Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011


НазваниеУчебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011
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ТипУчебное пособие
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^ 5. Give terms corresponding to the following definitions.

  1. The death of species.

  2. The temporary or permanent removal of forests.

  3. One of the largest members of the bear family.

  4. Flying reptiles existed far ago.

  5. All the interacting populations within the ecosystem.

  6. The process by which two interacting species act as agents of natural

selection one another over evolutionary time.

  1. The example of community interactions.

  2. A situation in which a species evolves to resemble something else.

  3. An animal adapted to survive in a hot, dry and sandy environment.

  4. Limits on the number of animals that can be taken by an individual hunter,

fisher, or trapper.

  1. The regulation of wild animals and plants in such a way as to provide for

their continuance as a natural resource.

  1. The area where animals feed, rest, and breed.



^ 6. Translate from Russian into English.

Снежный барс, или ирбис занесен в Красный список МСОП (2000) как «находящийся под угрозой исчезновения» (высшая охранная категория EN C2A). В Красной книге Российской Федерации (2001) он значится как «находящийся под угрозой исчезновения вид на пределе ареала» (1 категория).

Ирбис принадлежит к слабо изученным видам. Его ареал в России составляет 2-3 % современного мирового ареала, так же как и численность составляет около 2 % от общей численности вида.

Среди крупных кошачьих ирбис - единственный постоянный обитатель высокогорий, олицетворяет собой величественный, загадочный и суровый мир гор Центральной Азии. Занимая верхний трофический уровень в экосистемах, он может служить своего рода видом-флагманом в отношении сохранения всего животного мира центрально-азиатских высокогорий. Выживание этой редкой кошки в сильно нарушенных и деградирующих горных экосистемах крайне затруднительно или невозможно, соответственно сохранение жизнеспособных популяций ирбиса неизбежно сопряжено с эффективной охраной среды его обитания в целом.

В силу труднодоступности местообитаний и низкой плотности вида, до сих пор слабо исследованными остаются такие важнейшие аспекты биологии ирбиса, как структура ареала, способность к расселению, сезонные перемещения, питание и охотничье поведение (в частности, степень пищевой специализации, в том числе, состав и доля в добыче домашних животных), структура популяций, численность, размеры индивидуальных участков, суточный ход и многие другие, что затрудняет разработку адекватных мер охраны. Это касается всего ареала вида и в особенности российской его части.
^ Grammar Tests

Test 1

Present Forms 1

Present Forms 2

Past Forms

Test 2

Future Forms

Articles

Countable and Uncountable nouns

Test 3

Degrees of comparison

Conditionals

Infinitive

Test 4

Modals

Emphasis

Passive

Test 5

Sequence of tenses

Reported Speech

Linking words

Test 1

^ 1.Put the verbs in brackets into Present, Past, Future Simple; Past Continuous or Present Perfect Passive Tense.

Sir Walter Raleigh /r:li/ …..(be) an English traveler who …..(live) in England in the days of Queen Elizabeth. He …..(sail) across the seas to America in search of new lands. He ……(bring) to England two very important plants: the tobacco plant and the potato plant.

When he….. (be) in America, he …..(learn) to smoke from the Indians.

When he …..(be) back in England, he …..(sit) one day in his room by the fire smoking a pipe. His old servant who …..(know) nothing about tobacco or smoking, suddenly …..(come) in the room and …..(see) the smoke coming out of his master's mouth. He …..(be) frightened; he …..(think) Sir Raleigh …..(be) on fire. He …..(rush) out of the room,….. (get) some water and …..(throw) it all over his master before Sir Walter …..(can) explain that he simply….. (smoke).

Sir Raleigh….. (bring) the potato to his country because he …..(want) the people …..(learn) how to grow potatoes. He …..(say): "When the harvest …..(be) poor, there …..(be) no broad and we….. (be) all hungry. You …..(be) never hungry if you …..(grow) potatoes." But people …..(not like) potatoes. Nobody …..(want) to eat them because nobody …..(know) how …..(cook) them.

After many years a Frenchman …..(find) the best way of growing and cooking the potato. People …..(begin) …..(eat) potatoes and….. (find) them good. Since that time more and more potatoes …..(be grown) and …..(be eaten) in Europe. The potatoes …..(become) one of the most important and useful vegetables.

Test 2

^ 1.Future forms

Put the verbs in brackets into Future Simple, Future Continuous or Future Perfect Tense.

  1. What ….. we (do) to slow global warming?

  2. How ….. we (cope) with the changes we've already set into motion?

  3. Different communities ….. ( make) different decisions about how to put us on a path toward a stable climate.

  4. A wholesale commitment to only one practice ….. ( mean) inevitable food shortages for a world population expected to exceed 8 billion by the year 2030.

  5. Carbon dioxide and other chemicals derived from the use of fossil fuels ……. ( change) the pH of rain.

  6. There …..( be) an oil shortage because fuel resources have been overexploited for years.

  7. Videogames ….. ( be) much more absorbing than they are now: you really …….(live) the adventure you are playing.

  8. Your shopping ….. ( deliver) to your door during the day.

  9. Everything you buy ….. ( pay) for through a computer.

  10. How our lives …….(effect) by advances in medicine?

  11. How the problem of pollution ……. ( solve)?

2.Articles

Put in a\an, the or nothing in the gaps.

Fireflies

Fireflies are familiar, but …..few realize that these ….. insects are actually beetles, nocturnal members of ….. family Lampyridae. Most fireflies are winged, which distinguishes them from other luminescent insects of ….. same family, commonly known as glowworms.

There are about 2,000 firefly species. These insects live in ….. variety of warm environments, as well as in ….. more temperate regions, and are ….. familiar sight on….. summer evenings. Fireflies love ….. moisture and often live in ….. humid regions of Asia and the Americas. In drier areas, they are found around wet or damp areas that retain ….. moisture.

Everyone knows how fireflies got their name, but many people don't know how ….. insects produce their signature glow. Fireflies have dedicated ….. light organs that are located under their abdomens. ….. insects take in ….. oxygen and, inside special cells, combine it with ….. substance called ….. luciferin to produce ….. light with almost no heat.

Firefly light is usually intermittent, and flashes in….. patterns that are unique to each species. Each blinking pattern is ….. optical signal that helps fireflies find ….. potential mates. Scientists are not sure how ….. insects regulate this process to turn their lights on and off.

Firefly light may also serve as ….. defense mechanism that flashes ….. clear warning of ….. insect's unappetizing taste. ….. fact that even larvae are luminescent lends support to this theory.

Females deposit their eggs in ….. ground, which is where….. larvae develop to ….. adulthood. Underground larvae feed on ….. worms and slugs by injecting them with ….. numbing fluid.

Adults despise such prey and typically feed on ….. nectar or ….. pollen, though some adults do not eat at all.

3.Countable and uncountable nouns

Put in proper forms of the words in brackets, add much, many, few, little if necessary.

  1. Temperate grasslands, which average between 25 and 75 centimeters of rain per year, have …… ( short) grasses, then south ones, sometimes just …… ( millimeter).

  2. There are grazing animals like …..(gazelle) and ….. (deer); burrowing animals such as ….. (mouse) and ….. ( rabbit); and predators such as ….. (snake) and …… (coyote).

  3. Much of the North American prairielands have been converted into one of the richest agricultural regions on Earth.

  4. The ….. ( plant) and ……(animal) that live in the harsh conditions of the tundra are essentially clinging to life.

  5. Cities make …..( sense) for humans.

  6. The heart pumps ….. (blood) through the body.

  7. I`m sure you`ll get the job. You have ….. (experience).

  8. I need your ….. (advice).

  9. To observe birds you need ….. (patience).

  10. There is….. (time).

Test 3

^ 1.Degrees of comparison

Use the words in brackets to complete the sentences.

  1. …..( large) hot desert in the world, northern Africa's Sahara, reaches temperatures of up to 50 degrees Celsius during the day

  2. These areas exist under a moisture deficit, which means they can frequently lose ….. (much) moisture through evaporation than they receive from annual precipitation.

  3. Deserts cover ….. (much) than one fifth of the Earth's land, and they are found on every continent.

  4. A place that receives ….. (little) than 25 centimeters of rain per year is considered a desert

  5. ….. ( dry) deserts get ….. (little) than one centimeter of precipitation each year, and that is from condensed fog not rain.

  6. ….. (much) desert birds are nomadic, crisscrossing the skies in search of food

  7. ……(High) temperatures may produce an increasing number of wildfires that alter desert landscapes by eliminating slow-growing trees and shrubs and replacing them with fast-growing grasses.

  8. Tundras are among Earth's ….. (cold), ….. ( harsh) biomes

  9. This allows the government and others to provide more service such as water, electricity, and transportation to a ….. (large) number of people.

  10. Schools and shops in cities are ….. (much) easily accessible than in rural areas.

2.Conditionals

Put in the verb in a correct form.

  1. There ….. (be) no life without water.

  2. If I ….. (have) this book, I …… (give) it to you.

  3. If I ….. (have) time, I ….. ( complete) the experiment.

  4. The weather was freezing. I wish it ….. (be) warmer.

  5. Unless computer techniques ……. ( develop), space research ….. never (make) such great progress.

  6. Do you wish you ….. ( study) art instead of science?

  7. Even if we ….. (stop) emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) today, the Earth still …..(warm) by another degree Fahrenheit or so.

  8. Depending on our choices, scientists predict that the Earth ….. eventually (warm) by as little as 2.5 degrees or as much as 10 degrees Fahrenheit.

  9. A commonly cited goal is to stabilize GHG concentrations around 450-550 parts per million. This is the point at which many believe the most damaging impacts of climate change ….. ( be) avoided.

  10. According to the IPCC, we ….. ( have to) reduce GHG emissions by 50% to 80% of what they're on track to be in the next century to reach this level.

^ 3.Infinitive\-ing forms

Put in the verb in a correct form.

  1. . A lysogenic bacterial culture can be treated with radiation or mutagens, ….. (induce) the cells ….. ( begin) producing viruses and lyse.

  2. Highly voracious predators, salamanders emerge from their burrows at night ….. ( feed) on worms, insects, frogs, and even other salamanders.

  3. During the day these insects move little and are nearly impossible to distinguish from the background they imitate, and that, of course, is the point: ….. ( remain) invisible to sharp-eyed predators that use vision ….. ( hunt).

  4. …… ( Specialize) in zooarchaeology, the scientist has helped ….. (launch) a new line of research.

  5. After….. ( take) precise measurements, ….. (peer) beneath linen bandages with x-rays, and ….. (cataloge) her findings, she created a gallery for the collection—a bridge between people today and those of long ago

  6. A virus infects a bacterial cell by …..(attach) to the bacterial cell wall by its tail.

  7. In coliphages the tail is a complex protein structure …..( consist) of a hollow contractile sheath, with a plate at the base that contains long protein fibers.

  8. Every human alive today shares one common ancestor ….. (arise) from Africa between fifty thousand and two hundred thousand years ago.

  9. Over time, different groups of people, or haplogroups, made a decision …… ( embark) on an epic journey to find new places to live.

  10. Grasslands in the southern hemisphere tend ….. ( get) more precipitation than those in the northern hemisphere.

Test 4

1.Modals

Put in the verb in a correct form from the box .

may ..may…….not able to…….can…….may…….might have been……. can…….be able to…….can…….cannot

  1. Desert plants ….. have to go without fresh water for years at a time

  2. Many desert plants …… live to be hundreds of years old.

  3. The pounding of the soil by the hooves of livestock …… degrade the soil and encourage erosion by wind and water.

  4. By 2050, a third of the people on Earth ….. lack a clean, secure source of water.

  5. These areas have two seasons: a growing season and a dormant season. During the dormant season, no grass ….. grow because it is too cold.

  6. Grasses ….. survive fires because they grow from the bottom instead of the top.

  7. In the tropics, each canopy tree ….. release about 200 gallons (760 liters) of water each year.

  8. Shrubs and spruce that previously ….. take root on the permafrost now dot the landscape, potentially altering the habitat of the native animals.

  9. Many cities in developing countries in particular are growing too rapidly for their own good, with many residents …..find jobs and forced to live in slums.

  10. Scientists think there ….. a cooling in the earth`s atmosphere during the Late Cretaceous Period.

2.Emphasis

Translate and underline the Emphatic construction.

  1. Written in our mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the story of our great ancestors – from their origins in Africa to their wondrous journeys around the world.

  2. Today the animal mummies are one of the most popular exhibits in the whole treasure-filled museum. Visitors of all ages, Egyptians and foreigners, press in shoulder to shoulder to get a look. Behind glass panels lie cats wrapped in strips of linen that form diamonds, stripes, squares, and crisscrosses.

  3. Can you guess what did happened? Animals moved out of the water onto the land. The first creatures that crawled out onto the swampy shore were not yet entirely of land animals. They were amphibians which is means that they had to spend some of their life in the water.

  4. They had long slim bodies and well-developed tails. They had lungs with which to breathe air and legs that could support them on solid ground. They were also too good swimmers and have spent a great deal of their time in the water, eating small fish.

  5. Now, whenever the droughts were very severe and some of the ponds and rivers dried up completely, many the fish died off. But the amphibians stayed alive because they could use their legs to walk to another spot where there was some water on left.
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