Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011


НазваниеУчебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011
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ТипУчебное пособие
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^ 2.Match a word in A to its definition in B.

A




B




1

obvious

a

ability to live or exist in difficult conditions

2

survival

b

to become worse

3

doubt

c

healthy, in good condition

4

to deteriorate

d

to give particular stress to smth

5

to emphasize

e

clear to anyone

6

to weaken

f

a feeling of not being certain

7

sound

g

to make someone or something less strong



^ 3.Choose the correct word to complete the sentences.

single welfare treating possible values contains result scientific plants maintained resources


Conservation is also of great ........................ value. Because relatively little is known about the past, present, and .......................... future of the biosphere, natural outdoor laboratories, including areas of undisturbed nature, must be ................. in order to conduct the studies needed to acquire knowledge. Moreover, there are many natural ......................... with undiscovered scientific and technological .................... If, for example, all apparently worthless rosy periwinkle .................... had been destroyed, an important drug used in ........................ leukemia would not have been discovered. Because each wild plant and animal ....................... a storehouse of genetic and biochemical information, the loss of a .......................... species might ................................ in the loss of information that could ultimately have great value for mankind's welfare or survival.
Working with word combinations and sentences

^ 4.Give English equivalents to the following word combinations.

Неспокойный времена, следить за прогрессом ежедневно, очевидная важность, на грани выживания, выражать обеспокоенность, ощущение безопасности, необходимо для выживания, обогащение индивидуума, сиюминутные выгоды, истребление вида, нацеленный на защиту окружающей среды, предотвратить ухудшение, масштабное уничтожение, ослаблять страну, неограниченный рост населения, плохо оснащенный, истощенные земли, исправлять ущерб, запрет ловли животных, ограничения на охоту легальные способы, строго ограничивать, восстановление ареалов, выращенный в неволе, обеспечить местом.

^ 5.Define the words in English and insert them in the sentences of your own.

To report back, to add up, to turn on, to be in doubt, to authorize, to abandon, to restock.
6.Translate into English.

Пятнадцать процентов видов позвоночных животных, обитающих в России и четыре процента произрастающих в ней видов высших растений считаются редкими или находятся под угрозой исчезновения. Наиболее опасна для них утрата мест обитания. Среди других угроз – нелегальная торговля, загрязнение среды, изменение климата, нерациональное использование природных ресурсов.
^ 7.Explain in your own words these concepts.

Deteriorated lands

Country`s natural resources

Baglimits

Gamefarm

Sanctuary

Legal tools in wildlife conservation
Working with texts

8. Read and translate the text.

Text 1

Global Conservation

A

Science might seem a strange place for conservation to begin, but in today’s turbulent times, most people do not have the time to know nature. It is mainly scientists who follow nature’s daily progress and report back about how nature is faring. If you add up all the places in which people live, work, turn on their lights, and drive their cars and trucks, the human footprint touches more than three-quarters of Earth’s land surface. People influence almost all—98 percent—of the places where we can grow wheat, rice, and corn.

The Wildlife Conservation Society believes that it is not too late to save wildlife and wild places, that some of the greatest work in field conservation is yet to come.

B

Although the importance of conservation may seem obvious, most of the world's people live too close to the margin of existence to exercise concern for anything more than their immediate survival and well-being. Planning for the future becomes difficult when the present itself is in doubt, and activities that could help tomorrow's generations may seem quixotic to those for whom survival is at stake. Thus, while conservation has made great strides in some areas of the world, it is still too soon for people to have any feeling of security about the future of the environment.

C

It is often regarded as essential to the survival or the enrichment of an individual or a group to use resources in such a way as to realize immediate gains or profits. Such activities, however, may impair the future productivity of an area of land, exterminate a species, or destroy the usefulness of a site for any other purpose. In such a situation the short-term, private view conflicts with the long-term, public view. Though the public view should be more conservation oriented, there are times when governments take the short-term view in the face of real or imagined economic or political crises. They may, for example, authorize widespread destruction of resources as a temporary expedient to achieve a military goal or to strengthen the public treasury. But crises will tend to become self-perpetuating if the destruction of resources weakens the country ecologically and economically. Thus, continued, unrestricted population growth in a country poorly equipped to manage its natural resources creates a continuing sense of crisis, because ever-expanding immediate needs are commonly met at the cost of future productivity and environmental stability.

As long as human populations were small and the pressures upon the environment were limited, conflicts between long-term and short-term interests made little difference. Deteriorated lands could be abandoned and new lands found because there was sufficient time to permit natural repair of environmental damage. Presently, however, with great and increasing numbers of people on a planet of limited capacity, conservationists are insisting that the difference between short- and long-term points of view should be resolved in favour of actions that guarantee the survival of mankind.

D

Wildlife-conservation techniques have counterparts in forestry and in soil, water, and landscape conservation. They include prohibitions, and controls, restoration, subsidy, sanctuary, and public ownership.

The oldest forms of prohibitions and controls are those that regulate hunting, fishing, and trapping. Especially useful were those limitations on hunting that protected animals during the breeding season. Baglimits—i.e., limits on the number of animals that can be taken by an individual hunter, fisher, or trapper—are also important conservation tools.

Among the most important modern legal tools in wildlife conservation are those laws that protect threatened and endangered species. In the United States, for example, the Endangered Species Act makes it illegal to hunt, trap, or collect endangered animals and plants. The act also tightly restricts the use of federal funds in projects that are likely to adversely affect endangered species, and it prohibits the importation of endangered species or products made from endangered species.

Artificial methods of offsetting resource depletion include programs of population restocking and habitat restoration. Gamefarms and fish hatcheries, which provide stocks of popular game species, are long-established tools of wildlife management. Of more recent development are those programs designed to restock wild populations of endangered species with individuals raised in captivity. Captive rearing and release is part of the effort being made to save the endangered whooping crane of North America. A similar program has been undertaken in behalf of the California condor, another endangered North American bird.

Sanctuaries—also called preserves, reserves, and refuges—have been prominent in wildlife conservation since the mid-19th century.

E

Sanctuaries and the large national parks have provided the protection and space critically needed in America and Africa by the larger predators and grassland-dwelling big game and the freedom from human interference needed by nesting birds during the breeding season; in the United States they also give migratory waterfowl at least partial relief from hunting pressure. In the United States, public ownership, which usually accompanies the establishment of sanctuaries, facilitates the management of wildlife and cover resources to an extent seldom possible on privately owned lands.

Public ownership finds its soundest manifestations in the development of sanctuaries and in the preservation of wildlife in national parks, though government ownership of forests in Canada and the United States also helps maintain various species of wildlife.
^ 9. Match a title with the paragraph.

Sanctuaries

Techniques

Scientific approach

Short-term versus long-term views

Conflicting attitudes and issues





^ 10. Pair work. Ask and answer 6 questions to Text 1.

11. Read the texts using your dictionary.

Retell one of the texts.

Text 2

Wildlife conservation 1

Wildlife conservation - the regulation of wild animals and plants in such a way as to provide for their continuance as a natural resource. The term stands for the husbandry and use of natural resources by the present and succeeding generations. Aesthetic, sporting, economic, and ethical use of landscapes, game, minerals, animals, plants, soils, and water is thus implied in the concept. The term "wildlife conservation" has been used to include an ever-widening group of animals—mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, arthropods (such as the lobster), and mollusks (such as the oyster)—and includes plants as well. Certain aesthetically and economically important groups of animals have tended to dominate the list; but it is expanding as values broaden, interest in science grows, and increasingly subtle but important relationships among animals and plants are reported.

Animal-conservation problems vary widely depending on the type of animal (whether, for example, it is exploited primarily for commercial or recreational reasons, whether or not it is free to range over national boundaries) and on the social and economic conditions of various countries. In many countries, game animals are widely hunted by sportsmen, over both private and public lands; thus an outstanding factor in wildlife conservation in such regions is the licensing and supervision of hunters. Game birds and mammals whose migrations take them across national boundaries require an international conservation effort. Marine mammals and fish also present the need for international agreement and legislation because they live in waters that know no national boundaries and are exploited commercially by fishermen from many countries. Small mammals that are trapped for their furs must be protected by domestic laws, but seals are the subject of international agreement. Saltwater fish, exploited mainly for commercial reasons, are protected by international agreement; but the exploiters of freshwater fish, chiefly anglers who fish for recreation (except in such large inland water areas as the Great Lakes), are licensed and controlled domestically.

Ethical considerations appear to occupy a central position in wildlife-conservation thinking, but their development has been delayed by the fact that people for so many generations had to fight against nature. Although primitive people had a far more immediate stake in wildlife than modern people do, it is virtually certain that early humans had little concept of conserving game. The disappearance of the moa and the mammoth taught no lessons; the disappearance of the passenger pigeon did. Convinced of the enormous destructive power of humankind, pioneer conservationists of the early 20th century emphasized the ethical responsibility of their own generation to conserve natural resources for posterity. Modern ecologists perceive that nature is a series of complex biotic communities of which the human species is an interdependent part; a spokesman for conservationists, Aldo Leopold, has argued that the Golden Rule applies to the land and to its animals as well as to people. Thus we find ourselves responsible for the fate of many products of nature, guided by a conservation tradition and code of conduct less than a century old.
^ Wildlife conservation 2

During the past 2,000 years the world has lost, through extinction, well over 100 species or subspecies of mammals. Approximately two-thirds of these losses have occurred since the mid-19th century, most since the beginning of the 20th. In addition to those mammals already extinct, many others are vanishing or threatened.

The primary factor in the depletion of the world's fauna has been modern human society, operating either directly through excessive commercial hunting or, more disastrously, indirectly through invading or destroying natural habitats, placing firearms in the hands of peoples who previously were without them, or introducing to the native fauna of certain areas (Australia and various islands) more aggressive exotic (nonnative) mammals. Except in the West Indies, comparatively few species seem to have died out within the past 2,000 years from such natural causes as evolutionary senility, disease, or climatic change.

Persons interested in the conservation of wildlife recognize that much more is required than the mere protection of individual animals from destruction by shooting and other forms of direct action. Animal protection must begin with the conservation of the habitat—the area where animals feed, rest, and breed. This naturally involves the preservation of much besides the animal population itself, including conservation of vegetation cover and soil. The comparatively new science of ecology focuses on the association of living things in natural communities and their mutual interdependence and on the possibility of preserving the conditions under which the variety and abundance of natural living forms may continue to exist. But the immense growth of the world's human population and its expanding economic needs, fostering the consequent extension and intensification of industry and agriculture, have encroached upon remaining natural habitats throughout the world. This has been accompanied by the introduction of new types of cultivation, by the drainage of marshes, by the general lowering of the water table, by pollution of rivers and lakes, by destruction of woodlands, and by indiscriminate use of insecticides and herbicides. In many parts of the world there has also been widespread destruction of forests and other great belts of natural vegetation.

Attitudes toward wild animals liable to be killed for food, oil, skins, feathers, or sport are undergoing considerable change in many countries of the world. An example of earlier attitudes is well illustrated by Great Britain, which passed through two centuries of so-called game protection, the original purpose of which was to create artificially high populations of grouse, partridge, pheasant, mallard, and other sporting species and, at the same time, to reduce the populations of such predators as the stoat, weasel, otter, wildcat, and badger, as well as birds of prey including owls. This alteration of the natural equilibrium had many other consequences, particularly in agriculture and forestry. The rabbit and wood pigeon population increased rapidly and caused widespread damage. In some places in Great Britain the landscape was changed by the planting of woods and the creation of other new areas, including artificial lakes for wildfowl—all with the purpose of creating larger populations of certain species for sport. Sport was the privilege of the affluent. There were strictly kept dates for the shooting of game species, and, most significant, there was very strict etiquette in shooting. Poaching was punished by heavy penalties and was kept under control. As a result, the game species did exceptionally well while the total wildlife resources experienced varied fortunes. The modern view is different: total wildlife conservation is rapidly replacing game protection.
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