Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011


НазваниеУчебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011
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9. Answer the questions to Text 1.

1. What place do Bacteria have in taxonomy?

2. Tell a few words about evolution and early life of Bacteria.

3. What shapes do they have?

4. Where do they live?

5. How do they move?
^ 10. Read the texts using your dictionary.

Retell one of the texts.

Text 2

Bacteria electrifying modern life

Batteries made with microbes could help generate power by cleaning up organic waste at the same time.

Sewage is loaded with energy-rich sugars that researchers have struggled for years to convert into useful power. To do so, investigators have experimented with nature's experts on breaking down waste — bacteria.

Scientists have experimented with a variety of bacteria, but there is one kind looks very promising and which is naturally found in many soils and sediments. Geobacter grows by breaking down organic materials and transferring electrons pretty much onto anything that looks like iron. When attacking environmental pollutants such as aromatic hydrocarbons, Geobacter can break down some 90 percent. All in all, systems incorporating Geobacter can recover up to nearly all the electrons within sewage.

Still, all the energy that bacteria could generate from wastewater could help power the considerable needs of wastewater treatment. For instances, in the United States, roughly 33 billion gallons of wastewater are treated daily for an annual cost of more than $25 billion, and some 1.5 percent of the electricity produced every year goes into wastewater treatment alone.

Aside from wastewater, another potentially vast source of energy that bacteria could exploit are the organic chemicals in ocean mud. Although humanity already taps into some of this fuel in the form of petroleum, most of this energy reservoir remains beyond reach because it is not nearly as easy to extract and use as oil.

Organic matter keeps on raining down onto marine sediments as organisms die, so the idea is that marine sediments could basically be a perpetual system for powering electronic devices.

In terms of advancing these microbial systems further, scientists have experimented with bacteria in terms of genetic engineering. So far they have managed to double power output.
^ Text 3

How Bacteria Become Drug Resistant

Once in every several hundred million cell divisions a mutation makes a bacterium immune to an antibiotic drug. The mutation alters the bacterium's genetic code and thus its ability to use certain chemicals for its life activities. Mutations can be caused by the radiations from outer space that stream into the Earth's atmosphere, as well as by some atmospheric chemicals. As a result of the mutation, all bacteria that stem from the immune germ will be resistant to the drug unless any of them undergoes a mutation that makes the strain susceptible again. Hence, whenever a new antibiotic is developed, there will be a chance that bacteria will develop an immunity against it. But because mutations are fairly rare, doctors have a good chance of fighting a bacterial disease with the new drug before future strains become resistant.

Some members of a bacterial strain are resistant to certain drugs naturally. In the course of time they can eventually become selected through evolutionary forces to become the dominant drug-resistant forms of a pathogenic strain.

More importantly, some bacteria can pass on their drug resistance to bacteria of another strain by “infection.” Since the passing of resistance factors does not depend upon the lengthy process of mutation, it poses a much greater problem of drug immunity. As a consequence, doctors often must prescribe more than one antibiotic to fight certain diseases in the hope that this will slow bacterial resistance.
^ 11. Text for translation into English.

Text 4

Бактерии

Бакте́рии— группа (царство) прокариотных (безъядерных) микроорганизмов, чаще всего одноклеточных. К настоящему времени описано около десяти тысяч видов бактерий и предполагается, что их существует свыше миллиона.

Впервые бактерий увидел в оптический микроскоп и описал голландский натуралист Антони ван Левенгук в 1676 году. Как и всех микроскопических существ он назвал их «анималькули». Название «бактерии» ввёл в употребление Христиан Эренберг в 1828.

Луи Пастер в 1850-е положил начало изучению физиологии и метаболизма бактерий, а также открыл их болезнетворные свойства. Дальнейшее развитие медицинская микробиология получила в трудах Роберта Коха, которым были сформулированы общие принципы определения возбудителя болезни.

Подавляющее большинство бактерий одноклеточны. По форме клеток они могут быть шаровидными (кокки), палочковидными (бациллы), извитыми (вибрионы), реже — звездчатыми, тетраэдрическими, кубическими, C- или O-образными. Формой определяются такие способности бактерий, как прикрепление к поверхности, подвижность, поглощение питательных веществ.

Из обязательных клеточных структур выделяют три:

нуклеоид

рибосомы

цитоплазматическая мембрана (ЦПМ).

С внешней стороны от ЦПМ находятся несколько слоёв (клеточная стенка, капсула, слизистый чехол), называемых клеточной оболочкой, а также поверхностные структуры (жгутики, ворсинки(villi)). ЦПМ и цитоплазму объединяют вместе в понятие протопласт.

Вся необходимая для жизнедеятельности бактерий генетическая информация содержится в одной ДНК (бактериальная хромосома), Она в одной точке прикреплена к ЦПМ и помещается в структуре, обособленной, но не отделённой мембраной от цитоплазмы, и называемой нуклеоид. ДНК в развёрнутом состоянии имеет длину более 1 мм.

Размеры бактерий в среднем составляют 0,5-5 мкм. В то же время к бактериям относятся самые мелкие из имеющих клеточное строение организмов. Mycoplasma mycoides имеет размеры 0,1-0,25 мкм, что соответствует размеру крупных вирусов, например, табачной мозаики или гриппа.

Многие бактерии подвижны. Имеется несколько принципиально различных типов движения бактерий. Наиболее распространено движение при помощи жгутиков: одиночных бактерий . Другим типом движения является скольжение бактерий, не имеющих жгутиков, по поверхности твёрдых сред. Наконец, бактерии могут всплывать и погружаться в жидкости, меняя свою плотность, наполняя газами или опустошая аэросомы.

Часть из них может синтезировать все необходимые им органические молекулы из неорганических соединений (автотрофы), другие же требуют готовых органических соединений, которые они способны лишь трансформировать (гетеротрофы).

Speaking and writing

^ 12.Make a report about any bacterium you find interesting and unusual. Write a plan first and do not forget to mention

appearance

habitat

feeding habits

way of reproduction of these bacteria.
13.Choose any of the following ideas (or propose your own), find information and write an essay (150-250 words).

The origin of bacteria

Harmful bacteria

Useful bacteria

Extraordinary abilities of bacteria.


Unit 3


Тема урока Amphibia

текст 1 Class Amphibia

текст 2 Some facts about amphibian behaviour

текст 3 Red-Eyed Tree Frog

текст 4 Красноглазые квакши

текст 5 Класс Амфибии

текст 6 Амфибии и глобальное потепление



Words



dweller

n. a person or animal that lives in a particular place



gland

n. an organ in the human or animal body which secretes particular chemical substances for use in the body or for discharge into the surroundings



distinction

n. a clear difference or separation between two similar things



drought

n. a long period of dry weather when there is not enough water for plants and animals to live



ailment

n. an illness that is not very serious



exceed

v. to be greater in number or size than (a quantity, number, or other measurable thing)



stout

adj. strong and thick



existence

n. the fact or state of living or having objective reality



wart

n. a small hard raised part on someone's skin



exploit

n. a brave and exciting adventure that someone has had

v. to use something fully and effectively



extant

adj. still existing in spite of being very old



fore (limb)

n. an arm or leg of a person or four-legged animal, or a bird's wing



hatch

v. if an egg hatches, or if it is hatched, it breaks, letting the young bird, insect etc come out



hind (limb)

adj. an animal's hind legs are at the back of its body.



hop

v. to move by jumping on one foot



horny

adj. something that is horny is hard, strong, and made of horn or of a hard substance like horn.



irritate

v. to make someone feel annoyed or impatient, especially by doing something many times or for a long period of time



avoid

v. to stay away from someone or something, or not use something



newt

n. a small slender-bodied amphibian with lungs and a well-developed tail, typically spending its adult life on land and returning to water to breed



parotid

adj. relating to, situated near, or affecting a parotid gland



poison

n. poison is a substance that harms or kills people or animals if they swallow it or absorb it

v. to make land, rivers, air etc dirty and dangerous, especially by the use of harmful chemicals



prey

n. an animal, bird etc that is hunted and eaten by another animal, predator



distinguish

v. to recognize and understand the difference between two or more things or people, differentiate



require

v. to need for a particular purpose; depend on for success or survival



rough

adj. having an uneven or irregular surface; not smooth or level



squat

adj. short and thick or low and wide, especially in a way which is not attractive



tail

n. the part that sticks out at the back of an animal's body, and that it can move



burrow

v. (of an animal) make a hole or tunnel, esp. to use as a dwelling



eject

v. to force or throw something out, typically in a violent or sudden way



leap

v. to jump high into the air or to jump in order to land in a different place



thaw out

v. if ice or snow thaws, or if the sun thaws it, it turns into water



toad

n. a tailless amphibian with a short stout body and short legs, typically having dry warty skin that can exude poison



tadpole

n. a small creature that has a long tail, lives in water, and grows into a frog or toad



spawn

v. if a fish or frog spawns, it produces eggs in large quantities at the same time



venom

n. poisonous fluid secreted by animals such as snakes and scorpions and typically injected into prey or aggressors by biting or stinging



webbed (limb)

n. webbed feet or toes have a piece of skin between the toes (water birds such as ducks have webbed feet)



Make sure you know these words


1.

Amphibia




2.

arthropod




3.

Anura




6.

terrestrial




8.

mucous






Working with words

^ 1.Word building.

noun

verb

adjective

leap










burrow




dwell, dweller













appearing

habitat













existing




poison






^ 2.Match a word in A to its definition in B.

A




B




1

prominent

a

to recognize the difference between things

2

to eject

b

to affect the way something happens

3

drought

c

smth frozen becomes warmer and softer

4

to leap

d

important and well-known

5

to influence

e

when smth leaves the place

6

to distinguish

f

to make a long and high jump

7

to thaw out

g

a long period of time when there is little or no rain


^ 3.Choose the correct word to complete the sentences.

newts diurnal spawn skin tadpoles burrow capillaries

1. Class Amphibia includes frogs, toads and ..........

2. In frogs the hind limbs have a web of ........ between the toes.

3. Amphibia have moist skin with a good supply of .............

4. Frogs occasionally hibernate in mud at the bottom of a pond, but more usually, in common with toads and newts they ............ themselves under piles of damp leaves, rotting logs and in underground tunnels.

5. In spring, the amphibians emerge to migrate to their breeding grounds and ...........

6. The toad is terrestrial and ............... (active during the day)

7. Eggs are presumably laid in strings attached to rocks at the bottom of fast-flowing streams, where the ................ develop and grow.

Working with word combinations and sentences
^ 4.Translate these word combinations.

Способность использовать, водная среда обитания, наземный житель, способ существования, задние конечности, разнообразие пищи, питаться насекомыми, характерная походка, покрытая бородавками кожа, ядовитые железы, в некоторых случаях, для лечения заболеваний, распространенное мнение, быть причиной возникновения бородавок, липкий язык, через несколько дней, замерзнуть до твердого состояния, точка замерзания, побелеть, избежать повреждений, перепончатые лапки.

^ 5.Find out the difference between synonyms and write sentences, illustrating it.

illness

the state of feeling ill or having a disease

ailment

an illness, usually not a serious one, but can be painful of uncomfortable

disease

a serious illness that usually lasts a long time, often one that affects a particular part of the body

condition

the physical state of a person or animal; an illness or medical problem that affects someone for a long time

infection

an illness that is caused by bacteria and that does not usually last a long time

disorder

a situation in which a particular part of the body does not operate normally

to be sick

when someone is going to vomit



6.Rewrite these scrambled sentences putting the words in the right order.

1. toad\ 20 cm\ is about\ long\ the Surinam.

2. a squat body\ has\ small eyes\it \, and a flat head.

3. mates\ in\ the Surinam\ water\ toad.

4. an egg\ fertilized\ after\ it is\ released\ is.

5. by the male\ of the female\ egg\ to the back\ is pressed\ each.

6. with a horny lid\ grows \ to enclose them\ the skin\ around\ in a cyst\ the eggs.

7. in\ emerge\ about 80\ the young\ days.

^ 7.Translate from Russian into English.

Температура тела амфибий зависит от температуры и влажности окружающей среды; они отличаются ограниченными возможностями распространения, передвижения и ориентации на суше. Примитивность амфибий как наземных животных особенно ярко выражена в том, что их яйца лишены оболочек, защищающих их от высыхания, и, как правило, не могут развиваться вне воды. В связи с этим у земноводных развивается личинка, обитающая в воде. Развитие протекает с превращением (метаморфоз), в результате которого водная личинка превращается в животное, обитающее на суше. Земноводные — самый малочисленный класс позвоночных, включающий лишь около 2100 современных видов, представленных тремя отрядами: хвостатых, безногих и бесхвостых.

Working with texts

^ 8. Read and translate the text.

Text 1

Class Amphibia

A

An amphibian - any member of the class Amphibia, vertebrates distinguished by their ability to exploit both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. The name, derived from the Greek amphibios meaning “living a double life,” reflects this dual life strategy. Despite this distinction, however, some species are permanent land dwellers, while other species have a completely aquatic mode of existence.

B

Members of the three living orders of amphibians, Anura ( frogs and toads), Caudata (salamanders and newts), and Apoda ( caecilians), differ in their structural appearance. Frogs and toads are tailless, somewhat squat amphibians with long, powerful hind limbs modified for leaping. Salamanders and newts have tails and two pairs of limbs of roughly the same size and have less-specialized structures than the other two orders. Caecilians are limbless, wormlike, and highly adapted for a burrowing existence.

C

Most amphibians have a biphasic life cycle involving aquatic eggs and larvae that metamorphose into terrestrial adults. They deposit large numbers of eggs in water; clutches may exceed 5,000 eggs in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) and 45,000 eggs in large bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Egg size and water temperature influence the length of time required by embryos to develop in the egg before hatching;

D

Adult amphibians consume a wide variety of foods. Earthworms are the main diet of burrowing caecilians, anurans feed primarily on insects and other arthropods, and large salamanders and some large anurans eat small vertebrates, including birds and mammals. Most anurans and salamanders locate prey by sight, although some use their sense of smell.

E

Toad any squat, rough-skinned, tailless amphibian of the order Anura, and especially a member of the family Bufonidae. The true toads (Bufo), with more than 300 species, are found worldwide except in Australasia, Madagascar, polar regions, and Polynesia.

True toads, of which the American toad and the European toad are representative, are stout-bodied with short legs that limit them to the characteristic walking or hopping gait. Their size ranges from about 2 to 25 cm. The thick, dry, often warty skin on the back is generally brown. Poison-secreting glands are located on the back and in the warts but are most concentrated in two prominent raised areas behind the eyes, the parotid glands.

True toads are mainly terrestrial and nocturnal. They frequently remain in fairly small areas, feeding on whatever insects or small animals they can catch with their sticky tongues. Most remain in their burrows in winter and during drought. They breed in water and may migrate 1.5 km or more to a suitable breeding pond. The eggs (600 to over 30,000, depending on species) are laid (spawn) in two long jelly tubes. The tadpoles hatch in a few days and transform into adults in one to three months.

F

The poison, which is secreted or ejected when the toad is disturbed, irritates the eyes and mucous membranes of many, though not all, predators. The poisons of the Colorado River toad and the giant toad affect animals as large as dogs, in some instances causing temporary paralysis or even death. The Chinese have long used dried toad poison to treat various ailments. Contrary to popular belief, toads do not cause warts.

G

In many parts of the world, freezing temperatures are common. Aquatic animals in these climates must be able to survive when temperatures fall below freezing. It is well documented that wood frogs actually freeze solid in winter! The lenses of their eyes turn white when they freeze. But when spring arrives, these same frogs thaw out and hop away to get on with their lives! How do they avoid the damage that freezing causes for most creatures? Their cells concentrate sugars, which lowers the freezing point for the cytoplasm and prevents freezing.
^ 9. Match a title to the paragraph.

1

Freezing mystery




2

Three orders




3

Life cycle




4

Feeding habits




5

Are they poisonous?




6

Class amphibia




7

About toads



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