Exercise Read and remember the following words and word combinations


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^ Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:


  1. What study the geologists, geophysicists, geochemists and paleontologists?

  2. What are the basic requirements for presence of oil and gas?

  3. What is necessary to know about a basin?

  4. How geophysicists can identify the structure, configuration, thickness and depth of new sedimentary basins?

  5. In which for accumulates natural gas?

  6. What is lighter: oil, water or gas?

  7. How the seismic survey is conducted?

  8. When it is possible to drill a well?

  9. What is the aim of oil prospecting?



Exercise 4. Compose your own questions to each paragraph of text A.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention to the Voice usage:


  1. Geologists, geophysicists, geochemists and paleontologists study what has happened to rocks that may be buried thousands of meters below surface and how to identify traps where oil and gas accumulated within rock formation.

  2. All three fluids are often intermingled in parts of the reservoir.

  3. The basic requirements of oil or gas presence must be sedimentary rocks, potential reservoirs and hydrocarbon-bearing source rocks in a sedimentary basin.

  4. The explorer’s first step is to examine all the information already known about the area.

  5. Geophysicists can identify the structure, configuration, thickness and depth of new sedimentary basins.

  6. Gas accumulates on the top of the reservoir as a “gas cap” over the oil.

  7. The seismic survey is required when it is impossible to obtain the geophysical data from regulatory bodies.

  8. In case if the results of seismic survey seem promising, they use the seismic data to pinpoint where to drill a well.



Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences in English, using new words and word-combinations:


  1. Сейсморазведка – это один из способов обнаружить нефть и природный газ.

  2. Перед бурением скважины геологоразведчики собирают всю геологическую информацию.

  3. На поверхности производят взрывы и механические вибрации.

  4. Геофизики и геологи сравнивают сейсмические данные с данными других нефтедобывающих районов.

  5. Для сейсморазведки нужны сейсмофоны и чувствительные приемники.

  6. Пористость – это свойство породы удерживать нефть и газ, как воду в губке.

  7. Для ловушки необходимы следующие три элемента: пористая порода, непроницаемая порода и воскообразный сланец.



Exercise 7. Translate the text and say in English how oil and gas are spread:
Миграция нефти и газа.
В процессе седиментации происходит накопление слоистых пород с дисперсным органическим веществом. Одновременно (at the same time) формируются благоприятные для залегания (occurrence) нефти и газа пористые породы (известняки и песчаники).

Поры между частицами заполняются смесью нефти, газа и воды. Породы с крупными порами, в которых собирается нефть, называются резервуарными или коллекторами.

Залежи образуются обычно там, где высокопористые пески залегались над отложением органического ила (silt), например, в дельте Миссисипи. Здесь пески находятся в речных руслах и на морских побережьях, а между ними располагаются большие соленые купола, где в иле захороняют органический материал.

Крупные нефтяные и газовые залежи Луизианы, Техаса, Персидского залива и тюменского Севера относятся к дельтовым отложениям древних рек.

Система рифов – это другой пример общей обстановки, благоприятной для образования, как пород-коллекторов, так и нефтематеринских (petroleogenetic) пород. В зарифовой области отлагается (to deposit) известковый ил, обогащенный органическим веществом. Такие нефтяные месторождения обнаружены в провинции Альберта (Канада), западнее Флориды и в Мексике. Крупные месторождения нефти и газа в рифах открыты в Прикаспийской впадине (Precaspian trough), в Ливии, Узбекистане и многих других районах.
Exercise 8. Read text B and answer the questions:


  1. What does science of oil and gas geology study? When was oil geology formed as a separate science?

  2. What does prospecting stage of oil exploration include?

  3. What is the main purpose of the searching stage?

  4. What are gravimetrical methods based on?


Text B

Basic Concepts of Oil Exploration.
Oil and gas geology is a branch of geology which can be defined as “a science of searching oil and gas deposits”, though geologists often work on the development of such deposits after their discovering. The usage of last achievements of geological science in oil and gas prospecting and exploring don’t except, nevertheless, the element of chance; only one of seventy wells drilled for searching of new oil and gas deposits leads to commercially profitable discovery. That’s why only large companies have geological services and many others engage petroleum geologists as consultants.

Geologists gradually realized relationship between natural oil and gas occurrence and rock structure and in 1915 oil geology was formed as a separate science. Since that time a number of specialists in oil and gas exploring increased and nowadays thousands of geologists are busy with oil and gas searching. In order to explore oil ans gas deposits successfully, it is necessary to determine exact conditions favorable for deposits formation.

As you know oil exploration has two stages: prospecting and searching. Prospecting stage in its turn consists of tree steps.

The first step includes regional works which are held in the basins with unestablished oil-and-gas content with the help of aeromagnetic, geological and gravimetric survey1, geochemical investigation of waters and rocks, profile area crossing by seismic prospecting, drilling of key and parametric wells. The aim of this step is to establish regions for further prospecting work.

The second step consists of more detailed investigation of reservoir zones by means of detailed gravimetrical prospecting, subsurface-contour, electrical and seismic survey2 and geological drilling. On the third step exploratory wells are drilled in order to discover the deposits. Primary exploratory wells are drilled on maximum depth. The upper store is to explore firstly and then come deeper ones. This work leads to the storage estimation.

Searching stage is a completion phase in geological process. Its main purpose is preparation for exploration. In the process of searching, deposits are to be contoured, lithologic composition and hydrocarbon saturation3 must be defined. On completing searching works storage is accounted and recommendations on deposit introduction to exploitation are given. Searching effectiveness depends on deposit discovering ratio.

Gravimetrical methods of oil and gas exploring are based on weak variations of attracting force, defined by different rock properties. Gravity is less above salt dome because salt has less density than surrounding rocks; but it is more above anticlines as dense rocks of foundations are closer to the surface.

Notes:

1 ... aeromagnetic, geological and gravimetric survey… - …аэромагнитная, геологическая и гравиметрическая съемка…

2 … by means of gravimetrical prospecting, subsurface-contour, electrical and seismic survey… - … посредством детальной гравиразведки, структурно-геологической съемки, электро- и сейсморазведки…

3 … lithologic composition and hydrocarbon saturation… - … литологический состав и нефтегазонасыщенность…
Exercise 9. Finish the sentences using the information of texts A and B:


  1. In order to explore oil ans gas deposits successfully ….

  2. Earth scientists in the petroleum industry study….

  3. Geophysicists can identify the structure, configuration, thickness and depth of new sedimentary basins by ….

  4. Gas accumulates on the top of the reservoir as a “gas cap” over the oil because ….

  5. In a seismic survey it is necessary to ….

  6. The aim of oil prospecting is ….

  7. The aim of the first step in prospecting stage is….

  8. Gravimetrical methods of oil and gas exploring are based on ….


Exercise 10. Make up a report on the topic “Oil and Gas Exploration and Its Basic Stages”, using texts A and B.

Unit III The Well. Types of Wells.
Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words and word combinations:
well – скважина; to bring in a well – ввести скважину в эксплуатацию

to drill – бурить; сверлить, просверлить; driller – буровик, бурильщик; буровой мастер

crude oil - сырая нефть; неочищенная нефть; пластовая нефть

ground – земля, почва; грунт

drilling rig – буровая установка

surface – поверхность; земная поверхность

drill string – колонна бурильных труб, бурильная колонна

casing – обсадные трубы, обсадная колонна // крепление (скважины) обсадными трубами

coupling – соединение; сопряжение; сцепление, сочленение; соединительный фланец; ниппель; муфта; соединительная втулка

thread – резьба; нарезка // нарезать резьбу; виток резьбы; ход винта

wellbore – ствол скважины

rock formation – пласт породы

sloughing – обрушение (стенок скважины) // обрушивающийся, осыпающийся

installation – установка; устройство; агрегат; система; оборудование; аппаратура; размещение, расположение; установка (оборудования), монтаж

production tubing – эксплуатационная насосно-компрессорная колона

packer – пакер

wellhead – устье скважины; оборудование устья скважины

valve – клапан; вентиль; задвижка; золотник; распределительный кран

choke – штуцер; фонтанный штуцер; дроссельная катушка; воздушная заслонка; дроссель; заглушка

pressure gage – манометр

perforate – перфорировать, простреливать (обсадные трубы); пробивать отверстия; продавливать отверстия; perforation – перфорация, просверливание, пробивание отверстий, пробуравливание

equip – оборудовать (for; with)

flow – поток; фонтанирование // фонтанировать; выдавать нефть (о скважине); добыча

viscosity – вязкость

fluid – флюид (жидкость, газ, смесь жидкостей и газов); газонефтяная система; газ; газообразная среда // газообразный; жидкость; текучая среда // жидкий, текучий

recovery factor – коэффициент нефтеотдачи

pumping – выкачивание; pump – насос

artificial lift- механизированная добыча, насосно-компрессорная добыча

rod string – колонна насосных штанг

stimulating – стимулирование

acidizing – кислотная обработка (скважины или пласта)

injection – нагнетание; закачивание

fracturing – гидравлический разрыв пласта (закачкой жидкости под большим давлением)

proppant – расклинивающий наполнитель (жидкость для гидравл. Разрыва пласта)
^ Exercise 2. Read text A and translate it, paying attention to the new words and word-combinations:

Text A

Modern Conception of the Well.
The well is a hole drilled in the earth for the purpose of finding or producing crude oil or natural gas; or providing services related to the production of crude oil or natural gas. Also, an oil well can be described as a pipeline reaching from the top of the ground to the oil producing formation. Through this pipe, oil and gas are brought to the surface. Wells are normally drilled with a drill rig in stages, starting with a surface hole drilled to reach a depth anywhere from 60 to 400 meters.

The drillers then pull out the drill string and insert steel pipe, called surface casing, which is cemented in place to keep the wall from caving in. the casing – tubular steel pipe connected by threads and coupling-lines the total length of the wellbore1 to ensure safe control of production and to prevent water entering the wellbore and to keep the rock formations from “sloughing” into the wellbore. The second step is the installation of the production tubing. Tubing is a steel pipe smaller in diameter than the production casing. It is lowered into the casing and held in place by packers which also isolate the production layers of rock.

Tubing. The tubing hangs from a surface installation called the wellhead. The wellhead includes valves, chokes and pressure gages and makes it possible to regulate production from the well. The third step is to perforate the well. The casing prevents the hole from collapsing, but it also prevents the oil or gas from entering the wellbore. Therefore, holes are made through the casing and into the formation. This is usually accomplished with an explosive device that is lowered into the well on an electrical wireline to the required depth. This device, a collection of explosive charges, is called a perforated gun2.

Producing oil and gas from the well. Gas generally flows to the wellbore under its own pressure. As a result, most gas wells are equipped only with chokes and valves to control the flow through the wellhead into a pipeline. When the wellhead pressure is less than the pipeline pressure, a compressor is installed to boost the low-pressure gas into the pipeline.

The production of crude oil is more complicated. Crude oil has larger molecules and moves through rocks less easily. The percentage of the oil in the reservoir that can be produced naturally, called the recovery factor, is determined by a large number of elements. These include the density of the oil, the viscosity, the porosity and permeability of the rock, the pressure in the oil reservoir and the pressure of other fluids such as gas and water in the reservoir.

Pumping. While some oil wells contain enough pressure to push oil to the su5rface, most oil wells drilled today require pumping. This is also known as artificial lift. If a well requires it, a pump is lowered down the tubing to the bottom of the well on a string of steel rods, referred to as the rod string. The rod string conveys power to the pump either by rotating or moving up and down, depending on the type of pump employed. Submersible pumps3 are used on some wells.

Well stimulation. In many oil and gas wells, one additional step is required – stimulating the formation by physical or chemical means so that the hydrocarbons can move more easily to the wellbore through the pres or fractures in the reservoir. This is usually done before installing a pump or when the pump is removed for maintenance.

One form of stimulation – acidizing is the injection of acids under pressure into the rock formation through the production tubing and perforations. This creates channels beyond the perforations for oil and gas to flow back to the well. Fracturing or fracing is another common method of stimulation. A fluid such as water or an oil product is pumped down the hole under sufficient pressure to create cracks (fractures) in the formation.

Proppant – a hard substance such as sand, ceramics or resin-coated material – injected with the fluid. As the fluid disperses, the material remains to drop open the fracture.
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