Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011


НазваниеУчебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011
страница13/33
Дата публикации10.03.2013
Размер2.44 Mb.
ТипУчебное пособие
userdocs.ru > Биология > Учебное пособие
1   ...   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   ...   33

Unit 8


^ Тема урока: Invertebrates

текст 1 Invertebrates

текст 2 Jelly Fish

текст 3 Echinoderms

текст 4 Моллюски



Words



captivate

v. to attract and hold the interest and attention of, to charm



unrelated

adj. not related or linked



disguise

v. to change the appearance, sound, taste etc of something so that people do not recognize it



feat

n. an achievement that requires great skill or strength



adhere

v. to stick firmly to something



lump

v. to classify plants or animals in relatively inclusive groups, disregarding minor variations



mash

v. to crush or smash something to a pulp



diminish

v. to make or become less



palp

n. each of a pair of elongated segmented appendages near the mouth of an arthropod, usually concerned with the senses of touch and taste



posterior

adj. further back in position; of or nearer the rear or hind end



constitute

v. combine to form (a whole) or be a part of a whole



merge

v. to combine, or to join things together to form one thing



retractable

adj. able to be shrunk or capable of contracting



reveal

v. to make previously unknown or secret information known to others



hook

n. a curved piece of metal or plastic that you use for hanging things on



saliva

n. watery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion

adj. salivary



contraction

n. the process in which a muscle becomes or is made shorter and tighter



sucker

n. a part of an insect or of an animal's body that it uses to hold on to a surface



backbone

n. the series of vertebrae extending from the skull to the pelvis, the spine



suspension

n. an accumulating in numbers or amount until there is a large quantity in one place



tentacle

n. a slender, flexible limb or appendage in an animal, especially around the mouth of an invertebrate, used for grasping or moving about, or bearing sense organs



conceal

v. not allow to be seen, to hide



trait

n. a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person



expel

v. to force out something, especially from the body



visceral

n. the internal organs in the main cavities of the body, especially those in the abdomen, e.g. the intestines



Make sure you know these words



radula (pl. radulae)






centipede






clam






cuttlefish






flatworm






horsehair worm






horseshoe






jellyfish






millipede






mussel






bivalve






oyster






rotifer






roundworm






snail






spider






sponge






squid






starfish






urchin






Working with words

1.Word building.

noun

verb

adjective

captivity










adhere










flat







related




possess










vital

characteristic







number










recognize






^ 2.Match parts to get compound words.

other

worm

multi

road

back

fish

cuttle

wise

draw

cellular

green

back

flat

house

cross

bone

^ 3.Match a word in A to an antonym in B.

A




B




1

posterior

a

increase

2

diminish

b

indistinctive

3

vital

c

anterior

4

expel

d

excretion

5

distinctive

e

primitive

6

complex

f

retain

7

absorption

g

permeable

8

dense

h

unimportant

^ 4.Label parts of the eye.

Iris, pupil, lens, cornea, retina, optic nerve.
1


5.Choose the correct word to complete the sentences.

To identify pumps ink excretory three chambers feeding surrounded


Squid have …...... hearts. Two branchial hearts, …....... the gills, each surrounding the larger systemic heart that …....... blood around the body. The hearts have a faint greenish appearance and are …........ by the renal sacs – the main …....... system of the squid. The kidneys are faint and difficult …....... and stretch from the hearts (located at the posterior side of the…........ sac) to the liver. The systemic heart is made of three…....... , a lower ventricle and two upper auricles.

Working with word combinations and sentences

^ 6.Give English equivalents to the following word combinations.

Многоклеточное животное, различные сообщества, единственная особенность, отсутствие позвоночника, вымершие формы, пресная вода, образовать тип, отличительные черты, жизненно-важные органы. Большая полость, пищеварительный тракт, внутренности, заключенный в полости, сложный мозг, обладать сильными мышцами, мышцы, предназначенные для сокращения, сильный клюв, слюнные железы, задний отдел, взвесь меланина, замечательное разнообразие, приспособление для маскировки, прямой контакт, прикрепить к телу, захватить добычу, уплощенный кончик, способность менять цвета, многочисленные хроматофоры, плотная группа, участок кожи.
^ 7.Match the beginning and the ending of the sentences.

1

The vampire squid can luminescence for longer than two minutes as a result

a

which is usually followed by an escape response.

2

The arm tip organs can also luminescence by glowing or flashing

b

by the arm tip organs or an undiscovered visceral organ and can glow for up to 9.5 minutes.


3

The third and final form of luminescence are luminescent clouds which appear

c

of the photophores which either glow simultaneously, flash one to three times per second, or pulsate.

4

The particles are thought to be released

d

a mucous matrix with glowing particles in it.


^ 8.Match a part of eye structure to its definition and its context.

part

definition

context

pupil

The light-sensitive membrane that lines the back wall of the eyeball and is composed of several layers, including one containing the rods and cones.


The structure of .................... in the eyes of owls gives these nocturnal birds of prey excellent night vision.


reflection


The elongated cells or elements of the sensory layer of the retina, some of which are cylindrical, others somewhat conical


Our ............ tend to contract in bright light and dilate in the dark.

retina


The circular opening in the center of the pigmented iris of the eye, through which light passes to the retina

As Shakespeare wrote, "The eye sees not itself, But by ...............…."


rods and cones


The phenomenon of light or sound waves being thrown back from a surface; the act of reflecting, or turning or sending back

The ................... receives an image formed by the lens and converts it into chemical and nervous signals that reach the brain by way of the optic nerve.




Working with texts

^ 9.Read and translate the text.

Text 1

Invertebrates

A

Most of the more than one million species of multicellular animals known to exist on Earth are invertebrates, or animals without backbones. A variety of otherwise unrelated groups of animals are lumped together by scientists as invertebrates. The only trait that distinguishes invertebrates from vertebrates, or animals with backbones, is the absence or presence of a backbone.

B

More than two dozen phyla (plural of phylum) of living invertebrates, plus many extinct forms, are recognized. Some of the largest and most important phyla of invertebrates are Sponges; Jellyfishes and sea anemones; Flatworms, Rotifers, horsehair worms, and roundworms; Mollusks (snails, bivalves, squids, and octopuses), Annelida (segmented worms), Arthropoda (horseshoe crabs, spiders, crabs, centipedes, millipedes, and insects), and Echinodermata (starfishes and sea urchins).

C

The large group of animals called mollusks live on land and in both fresh and salt water. They constitute the phylum Mollusca, a major group of animals known to have as many as 100,000 living species and more than 50,000 fossil forms. Most mollusks, including snails, clams, oysters, and mussels, have shells. A major group called the cephalopods, however, including octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish, have shells that are either greatly diminished or absent. One of the most distinctive anatomical features characteristic of mollusks is a true coelom, a body cavity that contains most of the vital organs. The digestive tract, heart, liver, and reproductive organs are all housed inside the coelom. Many of the lower invertebrates, in contrast, have no coelom.

Two other features that are characteristic of the mollusks and absent in most other groups of animals are the visceral mass and the mantle. The visceral mass is the main body of the animal and contains all the vital organs. The name “mollusk”, which is derived from a Latin word meaning “soft,” refers to this large, soft body mass. The mantle is a thick covering of tissue that surrounds the visceral mass and has glands that secrete the shell, if the animal has one. Many of the aquatic mollusks also have another distinctive feature—gills that are enclosed within a cavity formed by the mantle.

D

Cephalopoda is the most morphologically and behaviorally complex class in phylum Mollusca. Cephalopoda means "head foot" and this group has the most complex brain of any invertebrate. Cephalopods are characterized by a completely merged head and foot, with a ring of arms and/or tentacles surrounding the head. The mantle surrounds the visceral sac and possesses strong muscles required for contraction of the cavity and respiration.

All cephalopods are carnivorous. The strong beak is at the entrance to the buccal cavity , on the floor of which lies the radula. There are two pairs of salivary glands , one of which may be poisonous. The digestive tract consists of three parts: esophagus; stomach , which mashes food; and caecum , where most digestion and absorption occur. The posterior portion of the caecum contains a diverticulum that serves as an ink gland, producing a suspension of melanin that can be expelled through the mantle cavity.

Cephalopods are of considerable economic importance to humans. Many species of squid and octopus are edible. Nautilus shells are often used decoratively, and the internal shell of a cuttlefish, or cuttle bone, is sold in the pet trade as a calcium source for birds. Giant cephalopods such as squid and octopuses are also a great source of sea-monster folklore.

Cephalopods are the most intelligent, most mobile, and the largest of all molluscs. Squid, octopuses, cuttlefish, the chambered nautilus, and their relatives display remarkable diversity in size and lifestyle with adaptations for predation, locomotion, disguise, and communication. Today, biologists and paleontologists continue to captivate the human mind and imagination with details of these molluscs' behavior, natural history, and evolution.

E

The structure of cephalopod eye is probably the most sophisticated eye of all invertebrates and is as complex as the vertebrate eye, though the two are not homologous. For their body size, cephalopod eyes are relatively large. They contain an iris, pupil, and lens, but not necessarily a cornea. Octopuses are the only cephalopods with a completely protected "closed" cornea. That means that the eyes of squids and cuttlefish are in direct contact with sea water! The pupil in cephalopods is unique in that its morphology is different in octopuses, cuttlefish, and squid. Octopuses have a slit-shaped rectangular pupil. In cuttlefish it is W-shaped, and in squid it is round.

F

Arms and tentacles are another distinguishing cephalopod characteristic. All cephalopods have arms, but not all cephalopods have tentacles. Octopuses, cuttlefish, and squid have eight non-retractable arms, but only cuttlefish and squid have tentacles (two each). Arms usually have palps, often suckers, and sometimes hooks along their undersides. These can be attached to the arm directly or by a flexible stalk and are used to adhere to substrates and catch prey. Tentacles are longer than arms, are retractable, and usually have a blade-shaped or flattened tip, which is covered in suckers.

G

Cephalopods have an amazing ability to change color very rapidly. They accomplish this feat using numerous pigment-filled bags, called chromatophores. Chromatophores are found in the skin, and expand and contract to reveal or conceal small dots of color. They can be so densely concentrated that 200 may be found in a patch of skin the size of a pencil eraser.
^ 10.Give a title to each paragraph.


A




B




C




D




E




F




G



1   ...   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   ...   33

Похожие:

Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 iconУчебное пособие Якутск, 2011 Министерство образования и науки Российской...
Руководство к лабораторно-практическим занятиям по фармакологии. Лекарст-венные средства, влияющие на периферический отдел нервной...
Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 iconУчебное пособие 032700 «Филология»
История зарубежной литературы Средних веков и эпохи Возрождения. Конспекты лекций: Учебное пособие / Авт сост. Я. В. Погребная. –...
Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 iconУчебное пособие. М.: Из­дательско-торговая корпорация «Дашков и к...
Колесников С. И. Экология: Учебное пособие. — М.: Из­дательско-торговая корпорация «Дашков и К0»; Ростов н/Д: Наука-Пресс, 2007....
Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 iconУчебное пособие для обучающихся в спбгу по направлениям астрономия,...
Составители: д ф м н., проф. Е. К. Колесников, к ф м н., доц. Г. В. Павилайнен, к ф м н., в н с. В. Н. Солнцев, д ф м н., проф. В....
Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 iconУчебное пособие Санкт Петербург 2011 в учебном пособие рассматриваются...
Основы технического обеспечения
Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 iconУчебное пособие по математике Датировано: июнь 2012 Важная информация...
Это учебное пособие создано для подготовки студентов к академическому квалификационному тесту по математике. Ответы прилагаются в...
Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 iconИван IV васильевич Грозный: мифология и духовно-политические аспекты реформ Учебное пособие
Иван IV васильевич Грозный: мифология, духовно-политические и социально-экономические основы реформ. Учебное пособие / гоу впо рхту...
Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 iconУчебное пособие. Таганрог: Изд-во трту
Данное учебное пособие является электронной версией работы
Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 iconУчебное пособие для студентов специальностей «Биология»
М молекулярная генетика. Сборник заданий и тестов: Учебное пособие. Мн.: Бгу, 2003. – 87 с.: ил
Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 iconУчебное пособие Ростов-на-Дону 2009 удк ббк п
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов, преподавателей и аспирантов экономических специальностей
Вы можете разместить ссылку на наш сайт:
Школьные материалы


При копировании материала укажите ссылку © 2020
контакты
userdocs.ru
Главная страница