Exercise Read and remember the following words and word combinations


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АСТРАХАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

КАФЕДРА “ИНОСТРАННЫЕ ЯЗЫКИ В ИНЖЕНЕРНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОМ ОБРАЗОВАНИИ”

Сборник иностранных текстов

по английскому языку по специальностям «Геология нефти и газа», «Разработка и эксплуатация нефтяных и газовых месторождений» для студентов второго курса обучения очной и заочной формы обучения

АСТРАХАНЬ 2007
Составитель:

ассистент кафедры «Иностранные языки в инженерно-техническом образовании» Хусаинова Н.Р.
Рецензент: кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры «Иностранные языки в инженерно-техническом образовании» Фёдорова О.В.


Данный сборник иностранных текстов представляет собой сборник тематических текстов по специальности «Разработка и эксплуатация» нефтяных и газовых месторождений», включающих терминологическую лексику. Тексты содержат лексические и грамматические явления, вызывающие затруднения при чтении научно-технической литературы на английском языке. Каждый текст сопровождается упражнениями, словами и выражениями, подлежащими активизации. При составлении текстов и упражнений автор уделял большое внимание повторяемости лексических и грамматических явлений и придерживался постепенного нарастания трудностей.

Представленный сборник иностранных текстов может применяться студентами, как для аудиторной, так и для внеаудиторной работы для закрепления терминологии по специальностям «Геология нефти и газа», «Разработка и эксплуатация нефтяных и газовых месторождений».

Сборник иностранных текстов соответствует предъявляемым требованиям и может быть рекомендован к распространению через участок ротапринтной печати АГТУ и использованию в учебном процессе.

Сборник иностранных текстов одобрен и утверждён на заседании кафедры «ИЯИТО» протокол № 8 от 30.03.07


© Астраханский государственный технический университет


Unit I Origin of Oil and Gas
Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words and word combinations:
oil (petroleum) – нефть (природная смесь жидких углеводородов и органических соединений кислорода, серы и азота)

oil accumulation – залежь/скопление нефти, формирование залежи нефти

organic theory of oil origin – теория органического происхождения нефти

inorganic theory of oil origin – теория неорганического происхождения нефти

fossil fuel - ископаемое топливо

carbon – углерод

to presume – предполагать, полагать; допускать; считать доказанным

hydrocarbon – углеводород

reservoir – пласт-коллектор; пластовый резервуар (нефти, газа); нефтеносный слой; газоносный пласт; продуктивный пласт; залежи, месторождение (нефти, газа)

marine – морской (принадлежащий, относящийся к морю, морскому миру); marine life/plants/animals – морская жизнь, морские растения/животные

terrestrial – 1) происходящий на земле, на суше; 2) живущий на земле или в земле; 3) сухопутный; наземный

porous rocks – пористая порода

natural trap – естественная ловушка

underground formation – подземный пласт, подземное образование

force of gravity – сила тяжести, земное притяжение

impermeable – непроницаемый, герметический; не пропускающий (жидкость или газ)

seep – выход, высачивание (нефти, газа) // просачиваться

flowing water – проточная вода

volatile – летучий; легкоиспаряющийся

cyclohexane – циклогексан

makeup – состав

action factors – факторы воздействия

shrinkage factor – коэффициент усадки


Exercise 2. Read and translate text A.
Text A

Origin of Oil and Gas

Nowadays there are two main theories explaining the origin of petroleum or oil and natural gas – organic and inorganic ones. However, it has not been possible to determine the exact origin because it has not been possible to identify the exact place or materials from which any particular oil accumulation originated. The precise details regarding the problems of origin migration and accumulation of petroleum have yet to be fully answered. Recent advances in analytical chemistry and geochemistry have advanced the knowledge and understanding, but issues remain to be resolved. The oil pool (field) is an end product to a 5-stage sequence of events: raw materials, accumulation, transformation, migration, and geologic time. But the complication is that petroleums are complex mixtures of many hydrocarbons occurring in series with no two petroleums exactly alike in composition. This is probably due to variations in primary source materials and subsequent processes during formation such as pressure and temperature changes. Although the components of petroleum unite to form complex mixtures, the typical elemental chemical analysis indicates 10-15% hydrogen and 82-87% carbon weight.

  • heavy crude

  • light crude

  • methane gas

  • propane gas

  • butane gas

  • cyclohexane gas

The organic theory presumes that hydrogen and carbon that make up petroleum came from plants and animals living on land and sea. This explanation is most generally accepted by scientists. Heat and pressure transformed the organic materials into solid, liquid, or gaseous hydrocarbons known as fossil fuels – coal, crude oil, or natural gas. Oil is typically derived from marine plants and animals. Natural gas can be formed from almost any marine or terrestrial organic materials, under a wide variety of temperatures and pressures.

The inorganic theory holds that hydrocarbons were trapped inside the Earth1 during the planet’s formation and are slowly moving upwards. According to this theory, the hydrogen and carbon were brought together under great pressure temperature deep in the Earth to form oil and gas, which then found its way through porous rocks to collect in natural traps in the underground formations of the earth.

Due to the force of gravity and the pressure created by the overlaying rock layers, oil and natural gas seldom stay in the source rock in which they are formed. Instead, they move through the underground layers of sedimentary rocks until they either escape at the surface or are trapped by a barrier of less permeable rock. Most of the world’s petroleum had been found trapped in porous rocks under relatively impermeable formations. These reservoirs are often long distances away from the original source. A seep occurs when hydrocarbons migrate to the Earth’s surface. Over time, huge amount of these hydrocarbons have escaped into atmosphere. Flowing water can also wash away hydrocarbons2. Sometimes only lighter, more volatile compounds are removed, leaving behind reservoirs of heavier types of crude oil.

Notes:
1 The inorganic theory holds that hydrocarbons were trapped inside the Earth… - Неорганическая теория придерживается того, что углеводороды были уловлены внутри Земли…

2 Flowing water can also wash away hydrocarbons… - Проточная вода также может вымывать углеводороды…
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences form English into Russian:


  1. It is not possible to determine the exact origin of oil and gas because it is impossible to identify the exact place or materials from which any particular oil accumulation originated.

  2. Hydrogen and carbon that make up petroleum came from plants and animals living on land and in sea.

  3. Heat and pressure transformed the organic materials into solid, liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons.

  4. Oil has derived from marine plants and animals.

  5. Natural gas is formed from almost any marine or terrestrial organic materials.

  6. Most of the world’s petroleum was found trapped in porous rocks.

  7. Hydrocarbons can escape into atmosphere. Flowing water washes away the hydrocarbons.


Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:


  1. Теплота и давление преобразуют органические материалы в твердые, жидкие или газообразные углеводороды.

  2. Благодаря силе притяжения и давлению, создаваемым горными породами, нефть и природный газ редко остаются в породе, где они образовались.

  3. Нефть и газ движутся в сторону подземных осадочных пород, откуда они могут подняться на поверхность.

  4. Залежи нефти и газа часто находятся далеко от источника своего формирования.

  5. Большое количество углеводородов попадает в атмосферу.



Exercise 5. Make up your own questions to each paragraph of the text.
Exercise 6. Answer the following questions:


  1. What theories about oil and gas do you know?

  2. What is your personal opinion on these theories?

  3. What theory is supported by most of scientists?

  4. What transforms the organic materials into solid, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons?

  5. How can oil be formed?

  6. What forms the gas?

  7. Why oil and gas seldom stay in the source rock where they are formed?

  8. Where oil and gas can be trapped?


Exercise 7. Read text B and give the definition to the term ‘oil (petroleum)’ and its properties.

Text B

To begin with, oil or petroleum is one of the most important minerals extracted from the earth. Oil from various deposits differs in chemical composition and that’s why its practical use is not equal. Elemental makeup of oil is characterized by required presence of five chemical elements – carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The important feature of oil quality is its fractional composition. It is defined by laboratory distillation with the use of gradual evaporation method1.

It must be noted that oil is natural combustible mineral. It differs from the others in greater content of hydrocarbons, hydrogen and quantity of heat while burning. According to action factors (heat, pressure, presence of inclusions), oil is differentiated by physical and chemical properties.

Density of oil is its weight in the unit of volume. Oil density varies from 0.75 to 1.00 g/cm3 under the temperature of 20o and depends on oil composition. In stratified conditions oil density is less then on the surface, as in stratified state oil includes dissolved gases.

Shrinkage factor is a reduction unit of 1m3 of oil, extracted from the stratum and transported in the conditions of oil storage. Oil shrinkage takes place when it is cooled and gas removal.

Viscosity is ability of a liquid to resist the current. The higher liquid viscosity, the slowly it flows, and vice versa. For example, light kinds of oil are very moveable and heavy ones are viscous and sometimes they are transformed into semisolid substances.

To sum it up, oil or petroleum is a natural mixture of hydrocarbons (wax-bearing, naphthenetic and aromatic), which represents an oily liquid of dark brown to white color2 with specific smell and with sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen inclusions.
Notes:

1 …laboratory distillation with the use of gradual evaporation method… - …лабораторная перегонка с использованием метода постепенного испарения…

2 …an oily liquid of dark brown to white color…- …маслянистая жидкость от темно-коричневого до белого цвета…

Exercise 8. Give summary of texts A and B, use the plan given below:


  1. Two main theories oа oil and gas origin.

  2. Organic theory.

  3. Inorganic theory.

  4. Definition of oil or petroleum.

  5. Oil properties.



Unit II Exploring of Oil and Gas
Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words and word combinations:
exploring – разведка, изыскание

explorationist – геологоразведчик

trap – ловушка

rock formation – горная порода

features зд. характеристики

sedimentary rock – осадочная порода

sedimentary basin – осадочный бассейн

to examine - исследовать; обследовать

academic papers – научные документы

geology observations – геологические наблюдения

seismic energy – сейсмическая энергия, энергия сейсмических волн

layer – пласт; слой

gas cap – газовая шапка (в коллекторе нефти)

to overlie – залегать над чем-либо, (о напластованиях)

saturated – насыщенный

to intermingle – смешивать(ся), перемешивать(ся) (with)

porosity – пористость

porous reservoir – поровый коллектор

sandstone – песчаник

limestone – известняк

dolomite – доломит

impermeable rock – непроницаемая порода

waxy shale – воскообразный сланец

thrust fault – открытый сброс

normal fault – нормальный сброс

stratigraphic pinch-out – стратиграфическая залежь

reef – риф, рифовый выступ

anticline – антиклиналь, антиклинальная сладка

salt dome – соляной купол

seismic survey – сейсмическая разведка

to lay out – выкладывать, выставлять

geophone – сейсмоприемник

explosion – взрыв

mechanical vibration – механическая вибрация

petroleum-producing area – зона добычи нефти

to drill – бурить

well – скважина

outcrop geology – геология обнаженных пород

to pinpoint – точно указать

attracting force – сила притяжения Земли

density - плотность
Exercise 2. Read text A and translate it, paying attention to the new words and word-combinations:

^ Text A

Exploring of Oil and Gas
Earth scientists in the petroleum industry – including geologists, geophysicists, geochemists and paleontologists – study what has happened to rocks that may be buried thousands of meters below surface, how those rocks were formed and affected by events stretching back millions of years, and how to identify traps where oil and gas accumulated within rock formations. An explorer may have a well-developed theory or intuition why an area should contain oil and gas. A first-hand look at outcrop geology and surface features sometimes helps to confirm the basic requirements – that there may be sedimentary rocks, potential reservoirs and hydrocarbon-bearing source in a sedimentary basin.

Within a basin, the explorer’s first step is to examine all the information already known about the area. This might include academic papers, surface geology observations, any wells drilled, data from relevant agencies or departments and previous exploration results from nearby or similar areas. Geophysicists can identify the structure, configuration, thickness and depth of new sedimentary basins by measuring slight variations in the Earth’s gravitational and magnetic fields and by measuring the time taken for seismic energy waves to pass through and be reflected from sedimentary layers.

In a typical trap, gas accumulates on the top of the reservoir as a “gas cap” over the oil, which in turn overlies the water-saturated zone in the reservoir. This occurs because natural gas is lighter than oil which is lighter than water. However, all three fluids are often intermingled in parts of the reservoir. Porosity is the ability of rock to hold oil and gas like water in a sponge. A trap requires three elements:

  • A porous reservoir rock to accumulate the oil and gas – typically sandstones, limestones and dolomites

  • An overlaying impermeable rock to prevent oil and gas from escaping

  • A source for the oil and gas, typical black waxy shales.

There are 6 common oil and gas traps: 1) thrust fault; 2) normal fault; 3) stratigraphic pinch-out; 4) reef; 5) anticlines; 6) salt dome.

It is impossible to obtain the geophysical data from regulatory bodies, the seismic survey is required. In a seismic survey it is necessary to lay out a line or several lines of sensitive receivers, called geophones or jugs, on the ground. Then explosions or mechanical vibrations are created on the surface. The geophones record the energy reflected back as seismic waves from rock layers at various depths. Geophysicists and geologists examine the seismic data for the presence of suitable traps and for similarities with other petroleum-producing areas. If the results seem promising, they use the seismic data to pinpoint where to drill a well.

The aim of oil prospecting is discovering, geological and economic estimation, and preparation to oil development. Oil prospecting is done with the help of geological, geophysical, geochemical and drilling works in rational combination and consequence.
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