Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011


НазваниеУчебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011
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Unit 7


^ Тема урока: Mammals

текст 1 Mammals

текст 2 Rodents

текст 3 Dolphins

текст 4 Многообразие млекопитающих


Words



nourish

v. to provide with the food or other substances necessary for growth, health, and good condition



hinge

v. to attach something, using a hinge - hinged



skull

n. a bone framework enclosing the brain of a vertebrate; the skeleton of a person's or animal's head



cavity

n. a cavity is a space or hole in something such as a solid object or a person's or animal’s body



persist

v. to continue to do something, although this is difficult, or other people oppose it



womb

n. the organ in the lower body of a woman or female mammal where offspring are conceived and in which they gestate before birth



versatile

v. able to adapt or be adapted to many different functions or activities

(n. versatility)



arid

adj. (of land or a climate) having little or no rain; too dry or barren to support vegetation

(n. aridity)



lineage

n. direct descent from an ancestor; ancestry or pedigree



assess

v. to evaluate or estimate the nature, ability, or quality of



precise

adj. marked by exactness and accuracy of expression or detail



domesticate

v. to tame an animal and keep it as a pet or on a farm



strain

n. a) a particular breed, stock, or variety of an animal or plant b) a natural or cultured variety of a micro-organism with a distinct form, biochemistry, or virulence



captive

n. an animal that has been confined



pelt

n. the skin of a dead animal, especially with the fur or hair still on it



ivory

n. a hard creamy-white substance composing the main part of the tusks of an elephant, walrus, or narwhal, often used to make ornaments and other articles



livestock

n. animals such as cows and sheep that are kept on a farm



deplore

v. to disapprove of something very strongly and criticize it severely, especially publicly



impact

n. the effect or influence that an event, situation etc has on someone or something



afflict

v. (of a problem or illness) to cause pain or trouble to, to affect adversely



fever

n. an abnormally high body temperature, usually accompanied by shivering, headache, and in severe instances, delirium



rabies

n. a very dangerous disease that affects dogs and other animals, and that you can catch if you are bitten by an infected animal



offend

v. to make someone angry or upset by doing or saying something that they think is rude, unkind etc



span

n. the length of time for which a person or animal lives or a thing functions



swamp

n. an area of low-lying, uncultivated ground where water collects, a bog or marsh



attain

v. to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time



store

v. to keep or accumulate something for future use



contaminate

v. to make something impure by exposure to or addition of a poisonous or polluting substance



requirement

n. a thing that is needed or wanted



gestation

n. the process or period of developing inside the womb between conception and birth



prolific

adj. (of a plant, animal, or person) producing much fruit or foliage or many offspring



possess

v. to have as an ability, quality, or characteristic



nomadic

n. a member of a tribe that travels from place to place instead of living in one place all the time, usually in order to find grass for their animals



vector

n. an organism, typically a biting insect or tick, that transmits a disease or parasite from one animal or plant to another



dormant

adj. (of an animal) having normal physical functions suspended or slowed down for a period of time, in or as if in a deep sleep (noun dormancy)



litter

n. a number of young animals born to an animal at one time



inconvenience

n. the state or fact of being troublesome or difficult with regard to one's personal requirements or comfort



insulate

v. to protect (someone or something) from unpleasant influences or experiences



fur

n. the short, fine, soft hair of certain animals



handle

v. to manage (a situation or problem)


Make sure you know these words

1.

monotreme




2.

ungulate (hoofed)




3.

viviparous




4.

marsupial




5.

whale




6.

rodent




7.

plague




What animals are these?

platypus




ally




ape




armadillo




hedgehog




gerbil




porcupine




beaver




squirrel




marmot




hamster




guinea pig




chipmunk




hare




gopher




^ What other animals do you know? Name as many as you can.
Working with words

1. Word building.

noun

verb

adjective




offend










domestic

remark













beneficial




to require




evolution










to except










possessive


^ 2. Match an abbreviation in A to a phrase in B.

A

B

i.e.

for example (Latin: exempli gratia)

NB

that is to say (Latin: id est )

etc.

as soon as possible

e.g.

please note (Latin: nota bene)

asap

and so on (Latin: et cetera)

RSVP

please reply (French: respondez s`il vous plait)


^ 3. Write another word with a similar meaning.

huge




remarkable




estimate




possess




extinct




impact




requirement




prolific




offspring




lack





^ 4. Define the following words.

1

nourish




2

exploit




3

strain




4

domesticate




5

livestock




6

impact




7

herd




8

aridity




^ 5. Draw a human and label parts of a human body.

Thumb, finger, palm, wrist, hand, arm, elbow, shoulder, neck, chest\breast, back, stomach, waist, hip, thigh, leg, knee, calf, shin, ankle, foot, heel, toe, sole.
6. Choose the correct word to complete the sentences.

range crops fur diversity vectors research shape extensive jaw fever layers

Despite their great species ....................., all rodents share common features. Rodents have a single pair of incisors in each ...................., and the incisors grow continually throughout life. The incisors have thick enamel ...................... on the front but not on the back; this causes them to retain their chisel .................... as they are worn down. Rodents show a wide .................... of lifestyles, ranging from solitary organisms such as porcupines to highly social organisms living in .................... colonies, such as prairie dogs and naked mole rats.

Rodents cost billions of dollars in lost .................... each year, and some are ................ of human diseases such as plague, typhus, and Hanta ..................... However, various rodent species are economically important as sources of food or .................. in many parts of the world, and others are used extensively in biomedical ....................

^ 7. Separate parts of an animal from bear`s food.

Ants, incisors, bees, fur, liver, seeds of trees, spine, roots of the skunk cabbage, skin, nuts, berries, insect larvae, paws, grubs, canines, honey, rodents, claws, fish, deer, pigs, sole, lambs, digestive system, salmon, fat.

parts of a mammal

food








Working with word combinations and sentences

^ 8. Give English equivalents to the following word combinations.

Вскармливать молоком, уникальные черты, нижняя челюсть, проводить звуковые волны, брюшная полость, дуга аорты, относительно продвинутая степень развития, менее сложная форма, чрезмерная жара, многосторонность в использовании, жестокий холод, наиболее многочисленный, одомашненные млекопитающие, попытка оценить, точные термины, постоянно растущее население, причинить существенный вред, стада домашних животных, мелководная бухта.

^ 9. If someone behaves A people say they are B.

A B

malicious tongued

sheepish

dull, uninteresting

cocky

awkwardly self-conscious

mousy

bad-tampered

dogged

stubborn

ratty

arrogant

catty\bitchy

^ 10. Translate from Russian into English.

Семейство ХОМЯКОВЫЕ (Cricetidae)

Семейство хомяковых самое большое и смешанное. В семейство объединяют более 580 видов и около 100 родов. Размеры этих животных колеблются от очень мелких до средних: длина тела от —6 до 35—50 см, масса от 7—8 г до 3 кг. Хвост — от едва заметного до превышающего длину тела. Он покрыт или роговыми чешуйками с примесью редких волос, или волосами разной густоты и длины, иногда с кисточкой на конце. Ноги либо нормального «бегающего» (наземного) типа, либо приспособленные к передвижению прыжками, либо к рытью земли (лапы с мощными когтями), либо к плаванию (перепонки между пальцами).
Working with texts

^ 11. Read and translate the text.

Text 1

Mammals

A

Mammal - any member of the class Mammalia, a group of vertebrate animals in which the young are nourished with milk from special secreting glands of the mother. In addition to these characteristic glands, mammals are distinguished by several other unique features. Hair is a typical mammalian feature. The mammalian lower jaw is hinged directly to the skull, instead of through a separate bone as in all other vertebrates. A chain of three tiny bones transmits sound waves across the middle ear. A muscular diaphragm separates the heart and the lungs from the abdominal cavity. Only the left aortic arch of the primitive pair persists (in birds the right arch persists; in reptiles, amphibians, and fishes both arches are retained). Mature red blood cells in all mammals lack a nucleus; all other vertebrates have nucleated red blood cells.

B

Except for the monotremes (echidnas and duck-billed platypuses), which lay eggs, all mammals are viviparous (i.e. bear live young). In the placental mammals (including humans) the young are carried within the mother's womb, reaching a relatively advanced stage of development before being born. In the marsupials (kangaroos, opossums, and allies) the newborn, incompletely developed at birth, continue to develop outside the womb, attaching themselves to the female's body in the area of her mammary glands.

The class Mammalia is worldwide in distribution. It has been said that mammals have a wider distribution and are more adaptable than any other single class of animals, with the exception of certain less complex forms such as the arachnids and insects. This versatility in exploiting the Earth is attributed in large part to the ability of mammals to regulate their body temperatures and internal environment both in excessive heat and aridity and in severe cold.

C

The evolution of the Mammalia has produced tremendous diversity in form and habits. Living kinds range in size from a bat weighing less than a gram, to the largest animal that has ever lived, the blue whale, which reaches a length of more than 30 meters and a weight of 136,000kilograms . Every major habitat has been invaded by mammals that swim, fly, run, burrow, glide, or climb.

There are approximately 4,625 species of living mammals, arranged in about 125 families and 24 orders. The rodents (order Rodentia) are the most numerous of existing mammals, both in number of species and number of individuals, and are one of the most diverse of living lineages.

D

Wild and domesticated mammals are so interlocked with our political and social history that it is impractical to attempt to assess the relationship in precise economic terms. Throughout our own evolution, for example, humans have been dependent on other mammals for food and clothing. Domestication of mammals helped to provide a source of protein for ever-increasing human populations and provided means of transportation and heavy work as well. Today, domesticated strains of the house mouse, European rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil and other species provide much-needed laboratory subjects for the study of human-related physiology, psychology, and a variety of diseases from dental caries to cancer. The study of nonhuman primates (monkeys and apes) has opened broad, new areas of research relevant to human welfare. The care of domestic and captive mammals is, of course, the basis for the practice of veterinary medicine.

E

Wild mammals are a major source of food in some parts of the world, and many different kinds (from fruit bats and armadillos to whales) regularly are captured and eaten. In addition, hunting, primarily for sport, of various rodents, lagomorphs, carnivores, and ungulates is a multibillion-dollar enterprise. In the United States alone, for example, it is estimated that more than 2,000,000 deer are harvested annually by licensed hunters.
Aside from pelts and meat, special parts of some mammals regularly have been sought for their special attributes. The horns of rhinoceroses are used in the Orient; ivory from elephants and walruses is highly prized; and ambergris, a substance regurgitated by sperm whales, was once widely used as a base for perfumes.

F

Some mammals are directly detrimental to human activities. Murid rodents (house rats and mice of Old World origin) now occur virtually throughout the world and each year cause substantial damage and economic loss. Herbivorous mammals may eat or trample crops and compete with livestock for food, and native carnivores sometimes prey on domestic herds. Large sums are spent annually to control populations of “undesirable” wild mammals, a practice long deplored by conservationists. In addition to their impact on food resources, mammals are important reservoirs or agents of transmission of a variety of diseases that afflict man, such as plague, tularemia, yellow fever, rabies, leptospirosis, hemorrhagic fever, Lyme disease, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The annual “economic debt” resulting from mammal-borne diseases that affect humans and domestic animals is incalculable.

G

Many large mammals have been extinct entirely or exist today only in parks and zoos; others are in danger of extinction. Perhaps at least some can be saved. One of the most noteworthy cases of direct man interference is the Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas). These large (up to 12 meters, or 40 feet, long), inoffensive, marine mammals evidently lived in Recent times only along the coasts and shallow bays of the Commander Islands in the Bering Sea. Discovered in 1741, they were easily killed by Russian sealers and traders for food, their meat being highly prized, and the last known live individual was taken in 1768.
^ 12. Find key sentences in each paragraph.

13. Write a title to each paragraph.

A




B




C




D




E




F




G




^ 14. Answer the questions to Text 1.

1. Give general definition of a mammal.

2. What is the smallest and the biggest animal in the group?

3. Enumerate unique mammalian features.

4. In what habitats can mammals live?

5. What can you tell about their feeding habits?

6. Why are mammals so important to human?

^ 15. Read the texts using your dictionary.

Retell one of the texts.

Text 2

Rodents

Rodents - any of more than 2,050 living species of mammals characterized by upper and lower pairs of ever-growing rootless incisor teeth. Rodents are the largest group of mammals, constituting almost half of the class Mammalia. They are indigenous to every land area except Antarctica, New Zealand, and a few Arctic and other oceanic islands, although some species have been introduced even to those places through their association with humans. This huge order of animals contains 27 separate families, including not only the “true” rats and mice (family Muridae) but also such diverse groups as porcupines, beavers, squirrels, marmots, pocket gophers, and chinchillas.

All rodents possess constantly growing rootless incisors that have a hard enamel layer on the front of each tooth and softer dentine behind. The differential wear from gnawing creates perpetually sharp chisel edges.

The range in body size between the mouse (18 grams, body 12 cm long) and the marmot (3,000 grams, body 50 cm long) spans the majority of living rodents.

Rodents have lived on the planet for at least 56 million years and modern humans for less than one million, but the consequences of their interactions during that short overlap of evolutionary time have been profound. For rodents, early humans were just another predator to avoid, but with Homo sapiens' transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to agricultural practices, humans became a reliable source of shelter and food for those species having the innate genetic and behavioral abilities to adapt to man-made habitats. The impact of these species upon human populations ranges from inconvenient to deadly.

Crops are damaged before harvest; stored food is contaminated by rodent waste; and objects are damaged by gnawing. Certain species are reservoirs for diseases such as plague, typhus, tularemia, etc. Only a few species are serious pests or vectors of disease, but it is these rodents that are most closely associated with people.

Various other rodents are beneficial, providing a source of food through hunting, apparel derived from their fur, test animals for biomedical and genetic research, pleasure as household pets, and insight on mammalian biology and evolutionary history.

Rodents may be diurnal, nocturnal, or sometimes active part of the day and night. Although some species are herbivorous, diets of most include vegetable and animal matter. Others are opportunistic generalists, and some are specialized predators. Food is either eaten where gathered or carried to burrows and stored. Species living in arid habitats and on oceanic islands are able to obtain their water requirements from their food. A wide variety of shelters are used or constructed; these range from tree holes, rock crevices, or simple burrows to hidden nests on the forest floor, leaf and stick structures in tree crowns, mounds of cut vegetation built in aquatic environments, or complex networks of tunnels and galleries. Rodents may be active all year or enter periods of dormancy or deep hibernation. Breeding time and frequency, length of gestation, and litter size vary widely, but two of the most prolific are both associated with humans. The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) can give birth to litters of up to 22 offspring, and the house mouse (Mus musculus) can produce upto 14 litters annually. Population size may remain stable or fluctuate, and some species, most notably lemmings, migrate when populations become excessively large.
Text 3

Dolphins

Dolphins are warm blooded like man, and give birth to one baby called a calf at a time. At birth a bottlenose dolphin calf is about 90-130 cms long and will grow to approximately 4 metres, living up to 40 years. They are highly sociable animals, living in pods which are fairly fluid, with dolphins from other pods interacting with each other from time to time.

Dolphins use their powerful tail flukes in an up and down motion to move through the water. They also use their tails when hunting, hitting a fleeing fish up into the air with their tail, stunning it, then scooping the fish up when it falls back into the water. A dolphin slapping its tail on the water in the wild may be a sign of annoyance, or a warning to other dolphins of danger.

Their teeth are interlocking rows of conical pegs, suitable for holding slippery fish. They eat their fish whole, head first. In the wild an open mouth is a sign of aggression, as is head nodding. A sign of greater aggression is violent jaw clapping.

Dolphins breathe through their blowhole located at the top of their head. A dolphin may empty and refill its lungs in less than a fifth of a second. As the dolphin breathes the air leaves the blowhole at speeds of over 100mph. Complex nerve endings around the blowhole sense pressure changes so the dolphin knows exactly when the blowhole is in or nearing the air and can be opened. Water in a dolphin's blowhole will actually drown it so powerful muscles close the blowhole as it dives under the water again.

The dolphin's eyes produce a special slippery secretion which protects the eyes from foreign objects and water friction. To sleep, a dolphin must shut down only half of its brain, as its breathing is under voluntary control. Dolphins take short cat-naps, floating just below the surface, then slowly rising to breathe. Often dolphins are very active during night time, for some this is their main feeding time.

The dolphin's skin is completely smooth allowing the dolphin to move easily through the water, and also reduce heat loss.

Dolphins are able to dive to great depths, and also leap to great heights. They may leap to avoid predators or to show how powerful they are to females at mating time. Noisy splashing jumps may also be used to herd fish. Bottlenose dolphins can dive to depths of over 500m

Dolphins carry their young inside their womb and gestation is about 12 months for a bottlenose. The baby emerges tail first, and will suckle from its mother for up to 4 years (a calf may stop suckling sooner depending on circumstances).

The baby will however stay with its mother for between 3-6 years, during which time it learns all about feeding techniques, social interaction and group foraging.

Dolphins have defined home ranges, an area in which they will roam and feed. Though dolphins live in small groups called pods, these pods can be quite fluid and dolphins can be interacting with dolphins from other pods from time to time. If another dolphin is drowning, other dolphins will come to it's aid, supporting it with their bodies so it's blowhole is above the water allowing it to breathe.
^ 16. Text for translation into English.

Text 4

Многообразие млекопитающих

Млекопитающие распространены практически по всей Земле; их нет только на Антарктическом континенте, хотя у его побережья известны тюлени и киты. В районе Северного полюса бывают белые медведи, ластоногие, китообразные (нарвалы). Широко распространены млекопитающие и по жизненным средам. Достаточно вспомнить, что наряду с наземными видами, которых большинство, ряд видов в той или иной мере связан с водной средой; многие активно летают по воздуху; кроме того, значительное число зверей обитает в почве, где проходит вся или большая часть их жизни. Ни один класс позвоночных не дал такого разнообразия форм, как млекопитающие. Степень и характер взаимосвязей с жизненными средами различны. Некоторые животные обитают в весьма разнообразной обстановке. Например, обыкновенная лисица распространена в лесах, степях, пустынях и в горных районах.

Естественно, что у таких зверей нет ясно выраженных приспособлений к жизни в какой-либо определенной среде. Наряду с этим специфическая среда обитания определяет многие особенности зверей. Среди млекопитающих - обитателей тропических лесов - выделяются, например, южноамериканские ленивцы, паукообразные обезьяны, некоторые южноазиатские медведи, вся или почти вся жизнь которых проходит в кронах деревьев. Здесь они кормятся, отдыхают и размножаются. В связи с таким образом жизни у видов этой группы развились разнообразные приспособления. Медведи и куницы лазают с помощью острых когтей, лемуры и обезьяны имеют хватательные лапы. У некоторых южноамериканских обезьян и опоссумов развит цепкий хвост.

Размножение млекопитающих, характеризующееся большим разнообразием, имеет все же общие черты: внутреннее оплодотворение, живорождение (за редким и неполным исключением), выкармливание новорожденных молоком, а также устройство большинством видов специальных гнезд для деторождения. В простейшем случае, у однопроходных, настоящего живорождения нет, и самки откладывают яйца. Недоразвитые детеныши сумчатых завершают развитие, будучи прикрепленными к соскам, чаще открывающимся в полость кожистой сумки. Длительность беременности, а в этой связи и развитость новорожденных у разных видов плацентарных зверей существенно отличны. Минимальная длительность беременности характерна для серого хомячка (11—13 дней), максимальная — для индийского слона (более 500 дней).

Приспособления млекопитающих к переживанию неблагоприятных в кормовом и погодном отношении периодов года более разнообразны и совершенны, чем у ниже стоящих классов. К зиме или засушливому лету в организме накапливаются резервные энергетические вещества помогающие пережить тяжелый сезон. У некоторых особей до 25% общей массы тела составляет жир. Сезонные приспособления выражаются и в миграциях. В целом у млекопитающих миграций свойственны относительно меньшему числу видов, чем у птиц и у рыб. В наибольшей мере они развиты у морских зверей, рукокрылых и копытных, в то время как среди видов наиболее многочисленных групп — грызунов, насекомоядных и мелких хищников — их практически нет. Третье сезонное приспособление — это спячка,

или сезонный сон. В этом случае температура тела, число дыхательных движений и общий уровень обменных явлений снижаются мало. При изменении обстановки или при беспокойстве сон легко может быть прерван.

Значение млекопитающих в жизни человеческого общества весьма разнообразно. Итоговая оценка значения ряда видов иногда встречает затруднения, связанные с тем, что один и тот же вид в разной природной и хозяйственной обстановке играет разную роль. Многие виды мелких грызунов вредны для полевых культур. Местами они мешают лесонасаждению. Вместе с тем ими питаются пушные хищники, мех которых представляет большую товарную ценность.

Некоторые млекопитающие, в основном грызуны, имеют существенное эпидемическое значение, так как являются хранителями и передатчиками опасных для человека болезней.

Приручение и одомашнивание млекопитающих, начатое в глубокой древности, продолжается и сейчас, хотя виды зверей находятся на разной степени одомашнивания и приручения. Полностью одомашненными надо считать те виды, которые хорошо . подчиняются человеку и свободно размножаются в неволе. Таковы, например, собака, лошадь, рогатый скот и многие другие. Однако бывает и так, когда указанные два условия не совпадают. Тысячелетия назад были приручены слоны, послушно выполняющие разнообразные работы. Но в неволе слоны практически не размножаются.

Speaking and writing

^ 17.Make a report about any mammal you find interesting and unusual. Write a plan first and do not forget to mention mammal`s

appearance

habitat

feeding habits

way of reproduction.
18.Choose any of the following ideas (or propose your own), find information and write an essay (150-250 words).

Mammalian features

Sense organs

Human as a representative of Class Mammalia

Domestic animals: Selection and importance to Humans.
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