Exercise Read and remember the following words and word combinations


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НазваниеExercise Read and remember the following words and word combinations
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Notes:

1 lines the total length of the well bore - … протягиваться по всей длине ствола скважины

2 a collection of explosive charges, is called perforating gun - … набор зарядов взрывных веществ, называемый скважинным перфоратором

3 submersible pumps – погружные насосы
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:


  1. What is the well?

  2. How the wells are drilled?

  3. Describe the wellhead equipment.

  4. What is the purpose of perforation?

  5. What devices are used during perforation?

  6. How does gas flow from the well? What equipment is used to control gas flow?

  7. What happens when the wellhead pressure is less than the pipeline pressure?

  8. What is more complicated: production of crude oil or gas?

  9. What is recovery factor?

  10. How can we call pumping of well fluids in other words?

  11. What kind of wells needs artificial lift?

  12. Why most of oil and gas wells must be stimulated?

  13. Describe the forms of well stimulation.

  14. What is proppant?


Exercise 4. Learn the following word combinations and make up your own sentences with them:


  • to flow by gravity – двигаться самотеком

  • to flow by heads – фонтанировать

  • to flow naturally – фонтанировать естественным путем

  • to flow off – стекать

  • to flow out – вытекать

  • to flow over – переливаться

  • to flow through – перекачивать, пропускать, протекать

  • to flow up – подниматься (о флюиде в скважине)


Exercise 5. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word-combinations:
Drilling, hydrocarbons, installing a pump, acidizing, injection of acids, under pressure, rock formation, production tubing, perforation, fracturing, stimulation, hard substance, low-pressure gas, percentage of the oil in the reservoir, recovery factor, large number of elements, density of the oil, viscosity, porosity, permeability of the rock, pressure in the oil reservoir, wellbore, drilling rig, wellhead, choke, valve, casing.
^ Exercise 6. Give English equivalents to the following sentences:
Скважина – это отверстие, пробуренное в земле в целях добычи сырой нефти и природного газа. Обсадная колонна – это стальная труба, которая обеспечивает безопасность добычи и предотвращает проникновение воды в ствол скважины. Насосно-компрессорная труба имеет наименьший диаметр, чем обсадная колонна. Сырая нефть состоит из молекул большего размера, и она тяжелее продвигается сквозь породы. Процент нефти, извлеченной из всей залежи, называется нефтоотдачей. Механизированной добычей называется извлечение нефти из пласта с помощью насосов. При механизированной добыче насос опускается в насосно-компрессорную трубу. На некоторых скважинах используются погружные насосы.
Exercise 7. Summarize text A, using the following phrases:


  • The subject of the text is …

  • The text deals with …

  • It is pointed out that …

  • To sum it up …

Exercise 8. Read text B and title it, pay attention to the new words and word-combinations:

Text B
The well is formed by consistent destruction of rock and its extraction to the surface. In the way of ordinary drilling, the whole body of rock is destructed. And, in the course of core recovery1 drilling only annular space near well walls is destructed, and rock column is extracted in undefeated state for deposit geological structure investigation.

End use of the wells is different. All wells, drilled with the aim of region investigations, quest2, prospecting and oil and gas deposits exploitation, are divided into following types.

^ Key wells are drilled for regions’ geological structure and hydrogeological conditions investigation, definition of general regularities of deposits occurrence3, favorable for oil and gas accumulation, in order to select the most perspective directions of exploration works for oil and gas.

^ Parametric wells are drilled for subsurface geological structure studying and comparative assessment of oil-and-gas content perspectives of possible accumulation zones, for detection of the most prospective regions for detail geological works, and for obtaining necessary data about geologic-geophysical sedimentary profile4 characteristics in order to get precise results of seismic and other geophysical investigations.

Record wells are bored for detection and preparation to prospect drilling of the perspective areas (anticlinal folds, blind and fringe zones5, etc). According to the information received in the process of record wells drilling, attitude of beds elements in different points (tectonics, stratigraphy, and lithology) and the area profiles are defined.

^ Prospect wells or wildcat are drilled on the areas which were prepared in the course of geological prospecting works (geological survey, geological drilling, geophysical and geochemical observations and a complex of these methods) in order to determine oil-and-gas content6.

^ Exploration wells are drilled on the areas with fixed industrial oil-and-gas content for deposit delimitation7, estimation of reserves and preparation for its exploitation.

Recovery wells are bored for exploitation of oil and gas deposits. This category includes development test wells (for pay horizon pods8 estimation), producing oil wells, pressure wells (for pumping water, air or gas in pay horizons with the aim of reservoir pressure maintenance and elongation natural flowing period9), and observation wells (test and piestic wells10). To this type also belong wells, which are intended for thermo – effect on bed in the way of deposits exploitation with extra-heavy oils11.

^ Special wells are drilled for produced water discharge12; open oil and gas spring elimination; preparation of the underground gas storage structures and pumping gas into them; prospecting and extraction of process waters13.
Notes:


  1. core recovery - вынос керна, отбор керна

  2. quest – поиск || производить поиск, искать; quest for oil — поиск нефти

  3. regularities of deposits occurrence – закономерность распространения месторождений

  4. sedimentary profile – геол. Разрез отложений

  5. blind and fringe zones- зоны экранирования и выклинивания

  6. oil-and-gas content – нефтегазосодержание; нефтегазоносность

  7. deposit delimitation – оконтуривание месторождения

  8. pay horizon pod – коллектор продуктивных горизонтов

  9. elongation natural flowing period – удлинение периода естественного фонтанирования

  10. piestic well – пьезометрическая скважина

  11. extra-heavy oil – сверхтяжёлая нефть; высоковязкая тяжёлая нефть

  12. produced water discharge – выброс промысловых вод

  13. process water – техническая вода


Exercise 9. Answer the questions using information of text B:


  1. How is the well formed? What are the peculiarities of ordinary and core drilling?

  2. How the wells are divided according their end use?

  3. What are the parametric wells drilled for?

  4. What are the recovery wells? What do they include?


Exercise 10. Finish the sentences:


  1. The beginning of the well is called … .

  2. In the course of core recovery drilling … .

  3. Key wells are drilled for regions’ … .

  4. Special wells are drilled for produced water … .

  5. The well is formed by consistent destruction ….



Exercise 11. Match the following statements:


  1. целевое назначение

  2. опорная скважина

  3. геологоразведочные работы

  4. нефтегазоносность

  5. структурная скважина

  6. стратиграфия

  7. геологическая съемка

  8. поисковая скважина

  9. геохимические исследования

  10. термовоздействие

  11. открытый фонтан нефти

  12. подземное газохранилище

  13. эксплуатационная скважина

  1. oil-and-gas content

  2. geological survey

  3. end use

  4. key well

  5. exploration works

  6. wildcat

  7. thermo-effect

  8. stratigraphy

  9. open oil spring

  10. record well

  11. underground gas storage

  12. geochemical investigations

  13. recovery well

Exercise 12. Retell text B, using the following word – combinations:
consistent destruction, undefeated state, the most perspective directions, subsurface geological structure, attitude of bed, geochemical observations, estimation of reserves, development test well, to pump gas.
Exercise 13. Read text C and find information about:

What is geological and engineering program?

What does it include?

What are the main parts of the program?
^ Text C

Geological and engineering program.
Well drilling is realized in accordance with exploration plan and exploitation process flowsheet. The basic document according, which a drilling crew works, is geological and engineering program. It includes the well category (prospect, exploration, and recovery wells), aim of drilling, rated stratigraphic section, rated well depth and rated well design. Geological and engineering program has two parts.

In geological part alongside with rated stratigraphic section (drill mounting), age and lithologic rock makeup with drilling layout is appointed. Data of possible lost-circulation zones, rock crumbling, oil-gas-water content of the section; list of all field and geophysical investigations, which are fulfilled in the course of well drilling, are given.

In the technical part of the program, in accordance with geological data, bits type and size, drilling agent requirements, drilling operating practices, testing method, opening-up of gas and oil objects and the way of their testing are shown. Prevention measures on the zones of penetration are accounted on the deposits where lost-circulation zones, collapse zones and beds with abnormal high rock pressure are supposed to take place.

^ Words to remember:
exploitation process flowsheet - карта технологического процесса

rated stratigraphic section – проектный разрез пород

drilling layout – разбивка по буримости

zones of penetration – зоны проходки

lost-circulation zone – зона поглощения; зона потери циркуляции (бурового раствора)
Exercise 14. Make up a report, on the topic “The Well. Types of Wells”.

^ Unit IV Well Testing. Separation of Oil and Gas
Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words and word combinations:
efficient performing – эффективная работа

well test – испытания скважины

routine – установившаяся практика; заведенный порядок (работы); повседневный; текущий (об обслуживании и ремонте)

producing equipment – промысловое оборудование для добычи

potential test – определение потенциального дебита (скважины)

wireline measurement – измерение при помощи кабельного опробователя

lease tank – нефтесборный промысловый резервуар (арендованный для хранения нефти на месте добычи нефти)

bottomhole pressure test – испытание забойного давления

producing interval – нефтеносный интервал; продуктивный интервал

pressure gage – манометр давления

flow rate – дебит (скважины или промысла); производительность (насоса, компрессора)

recording manometer – регистрирующий манометр

orifice meter – диафрагменный расходомер; orifice well tester – диафрагменный расходомер скважины

leak – утечка

ratio active tracers – радиоактивный индикатор

producing allowables – нефтяная квота

to mitigate – ослаблять; смягчать; подавлять

to complete – выполнять; осуществлять, доводить до конца

deposit development – разработка месторождения

treatment – (технологическая) обработка; очистка

to separate – отделять(ся); выделять(ся); separation – отделение; разделение; separator – сепаратор

to reduce – уменьшать, снижать; понижать

storage tank – резервуар-хранилище

inlet / outlet – вход / выход

gas-gathering system - газосборная система; газоотводная система; газосборная сеть (на нефтепромысле)

swirling motion – вихревое движение; swirl cylinder – вихревой цилиндр

baffle – направляющая перегородка

to drain – дренировать; сливать; стекать; спускать

flow line – выкидная линия (трубопровод, идущий от скважины к сепаратору); сборный нефтепровод

float – поплавок

control valve – распределительный клапан; регулирующий клапан; регулирующая задвижка

design – конструкция
Exercise 2. Read text A and translate it, paying attention to the new words and word-combinations:
Text A

Well Testing
In producing gas and oil, efficient performing of the producing wells has more and more importance. A variety of tests must be made to determine the performing of an oil or gas well. This procedure is called testing. There are a large number of types of well tests and each is needed to obtain certain information about the well.

Various personnel make many well tests, some of them are routine and some are complicated. Depending upon the type of test to be performed, the standard lease producing equipment may be all that is necessary for the test. In other tests, specially designed apparatus may be necessary. In any event, it is very important that the test be done accurately since well test data presents the true history of a well and the reservoir in which it is completed.

Potential test: the most frequently conducted well test is the potential test, which is a measurement of the largest amount of oil and gas, produced by a well in a 24-hour period under certain fixed conditions. The produced oil is measured in an automatically controlled production and test unit. It can also be measured by wireline measurement in lease tank. Produced gas is measured at the same time with equipment such as an orifice meter or an orifice well tester. The major items of equipment needed for a test of this type are usually available as standard equipment at the lease tank farm.

The potential test is normally made on each newly completed well and often during its production life. The information obtained from this test is required by the state regulatory group, which assigns a producing allowable, which must be followed by the operator of the well. It is necessary to make the tests from time to time and producing allowables are adjusted according to the results of the tests. Very often these tests are performed by the producer to help in establishing proper production practices.

Bottom-hole pressure test: this test is a measure of the reservoir pressure of the well at a specific depth or at midpoint of the producing interval. The purpose of this test is to measure the pressure in the zone in which the well is completed. In making of this test, a specially designed pressure gage is lowered into the well by means of a wireline. The pressure at the selected depth is recorded by the gage. After that gas is pulled to the surface and is taken from the well. Regular bottom-hole tests will provide valuable information about the decline or depletion of the zone in which the well has been producing.

Productivity tests are made on both oil and gas wells, and include both the potential test and the bottom-hole pressure test. The purpose is to determine the effects of different flow rates on the pressure within the producing zone. In this way, it is possible to establish some certain physical characteristics of the reservoir and to calculate maximum potential rate of flow. This test mitigates risk of damaging the well, which might occur if the well were produced at its maximum possible flow rate.

Special tests: two types of special tests are fluid level determination and bottom-hole determination. The first is required for wells, which will not flow and must be made to produce by pumping or artificial lift. The bottom-hole determination is normally made along with the bottom-hole pressure test and is made to determine the temperature of the well at the bottom of the hole.

It is necessary to lower a specially designed recording manometer into the well on a wire line.

The temperature tests are used by the engineer in solving problems about the nature of oil or gas that the well produces. It is also useful in locating leaks in the pipe above the producing zone. Other special tests are performed with flow rate indicators and radio active tracers.

As we know, one of the parameters of effective oil production is quality of investigation works and methods of production rate increasing1, applied in the results of well testing. Well state diagnostics also is very important for geotechnical activities, especially on the last stage of deposit development.

While testing a well it is very important to know reservoir pressure. Under the reservoir pressure there is fluid and gas, which fills pore space or reservoir fractures2. It is the most important parameter which characterizes producing energy of oil, gas, and water beds. Deposits where reservoir pressure higher than hydrostatic pressure are called deposits with abnormally high reservoir pressure. Its formation, change and state in oil and gas deposits depend on hydrostatic, geostatic, and geotectonic pressure, and also on chemical interaction of waters and rocks.

In the process of well exploitation areas with lower pressure can take place. Pressure in the well in work is called dynamic and pressure in the well when the work is stopped is called static. In the course of deposit development (if methods of keeping pressure3 are not applied) reservoir pressure reduces. Reservoir pressure is defined by depth pressure gage measurements.
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