Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011


НазваниеУчебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011
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^ 11.Answer these questions to Text 1.

1. What phyla of invertebrates do you know?

2. What features distinguish mollusks from other invertebrates?

3. Tell about morphological characteristics of Cephalopods.

4. Describe the structure of Cephalopods.

5. Why and how do they change color?

6. What is the difference between arms and tentacles?

7. Tell about invertebrates` importance to humans.
^ 12. Read the texts using your dictionary.

Retell one of the texts.

Text 2

Jelly Fish

The jellyfish is one of the oldest living creatures in the world. Jellyfish have existed on the face of this planet for over 650 million years. They have existed since before the dinosaurs and have survived long after the dinosaurs and million other species have gone extinct. The Jellyfish is amongst the most fascinating and intimidating creatures of the marine world. Jellyfish are found across all oceans in the world. Jellyfish exist at a wide range of depths and water conditions, from the ocean surface to floor. They look like shapeless blobs when they wash up on the shore, but look extremely graceful and dangerous when they are afloat in water. There are over 2000 species of jellyfish known in the world, with many more species being discovered as man searches the depths of the ocean. Jellyfish are a member the phylum Cnidaria, to which the coral, sea whip and sea anemones also belong. They are simple invertebrates and are mobile unlike all other members of the phylum Cnidaria.

The movements of jellyfish are usually subject to winds and currents of the ocean, although they are capable of vertical movement.

The body parts of a jellyfish radiate from the central axis and are perfectly symmetrical. The perfectly symmetrical body of the jellyfish allows it to respond to danger from all sides. It also helps it in being able to detect food from every direction. The body of a jellyfish contains only a nervous system and the nerve receptors themselves formulate appropriate reaction to detection of light, odor, pressure and other external stimuli. The jellyfish does not have a brain or any specialized functional system. It has an outer layer called the epidermis, and an inner layer which is gastrodermis which lines the gut. In between is the thick, elastic-like jelly known as mesoglea. In a simple digestive cavity the gullet, stomach and the intestine lies. On one end of the cavity is the mouth; on the other is the anus. There are four to eight oral arms near the mouth that help in bring the food near the mouth, along with the tentacles. In fact, only 5% of the body of a jellyfish is solid matter. Jellyfish have different shapes, sizes and colors. They can be smaller than an inch or larger than 7 feet in diameter, with tentacles spanning more than a 100 feet! Irrespective of their size, jellyfish can only have control over their vertical movement. Horizontally, their movement is completely controlled by the wind and the current. Their bell shape allows them contract and force outer outwards to get a push upwards. Jellyfish have the ability to sting with their tentacles. Their tentacles have a number of capsule like apparatus that are filled with paralysis causing toxins and are fired when the tentacles comes in contact with something. Jellyfish use this facility mainly for hunting; However, jellyfish also use this facility to defend themselves. The toxins in the tentacles are powerful enough to paralyze their victim and buy enough time to escape, if not to kill it. However, in the case of humans, most jellyfish stings will only result in minor discomfort. The severity of stings is high in jellyfish found in warm and temperate oceans and these can be dangerous to humans.

Jellyfish are amongst the most abundant inhabitants of marine waters. Most jellyfish sting and are equipped with stingers to procure food and protect themselves. While jellyfish do not actively attack humans, when their tentacles come in contact with human flesh, their stingers are released as part of their natural defense mechanism. Even though most jellyfish stings are completely harmless to humans and do not pose a serious risk, it is important to know the basic first aid required for a jellyfish sting before you step into jellyfish infested waters to swim, surf or dive. Please be aware of the specific species of jellyfish known to inhabit the waters you are entering, so that you can be prepared with the treatment required in case of a jellyfish sting.
^ Text 3

Echinoderms

The phylum Echinodermata , which contains about 6000 species, gets its name from the Greek, literally meaning "spiny skin." Many echinoderms actually do have "spiny" skin, but others do not. This phylum exists exclusively in the sea, and cannot be found on land or in fresh water. All echinoderms have one thing in common: radial symmetry. This means that the creatures have appendages (or body construction) which point outward from the center of the body like the spokes on a bicycle wheel. Furthermore, these appendages usually occur in multiples of five, although there are a few exceptions. There are several well known members of this group, like sea stars and sea urchins. The radial symmetry is obvious in these creatures.

Perhaps not as obvious is the water vascular system, another trait common to all echinoderms. By examining the oral underside of a sea star, one will be able to see hundreds of tiny feet usually arranged into several rows on each ray (appendage) of the star. These are called tube feet, or podia, and are filled with sea water in most echinoderms. The water vascular system within the body of the animal is also filled with sea water. By expanding and contracting chambers within the water vascular system, the echinoderm can force water into certain tube feet to extend them. The animal has muscles in the tube feet which are used to retract them. By expanding and retracting the right tube feet in the proper order, the creature can walk. Many echinoderms can also form suckers on the ends of their tube feet. These suckers can be used to capture and hold prey, or to hold onto rocks in a swift current or tide.

Interestingly, although most mature echinoderms live on the bottom, the larvae are usually planktonic with bilateral symmetry. During the process of maturing, the echinoderm will change its body shape from bilaterally symmetrical to radially symmetrical, and in the process, settle down on the sea floor.

Sea stars are capable of regenerating limbs in the event that one or more is severed or damaged. The wound first closes off, and in time, the new limb will begin to grow. In a few species, the severed limb can regenerate a new sea star, but in most species, the severed limb dies. Sea stars eat a variety of different things, including barnacles, clams, mussels, snails, sea urchins, and in some cases, other sea stars! Many sea stars, such as the Northern Sea Star, eat mussels and clams in a fascinating way. The sea star first surrounds its intended victim. Then it applies outward force (with its suction cup equipped tube feet) on the two mussel shells (called valves), to pull them apart. Contrary to popular belief, the sea star does not need to apply force for a long time in order to tire out the mussel. The sea star can apply so much force to the mussel valves (7 or more pounds!) that it will bend the shell. Seizing the moment, the sea star then everts its stomach out through its mouth, and into the mussel (only a 1/100th of an inch opening is required). Once the sea star begins to digest its victim within the victim's own body, the victim dies. The sea star then finishes the meal by consuming the rest of the mussel. When the star is finished with the mussel, nothing remains but a shell.

^ 13. Text for translation into English.

Text 4

Моллюски

Моллюски, или мягкотелые, — главным образом водные, реже наземные животные. Тело их не сегменти­ровано, состоит из головы, туловища и ноги. Органом движения служит нога — мускулистый вырост брюш­ной стенки тела. Основание туловища у моллюсков ок­ружено большой кожной складкой — мантией. Между мантией и телом находится мантийная полость, в которой лежат жабры, некоторые органы чувств и куда от­крывается отверстие задней кишки, протоки почек и по­ловых желез. На спинной стороне, как правило, распо­ложена выделяемая мантией защитная раковина — цельная, реже двустворчатая или состоящая из несколь­ких пластинок. Наружный слой раковины образован ор­ганическим рогоподобным веществом, внутренний — тончайшими пластинками извести. У некоторых групп моллюсков раковина погружена под кожу или исчезает совсем.

Органы дыхания у большинства видов представлены жабрами, у наземных представителей и форм, вторично перешедших к водному образу жизни, — легкими.

Моллюски произошли от кольчатых червей. Основ­ные классы типа моллюсков — Брюхоногие, Двуствор­чатые, Головоногие.

Класс Брюхоногие

Брюхоногие, или улитки, обитают в морях, часть их приспособилась к жизни на суше или в пресных водах. Голова хорошо развита, на ней расположены одна-две

пары щупалец и одна пара глаз. У большинства представи­телей имеется раковина. Характерная черта всех брюхоно­гих — асимметричность строения. Нога имеет широкую подошву, при помощи сокращений мускулатуры ноги жи­вотное медленно и плавно ползет по поверхности.

Один из представителей класса — большой прудовик, встречающийся в пресноводных водоемах. Он покрыт спирально закрученной раковиной. Нервная система большого прудовика представлена нервными узлами, сконцентрированными в окологлоточное коль­цо. Органами осязания служат чувствительные клетки, рассеянные в коже, и щупальца, у основания которых находятся глаза. По бокам тела располагаются органы равновесия — пузырьки, внутри которых имеются мел­кие известковые тельца и клетки с чувствительными во­лосками, воспринимающими раздражение при измене­нии положения известковых телец в пузырьке.

Дыхание у прудовика легочное. Воздух через легоч­ное отверстие поступает в особый карман мантии — легкое, стенки которого пронизаны кровеносными со­судами. Здесь происходит газообмен. Точно так же ды­шат наземные улитки.

Сердце состоит из предсердия и желудочка. Крове­носная система незамкнутая: кровь из сердца поступает в кровеносные сосуды, а затем изливается в простран­ство между органами. Отсюда кровь возвращается к ор­ганам дыхания и, окислившись, попадает в сердце. Кровь чаше всего бесцветна. Иногда в ней содержится вещество, близкое к гемоглобину.

Среди морских брюхоногих моллюсков встречаются паразитические формы. Они поселяются главным обра­зом на коже и в полости тела у иглокожих. Паразитизм вызвал у этих моллюсков упрощение строения вплоть до утраты раковины, мантии, ноги, кровеносной и пи­щеварительной систем.

Брюхоногие моллюски имеют хозяйственное значе­ние. В ряде европейских стран употребляют в пищу ви­ноградную улитку, которую специально разводят для этой цели. Некоторые наземные представители подклас­са легочных моллюсков (слизни) наносят вред сельско­хозяйственным культурам — посевам, картофе­лю, свекле, табаку, огородным растениям.


  • Speaking and writing

^ 14.Make a report about any invertebrate you find interesting and unusual. Write a plan first and do not forget to mention invertebrate`s

appearance

habitat

feeding habits

way of reproduction.
15.Choose any of the following ideas (or propose your own), find information and write an essay (150 - 250 words).

Evolutionary history of Invertebrates

The most interesting representative of Invertebrates

Importance to Human

Extinct and endangered species.
Unit 9

Тема урока: Plants

текст 1 Plants

текст 2 Pollination

текст 3 Venus Flytrap

текст 4 Странные хищники


Words



nutrition

n. the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth



nutrient

n. a substance that provides nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and for growth



rigid

adj. unable to bend or be forced out of shape; not flexible



fertilize

v. to put fertilizer on the soil to make plants grow



division

n. the action of separating something into parts or the process of being separated



anchor

v. to fasten something firmly so that it cannot move



advancement

n. the process of development or improvement



cone

n. a flower resembling a pine cone, especially that of the hop plant



pollen

n. a fine powdery substance, typically yellow, consisting of microscopic grains discharged from the male part of a flower or from a male cone



pollinate

v. to convey pollen to or deposit pollen on (a stigma, ovule, flower, or plant) and so allow fertilization



trunk

n. the main woody stem of a tree as distinct from its branches and roots



branch

n. a part of a tree which grows out from the trunk or from a bough



twig

n. a slender woody shoot growing from a branch or stem of a tree or shrub



ovary

n. the hollow base of the carpel of a flower, containing one or more ovules



timber

n. wood prepared for use in building and carpentry



vegetation

n. plants considered collectively, especially those found in a particular area or habitat



aid

n. help, typically of a practical nature



recline

v. to shape or force (something straight) into a curve or angle



conduct

v. to lead or guide to or around a particular place



bulk

n. the mass or size of something large



Make sure you know these words



moss






liverwort






hornwort






conifer






fern






quillwort






horsetail






Gymnosperm






Bryophytes






Angiosperms






cone






^ What plants are these?

1

moss




2

liverwort




3

hornwort



4

conifer




5

club moss




6

horsetail




7

Gymnosperm




8

Bryophytes




9

Angiosperms




10

annual




11

perennial




12

fern





Working with words

^ 1.Write another word with a similar meaning.




feed




help




stalk




improvement




happen




greenery




spread

^ 2.Here are some of the common Latin roots. Form as many English verbs as you can, using different prefixes.

root

meaning

prefixies

spect

see, look

in-, de-, en-, re-, con-, ex-,

vert

turn

im-,pro- , post-

port

carry, take




duc,duct

lead




press

press, push




pose, pone

place, put




^ 3.Match a word in A to its definition in B.

A




B




1

rigid

a

to fix smth firmly somewhere

2

mature

b

empty inside

3

to anchor

c

no longer young

4

timber

d

plants and trees

5

coal

e

stiff, hard and difficult to bend

6

vegetation

f

kind of fuel

7

hollow

g

wood used for building

^ 4.Put the words in the right column.

trees

flowers

berries










Poppy , birch, strawberry, carnation, oak, blackberry, pine, camomile\daisy, fir, cranberry, aspen , daffodil, linden(bass) , ash-tree\rowen, violet, raspberry, willow, dandelion, cloudberry, poplar, tulip, bilberry\wortle-berry, chestnut, sunflower.

^ 5.Choose the correct word to complete the sentences.

to rub tubes insects mammals pollination nectar hairs

Many flowers have modifications which adapt them to .......................... by only one type or species of insect. Honeysuckle with its narrow deep petal .................. are likely to be pollinated only by moths or butterflies whose long “tongues” can reach down the tube to the .......................

Foxgloves need to be visited fairly large ........................... Te petal tube is often lined with dense ........................... which impede small insects that would take the nectar without pollinating the flower. A large bumble-bee, however, pushing into the petal tube, is forced ...................... against the anthers and stigma.

Many tropical flowers are adapted to pollination by birds or even by ....................., e.g. bats and mice.

^ 6.Label parts of the flower.

Stigma, carpel, ovary, anther, filament, style, ovule, stamen, sepal, petal, receptacle, peduncle.



Working with word combinations and sentences.

^ 7.Give English equivalents to the following word combinations.

Способ питания, неограниченный рост, деление клеток, жесткие стенки, двигательный орган, цветущие растения, развить специальные клетки, выполнять функции, перемещать питательные вещества, наземный ареал, обширная корневая система, впитывать воду, значительное эволюционное развитие, увеличить ширину, значительное многообразие, специализированная проводящая система, угольный пласт.

^ 8.Translate into English.

Тканью называется группа клеток, структурно и функционально взаимосвязанных друг с другом, сходных по происхождению, строению и выполняющих определенные функции в организме. Ткани возникли у высших растений в связи с выходом на сушу и наибольшей специализации достигли у покрытосеменных, у которых их выделяют до 80 видов. Важнейшими тканями растений являются образовательные, покровные, проводящие, механические и основные. Они могут быть простыми и сложными. Простые ткани состоят из одного вида клеток (например, колленхима, меристема), а сложные — из различных по строению клеток, выполняющих кроме основных и дополнительные функции (эпидерма, ксилема, флоэма и др.).
^ 9.Guess the meaning of the words from the context.

1. Blink several times and try to get the dust out of your .....

2. A patient started breathing again with the help of artificial .......

3. Coughing is a symptom of various ......

4. When you drink too much coffee your hands .....

5. When it is hot you......

6. The puppy is ...... because it is cold and frightened.

7. The ..... should be swallowed with some amount of water.
Working with texts

^ 10. Read and translate the text.

Text 1

Plants

A

Plants - (kingdom Plantae), multicellular, eukaryotic life form fundamentally characterized by (1) an almost exclusively photosynthetic mode of nutrition, in which the plant produces chemical energy (in the form of sugars) from water, minerals, and carbon dioxide with the aid of pigments and the radiant energy of the Sun, (2) essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions called meristems, (3) cells that contain cellulose in their walls and are therefore more or less rigid, (4) the absence of organs of locomotion, resulting in a more or less stationary existence, (5) the absence of sensory and nervous systems, and (6) life histories that show an alteration of haploid and diploid generations (the dominance of one over the other is taxonomically significant).

B

Angiosperms - any member of the more than 250,000 species of flowering plants, the largest and most diverse group within the kingdom Plantae. Angiosperms represent approximately 80 percent of all the known green plants now living. The angiosperms are vascular seed plants in which the ovule (egg) is fertilized and develops into a seed in an enclosed hollow ovary. The ovary itself is usually enclosed in a flower, that part of the angiospermous plant that contains the male or female reproductive organs or both. Fruits are derived from the maturing floral organs of the angiospermous plant and are therefore characteristic of angiosperms.

C

Angiosperms have evolved specialized cells and tissues that carry out these functions and have further evolved specialized vascular tissues that translocate the water and nutrients to all areas of the plant body. The specialization of the plant body, which has evolved as an adaptation to a principally terrestrial habitat, includes extensive root systems that anchor the plant and absorb water and minerals from the soil; a stem that supports the growing plant body; and leaves, which are the principal sites of photosynthesis for most angiospermous plants. Another significant evolutionary advancement over the nonvascular and the more primitive vascular plants is the presence of localized regions for plant growth, called meristems and cambia, which extend the length and width of the plant body, respectively. Except under certain conditions, these regions are the only areas in which cell division takes place in the plant body, although cell differentiation continues to occur over the life of the plant.

The angiosperms dominate the Earth's surface and vegetation in more environments, particularly terrestrial habitats, than any other group of plants. As a result, angiosperms are the most important ultimate source of food for birds and mammals, including humans. In addition, the flowering plants are the most economically important group of green plants, serving as a source of pharmaceuticals, fibre products, timber, ornamentals, and other commercial products.

D

Bryophytes - nonvascular plants, in which all cells in the plant body participate in every function necessary to support, nourish, and extend the plant body (e.g. photosynthesis, and cell division). Bryophytes are among the simplest of the terrestrial plants. Most representatives lack complex tissue organization, yet they show considerable diversity in form. They are widely distributed throughout the world and are relatively small compared with most seed-bearing plants. Most are 2–5 centimetres tall or, if reclining, generally less than 10 centimetres long. The phylum Bryophyta includes three main evolutionary lines: the mosses, the liverworts , and the hornworts.

E

In gymnosperms (e.g., conifers), the other large group of vascular seed plants, the seeds do not develop enclosed within an ovary but are usually borne exposed on the surfaces of reproductive structures, such as cones, that originally produced the spores. It was in 1825 that the Scottish botanist Robert Brown first distinguished gymnosperms from angiosperms. Currently, about 60–70 genera are recognized, with a total of 700–800 species.

F

Lower vascular plants - any of the spore-bearing vascular plants, including the ferns, club mosses and horsetails.

Vascular plants are those that possess a specialized conducting system for the transport of water, minerals, and food materials, as opposed to the more primitive bryophytes—mosses and liverworts—which lack such a system.

These are not an economically important group. Though they are used locally by peoples around the world for medicines and food, their greatest value today is in horticulture (ferns). Their remains, however, provide the bulk of the world's coal beds, and their relatively simple structure and life cycle make them extremely valuable to researchers in understanding the overall picture of plant structure and evolution.

^ 11. Give a title to each paragraph.

A




B




C




D




E




F



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