышать воздухом и ходить по земле; их потомки уже меньше зависели от воды, возвращаясь туда только для размножения. Они стали первыми земноводными и первыми позвоночными, заселившими сушу. Именно от них произошли рептилии, птицы, млекопитающие и в конечном счете сам человек.

Speaking and writing.

^ 13.Make a report about any fish you find interesting and unusual. Write a plan first and do not forget to mention fish`s

appearance

habitat

feeding habits

way of reproduction.
14.Choose any of the following ideas (or propose your own), find information and write an essay (150 - 250 words).
Shark`s family tree.

How many fishes are there?

Do sharks really threaten people?

Sharks and Dolphins.

Fish – Importance to Human.

“ Eating fish is good for the brain”. Comment on this statement.
Unit 6

Тема урока: Birds

текст 1 Birds

текст 2 Eagle

текст 3 Пингвины


Words



chamber

n. a cavity in a plant, animal body, or organ



keen

adj. sharp or penetrating



feather

n. one of the light soft things that cover a bird's body



down

n. the soft fine feathers of a bird



shell

n. the hard outer part that covers and protects an egg, nut, or seed



vocalization

n. the musical vocalizations of a bird or birds, typically uttered by a male songbird in characteristic bursts or phrases for territorial purposes



nestling

n. a bird that is too young to leave its nest, a baby bird



chick

n. a young bird, especially one newly hatched



rely (on )

v. to trust or depend on someone or something to do what you need or expect them to do



extinct

adj. an extinct type of animal or plant does not exist any more



fossil

n. an animal or plant that lived many thousands of years ago and that has been preserved, or the shape of one of these animals or plants that has been preserved in rock



radiation

n. a form of energy that comes especially from nuclear reactions, which in large amounts is very harmful to living things



paddle

n. a short pole that is wide and flat at the end, used for moving a small boat in water



perch

n. a branch or stick where a bird sits



innate

adj. an innate quality or ability is something you are born with, inborn



vital

adj. extremely important and necessary for something to succeed or exist, crucial



insulation

n. the action of insulating something or someone



consequent

adj. happening as a result of a particular event or situation



forage

n. food supplies for horses and cattle



preen

v. (of a bird) to tidy and clean its feathers with its beak



brood

n. a family of birds or other young animals produced at one hatching or birth



flock

n. a group of sheep, goats, or birds



beg

v. to ask for something in an anxious or urgent way, because you want it very much



elaborate

v. to give more details or new information about something



scrape

v. to remove something from a surface using the edge of a knife, a stick etc



decay

n. the natural chemical change that causes the slow destruction of something



line

v. to cover the inside surface of (a container or garment) with a layer of different material



bill

n. a bird's horny projecting jaws, a beak



woven

adj. made by interlacing items such as cane, stems, flowers, or leaves



diurnal

adj. happening or active in the daytime



conspicuous

adj. clearly visible


^ What birds are these?

grouse




stork




owl




lark




nightingale




hummingbird




robin




hawk




raven




ostrich




eagle




pigeon




crown




sparrow





Working with words

^ 1.Word building.

noun

verb

adjective




to rely










extinct

response










to care







to vary




use, usage










to radiate





2.Match an animal to a suitable group name.

bird

school

fish

pack

lion

herd

person

swarm

bee

crowd

wolf

pride

deer

flock

^ 3.Match a word in A to its definition in B.

A




B




1

to hatch

a

to allow someone to do something

2

warn off

b

quality or ability you have from your birthtime

3

decay

c

to tell someone they must stop doing smth

4

innate

d

a structure that birds make to keep their eggs and young in

5

down

e

The gradual destruction as a result of a natural process

6

to permit

f

to come out of an egg

7

nest

g

the small soft feathers of a bird


^ 4. Look at the picture and label parts of the bird.

Beak, breast, feathers, leg, wing, tail, cheek, moustache, thigh, feet, throat, rump.



5.Choose the correct word to complete the sentences.

insulated enormous rainforests radiate mates vessels bill

The toco toucan (Ramphastos toco), which hangs out in the canopies of tropical ................... in South America, sports the largest ....................l relative to body size of any bird, making up about one-third of the toucan's body length of about 64 cm.

Researchers have puzzled for centuries over the bill's possible purpose, suggesting it might be used to attract ...................... or to get fruit. The new study doesn't solve the case of the ........................... bill, but the results suggest one possible function — to regulate body temperature. The toucan bill is giant, meaning it has a large surface area over which to ..................... heat; it's not ......................... with feathers or other heat-trapping material; and it is equipped with a network of blood ............................ for dumping or absorbing heat.

Working with word combinations and sentences

^ 6.Give English equivalents to the following word combinations.

Четырехкамерное сердце, измененные передние конечности, острое зрение, яйца покрытые скорлупой, обоняние, диапазон слуха, вымерший вид, ископаемые останки, неограниченной распространение, значительные различия, способность летать, врожденное поведение, уход за перьями, различимый звук, тревожные нотки, немузыкальные звуки, тщательно разработанный ритуал ухаживания, щелканье клювом, разлагающаяся растительность.

^ 7.Match a title and a paragraph.

Characteristics of living organisms

Аll living organisms, whether they are single-celled, many-celled, plants or animals, do the following things:


They may take in solid food as animals do, or digest it first and absorb it later like fungi do, or build it up for themselves like plants do.

respire

They take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases takes place between the organism and the air or between the organism and water. The oxygen is used for respiration.

reproduce

They break down food to obtain energy. Most organ­isms need oxygen for this.

grow

Respiration and other chemical changes in the cells produce waste products such as carbon dioxide. Living organisms expel these substances from their bodies in various ways.

feed

Bacteria and single-celled creatures increase in size. Many-celled organisms increase the numbers of cells in their bodies, become more complicated and change their shape as well as increasing in size.

breathe

Single-celled organisms and bacteria may simply keep dividing into two. Many-celled plants and animals may reproduce sexually or asexually.

respond

The whole animal or parts of plants respond to stimuli.

move

Most single-celled creatures and animals move about as a whole. Fungi and plants may make movements with parts of their bodies.

excrete

^ 8. Read and translate the text.

Text 1

Birds

A

warm-blooded vertebrate of the class Aves, unique in having feathers, the one major characteristic that distinguishes them from all other animals. Birds have a four-chambered heart , forelimbs modified into wings, a calcareous-shelled egg, and keen vision, the major sense they rely on for information about the environment. Their sense of smell is not highly developed, and auditory range is limited. Most birds are diurnal in habit. There are approximately 8,700 living species, and more than 1,000 extinct species have been identified from fossil remains.The ability to fly has permitted an almost unlimited radiation of birds, so that they are now found virtually everywhere on earth.

B

There are considerable differences in flying ability among various birds. Penguins cannot fly but spend much of their time in the water swimming with their paddlelike wings; such birds as ostriches and kiwis have rudimentary wings and are permanently afoot. At the other extreme are the long-winged swiftsand frigate birds that move from their perches only to fly, never to walk. Most birds alternate some walking or swimming with their flying.

C

Birds depend to a great extent on innate behaviour, responding automatically to specific visual or auditory stimuli. Even much of their feeding and reproductive behaviour is stereotyped. Feather care is vital to keep the wings and tail in condition for flying and the rest of the feathers in place where they can act as insulation. Consequently preening, oiling, shaking, and stretching movements are well developed and regularly used.

D

Auditory signals, like visual ones, are almost universal among birds. The most familiar vocalization of birds is that usually referred to as “song.” It is a conspicuous sound that is used, especially early in the breeding season, to attract a mate, to warn off another bird of the same sex, or both. As such it is usually associated with establishing and maintaining territories. Individual variation in songs of many species is well known, and it is believed that some birds can recognize their mates and neighbours by this variation. Many other types of vocalizations are also known. Pairs or flocks may be kept together by series of soft location notes. Alarm notes alert other individuals to the presence of danger; in fact, the American robin (and probably many other species) uses one note when it sees a hawk overhead and another when it sees a predator on the ground. Begging calls are important in stimulating parents to feed their young . Other calls are associated with aggressive situations, courtship, and mating. Nonvocal sounds are not uncommon. Some snipe and hummingbirds have narrow tail feathers that produce loud sounds when the birds are in flight. The elaborate courtship displays of grouse include vocalizations as well as stamping of the feet and noises made with the wings. Bill clapping is a common part of courtship in storks.

E

Most birds build nests in which the eggs are laid. Nests vary widely: they may be a scrape in the sand, a deep burrow, a hole in a tree or rock, an open cup, or an elaborately woven hanging structure. The materials with which nests are made also vary widely. Some nests are lined with small stones, others are built of dirt or mud with or without plant material. Sticks, leaves, algae, rootlets, and other plant fibres are used alone or in combination. Some birds seek out animal materials such as feathers, horsehair, or snakeskin.

F

All birds incubate their eggs, except megapodes, which depend on the heat generated by decaying vegetation or other external sources, and brood parasites, which lay their eggs in the nests of other species.

Incubation takes from 11 to 80 days, depending at least in part on the size of the bird and the degree of development at hatching. Most songbirds and members of some other groups are hatched nearly naked and helpless (altricial) and are brooded until well able to regulate their body temperature. They are fed by the parents until after they are capable of flight. The young of numerous other birds, such as chickens, ducks, and shorebirds, are hatched with a heavy coat of down and are capable of foraging for themselves almost immediately (precocial)

^ 9. Match a title and a paragraph.

1

Behaviour




2

About a species




3

Auditory signals




4

Incubation and brooding




5

Nest building




6

Locomotion




10. Answer the questions to Text 1.

1. Give the definition of species.

2. How do they move?

3. What can you tell about birds` behaviour?

4. What kinds of calls do birds use?

5. What are the nests made of?

6. What do you know about incubation and brooding?

^ 11. Read the texts using your dictionary.

Retell one of the texts.

Text 2

Eagle

Because of the eagle's majestic appearance and power of flight, it has been called the “king of birds.” Since ancient times it has been a symbol of strength and courage. The Sumerians chose the “spread eagle” as their emblem of power 5,000 years ago. So did imperial Rome many centuries later.

The American bald eagle was chosen by Congress in 1782 as the emblem of the United States. On the national seal the bird is shown with its wings spread, holding an olive branch in one claw and arrows in the other. On coins, military insignia, and other devices, the eagle appears in a variety of postures.

Only two species of eagles are found in North America—the bald and the golden. The more common bald eagle has white tail feathers and white plumes on the head and neck. Early colonists, used to the gray sea eagle of Europe, called these birds “bald-headed.” (Bald originally meant “white.”) The female is fiercer than the male and is several inches larger. A sea eagle, the bald eagle migrates only if the body of water that it normally fishes freezes. It returns each year to the same nest, called an aerie, with the same mate. The golden eagle, a magnificent bird, is more common in the Old World than in the New, but it is found in the western part of North America from Mexico to Alaska. It is somewhat larger than the bald eagle, and its plumage is darker except for tawny feathers on its head and neck that shimmer like gold. The bald eagle has bare “ankles,” whereas the legs of the golden eagle are feathered to the toes. The golden eagle builds its huge nest on a high mountain crag.

Eagles are birds of prey, related to vultures, hawks, and falcons .

All eagles are renowned for their excellent eyesight, and the bald eagle is no exception. They have two foveae or centers of focus, that allow the birds to see both forward and to the side at the same time. Bald eagles are capable of seeing fish in the water from several hundred feet above, while soaring, gliding or in flapping flight. This is quite an extraordinary feat, since most fish are counter-shaded, meaning they are darker on top and thus harder to see from above. Fishermen can confirm how difficult it is to see a fish just beneath the surface of the water from only a short distance away.

Young bald eagles have been known to make mistakes, such as attacking objects like plastic bottles floating on or just below the surface of the water. Bald eagles will locate and catch dead fish much more rapidly and efficiently than live fish, because dead fish float with their light underside up, making them easier to see.

Eagles have eyelids that close during sleep. For blinking, they also have an inner eyelid called a nictitating membrane. Every three or four seconds, the nictitating membrane slides across the eye from front to back, wiping dirt and dust from the cornea. Because the membrane is translucent, the eagle can see even while it is over the eye.

Eagles, like all birds, have color vision. An eagle's eye is almost as large as a human's, but its sharpness is at least four times that of a person with perfect vision. The eagle can probably identify a rabbit moving almost a mile away. That means that an eagle flying at an altitude of 1000 feet over open country could spot prey over an area of almost 3 square miles from a fixed position.

Eagles are not distinguished for their hearing, but this does not mean that they have poor hearing. Diurnal birds of prey like hawks and eagles use their hearing to locate prey or other birds, but the sharpness is not as essential as in some owls, which can locate prey in the dark only by their sound.
^ 12. Text for translation into English.

Text 3

Пингвины

Пингвины - вид бескрылых, водоплавающих птиц, которые живут в естественной среде только в землях южного полушария. Большинство пингвинов проводит приблизительно половину своей жизни в океане, а другую половину на суше. Как правило, большинство разновидностей пингвинов обитают в Антарктиде и в некоторых других самых холодных областях полушария. Некоторые немногочисленные виды могут выжить в умеренных и даже тропических широтах.

Вообще пингвины созданы для жизни в море. Некоторые разновидности тратят целых 75 % своей жизни в воде, на сушу они выбираются только для того, чтобы отложить яйца и дождаться потомства. Тяжелые, твердые кости действуют в воде как тяжелый пояс водолаза, позволяя пингвинам оставаться под водой. Их крылья, сформированные как плавники, помогают им "управлять" движением под водой на скоростях до 15 миль в час. Обтекаемое тело, подобные веслу ноги, изолирующий слой жира и водонепроницаемые перья – все служит их эффективному и комфортному пребыванию под водой. У них также есть замечательная способность глубоко нырять.

В дополнении, чтобы не терять тепло, пингвины имеют жесткие, очень компактно расположенные перья (до 70 в кв. см), обеспечивающие гидроизоляцию. Они покрывают свои перья жиром из железы около хвоста, чтобы увеличить водонепроницаемость. Черно-белая расцветка делает их почти невидимыми для хищников .

Пингвины, как полагают ученые, являются самыми социальными птицами. Колонии могут содержать тысячи особей. Даже в море они имеют тенденцию плавать и питаться группами.

Большинство разновидностей пингвинов строит гнезда, но гнезда могут состоять только из груды камней или пустот в грязи. Императорские пингвины не строят гнезд; они сохраняют яйцо между ног под складкой кожи, называемым карманом для выводка (pouch).

Императорский пингвин достигает роста до 1,3 м и весит до 45 кг. Это самый крупный из всех современных пингвинов.

Для того, чтобы согреться, императорские пингвины собираются в плотные группы, внутри которых температура может достигать +35 градусов при температуре окружающего воздуха —20 °С. При этом пингвины постоянно перемещаются от края группы в центр и обратно, чтобы все находились в равных условиях.

Около двух месяцев в году императорские пингвины проводят в море, остальное время уходит на продолжение рода.

Императорские пингвины начинают размножаться в мае-июне, когда в местах их обитания температура опускается ниже −50 °C, а ветер дует со скоростью до 200 км/ч. Самка откладывает единственное яйцо на лапы и накрывает его сверху кожной складкой. Через некоторое время заботы о яйце берёт на себя самец. Пока самец насиживает яйцо, самка в это время путешествует в открытом море в поисках пищи. Спустя два месяца самки возвращаются с кормёжки и одновременно с этим из яиц появляются птенцы. В возрасте пяти недель птенцы императорских пингвинов уже не помещаются в наседной сумке и уходят в так называемые «детские сады», где проводят время, плотно прижавшись друг к другу. Взрослые пингвины охраняют их от нападений хищников
Speaking and writing

^ 13.Make a report about any bird you find interesting and unusual. Write a plan first and do not forget to mention bird`s

appearance

habitat

feeding habits

way of reproduction.
14.Choose any of the following ideas (or propose your own), find information and write an essay (150 - 250 words).

Ancestors of birds

Best singers

Importance to Human

Extinct and endangered species

Birds as symbols in human history.

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