Exercise Read and remember the following words and word combinations


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НазваниеExercise Read and remember the following words and word combinations
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Notes:

1 methods of production rate increasing – методы увеличения нефтеотдачи

2 pore space or reservoir fractures – поровое пространство или трещины коллекторов

3 methods of keeping pressure – методы поддержания давления

Exercise 3. Speak on the following:


    1. What must be done to determine the performing of an oil or gas well?

    2. Why is it very important that the test be done accurately?

    3. What is a potential test?

    4. How is the information obtained from potential test used?

    5. What is the purpose of the bottom-hole pressure test?

    6. What makes it possible to establish some certain physical characteristics of the reservoir and to calculate maximum potential rate of flow?

    7. Describe two types of special tests.

    8. What equipment is used for special test?

    9. Why is it so necessary to know reservoir pressure in the well?

    10. What factors cause formation, change and state of pressure in the well?

    11. How can pressure in the well be measured?



Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian, using text A:


  1. Some tests must be made to determine the performance of an oil or gas well.

  2. There are a large number of types of well tests and each is needed to obtain more information about the well.

  3. The standard lease producing equipment may be all that is necessary for the test.

  4. It is very important that the test be done accurately since well test data presents the true history of a well.

  5. The produced oil is measured in an automatically controlled production and test unit.

  6. The tests are performed by the producer to help in establishing proper production practices.

  7. A specially designed pressure gage is lowered into the well by means of a wire line.

  8. The temperature tests are used by the engineer in solving problems about nature of oil or gas that the well produces.

Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into English:

  1. Определение потенциального дебита скважины является наиболее частым видом ее испытания.

  2. Добытый газ измеряется с помощью диафрагменного расходомера.

  3. Оператор скважины должен соблюдать заданные параметры режима добычи нефти.

  4. Это испытание представляет собой измерение давления залежи на определенной глубине зоны, где была закончена скважина.

  5. Можно установить определенные физические характеристики залежи и подсчитать максимально возможный дебит скважины.

  6. Испытание исключает риск повреждения скважины.

  7. Имеется два вида специальных испытаний: определение уровня жидкости и определение забоя скважины.

  8. Другие специальные испытания производятся с помощью индикаторов дебита скважины и радиоактивных индикаторов.

  9. Образование, изменение и состояние пластового давления в нефтяных и газовых месторождениях зависит от гидростатического, геостатического и геотектонического давления, а также химического взаимодействия вод и пород.

  10. Месторождения, где пластовое давление превышает гидростатическое давление, называют месторождением с аномально высоким пластовым давлением.


Exercise 6. Make up sentences with the following word-combinations: efficient performing, producing equipment, pressure gage, flow rate, orifice meter, producing allowables, well test, routine.
Exercise 7. Express your disagreement on the following statements. Prove your answers with facts from text A, use the word-combinations given below:
It seems to be wrong; I don’t agree with you; I don’t think so; on the contrary; that’s not quite so; as far as I know, etc.


  1. In producing gas and oil, efficient performance of the producing wells has no importance.

  2. It is not very important that the test be done accurately.

  3. The information obtained from theу potential test is required by the operator of the well.

  4. Bottom-hole pressure test is the most frequently conducted well test.

  5. It is impossible to establish some certain physical characteristics of the reservoir by productivity test.


Exercise 8. Retell text A.
Exercise 9. Read and translate text B, using the vocabulary of the unit:
Text B

Separation of Oil and Gas
Well fluids must be separated into oil, gas, and water and each of them must be measured. In the early days of the oil industry, separators were not used. The production from wells was discharged directly into storage tanks. Although this resulted in separation of the liquids and gases, the practice was both wasteful and dangerous. The separators were developed to reduce such waste and the danger of fire and explosion.

Petroleum mixtures are often complex and difficult to separate efficiently. The equipment used to separate the liquids from the gases is referred to as a separator. The simplest form of an oil and gas separator is a small tank in which the force of gravity is used to separate the oil and gas1. Oil, being heavy compared to the gas, falls to the bottom of the tank from which it goes into storage tanks. Gas, being lighter, rises to the top of the tank and goes from there into gas-gathering system.

In addition to using the force of gravity, modern separators make use of other forces to get the best possible separation of oil and gas. The way in which each of those forces is used can be better understood by following the flow of mixture of oil and gas through a separator.

Vertical separator: the mixture of oil and gas enters inlet, where it given a swirling motion by a spiral inlet baffle in the separator space or chamber. As this point there are two forces tending to separate the oil from gas. The first is the effect of gravity; the second is the centrifugal action, which causes the heavy oil particles to collect on the walls of the separator. Gas, which still contains some oil, rises through chamber and then enters the swirl cylinder and oil drains through tubes to the bottom of separator. The gas then passes through another chamber and leaves the separator through gas outlet.

Oil leaves separator at the oil outlet. The oil is regulated by a float and control valve, so liquid covers the drain tubes and the oil outlet.

Horizontal separator: separators of horizontal type are also common; although of different design, they have the same uses as the vertical separator. There are single tube and double tube separators. Horizontal separators of the two tube design are often used. The unit is made if two horizontal tubes mounted one above the other. The tubes are jointed by flow channels near the ends of the tubes. The mixed stream of oil and gas enters at one end of the upper tube. The liquids fall through the first connecting flow pipe into the liquid reservoir, which occupies the lower potion of the bottom tube. Oil separated from gas, goes to stock tanks. Gas leaves the separator through the gas outlet.

Single-tube separator.

Stage separator: under certain conditions it is often desirable to use more than one stage of separation in order to obtain more complete recovery of liquids. For instance, three-stage separation system operates as follows: the first stage operates at the highest pressure and the second and third at lower pressures.

Low temperature separators: low-temperature separation is a method of separation sometimes used to handle the production of high-pressure gas wells that produce some light liquids. The liquid separation is made possible by cooling the gas stream before separation.
Exercise 10. Match two parts of the sentences:


  1. In the early days of the oil industry,

  2. The separators were developed

  3. Petroleum mixtures are often

  4. Gas rises to the top of the tank and

  5. Modern separators use force of gravity

  6. There are several types of separators:

  1. to reduce waste and danger of fire and explosion.

  2. to get the best possible separation of oil and gas.

  3. complex and difficult to separate efficiently.

  4. goes from there into gas-gathering system.

  5. separators were not used.

  6. vertical, horizontal, stage and low-temperature separators.


Exercise 11. Answer the following questions:


  1. What is the separator?

  2. What is the operating principle of vertical-type separator?

  3. Why is it necessary to use separators?

  4. What is the difference between single-tube and double-tube separator?

  5. What is the simplest form of separator?

  6. How operates three-stage operation system?


Exercise 12. Translate the following sentences into English:


  1. Нефтяные смеси часто бывает сложно отделить.

  2. Оборудование, с помощью которого отделяют жидкость от газов, называется сепаратором.

  3. Сила тяжести используется для отделения нефти и газа.

  4. Газ, будучи легче нефти, поднимается наверх резервуара и поступает в газосборную систему.

  5. Современные сепараторы используют и другие силы, помимо силы тяжести.

  6. Горизонтальные сепараторы могут иметь конструкцию с одной и с двумя трубами.

  7. Нефть, будучи тяжелее газа, стекает на дно резервуара, откуда она попадает в резервуар-хранилище.

  8. При определенных условиях часто желательно использовать более одной стадии сепарации для того, чтобы получить наиболее полный выход жидкостей.


Exercise 13. Give summary of text B.

Unit V Drilling Rig. Applied Drilling Equipment
^ Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words and word combinations:
tackle system – талевая система

drawworks – лебедка буровой установки

tool hoisting - подъём бурового инструмента

tool advance – подача (бурового) инструмента

circulation fluid pumps – насосы бурового раствора

trip – спуско-подъёмная операция (спуск и подъём бурового инструмента, скважинного прибора )

dimension-type – типоразмер

to facilitate - облегчать; способствовать; облегчить; содействовать; оказать содействие; поспособствовать; продвигать; продвинуть; обеспечить

power grid - электрическая сеть; электроэнергетическая система

coil tubing - колонна гибких труб
hexagonal pipe (the kelly) - ведущая труба шестигранного сечения

derrick – вышка

load capacity – грузоподъёмность

hook - захват; подъёмный крюк

stalk - свеча (бурильных труб)
bearing load - нагрузка на подшипники; нагрузка на опору

casing pipe - обсадная труба; обсадная колонна

shaft – вал лебедки

brake – тормоз, hydraulic brake - гидродинамический тормоз, electrodynamic brake - электродинамический тормоз

drill tower – буровая вышка

crownblock - кронблок
geared and pump barn – агрегатный и насосный сарай

crownblock beam - подкронблочная балка

stabbing board - балкон (полати) буровой вышки (сооружаемые при спуске обсадной колонны); балкон буровой вышки для работы с обсадными трубами

spinning-up – свинчивание

winch barrel - барабан лебёдки
^ Exercise 2. Read text A and translate it, paying attention to the new words and word-combinations:

Text A

Definition and Classification of the Drilling Rig

The well is drilled with the help of drilling rig, which represents a complex of units, mechanisms, and constructions, placed on the surface.

A drilling rig is a structure housing equipment used to drill into underground reservoirs for water, oil, or natural gas, or into sub-surface mineral deposits. The term can refer to a land-based structure, or a marine-based structure (oil platform) commonly called an 'offshore oil rig'. While marine-based rigs can drill through the ocean bottom for minerals, the technology and economics of under-sea mines is not yet commercially viable. The term "rig" therefore generally refers to the complex of equipment that is used to drill the surface of the earth's crust for samples of oil, water, or minerals.

Oil and Natural Gas drilling rigs can be used not only to identify geologic reservoirs but also to create holes that allow the extraction of oil or natural gas from those reservoirs. An oil or gas pumping rig, sometimes called a derrick, is used to retrieve oil / gas from a reservoir.

Drilling rigs can be:

  • Small and portable, such as those used in mineral exploration drilling.

  • Huge, capable of drilling through thousands of meters of the Earth's crust. Large "mud pumps" are used to circulate drilling mud (slurry) through the drill bit and the casing, for cooling and removing the "cuttings" while a well is drilled. Hoists in the rig can lift hundreds of tons of pipe. Other equipment can force acid or sand into reservoirs to facilitate extraction of the oil or mineral sample; and permanent living accommodation and provision for crews which may be more than a hundred. Marine rigs may operate many hundreds of miles or kilometers offshore with infrequent crew rotation.


There are many types and designs here when one shows up on time of drilling rigs, depending on their purpose and improvements; many drilling rigs are capable of switching or combining different drilling technologies.

  • by power used:

electric - rig is connected to a power grid usually produced by its own generators

mechanic - rig produces power with its own (diesel) engines

hydraulic - most movements are done with hydraulic power

pneumatic - pressured air is used to generate small scale movements

  • by pipe used:

cable - a cable is used to slam the bit on the rock (used for small geotechnical wells)

conventional - uses drill pipes

coil tubing - uses a giant coil of tube and a downhole drilling motor

  • by height

single - can drill only single drill pipes, has no vertical pipe racks (most small drilling rigs)

double - can store double pipe stands in the pipe rack

triple - can store stands composed of three pipes in the pipe rack (most large drilling rigs)

quad - can store stands composed of four pipes in the pipe rack

  • by method of rotation

no rotation (most service rigs)

rotary table - rotation is achieved by turning a hexagonal pipe (the kelly) at drill floor level.

top-drive - rotation and circulation is done at the top of the drillstring, on a motor that moves along the derrick.

  • by position of derrick

conventional - derrick is vertical

slant - derrick is at an angle (this is used to achieve deviation without an expensive downhole motor).

A drilling rig consists of: a rig for tackle system suspension and drill pipes arrangement, equipment for tool running and hoisting, machinery for tool advance and rotation, circulation fluid pumps, power drive, mechanisms for preparation and purification of circulation fluid, devices for trip automation and mechanization, instrumentation and auxiliaries. A drilling rig also includes metal bases, on which the equipment is mounted and transported.

Different conditions and aims of drilling under with the variety of depths and wells construction can’t be satisfied by one drilling unit dimension-type and that is why State Standard provides a number of drilling rigs. Drilling rigs are classified by load capacity on hook.

Standard also provides a number of other drilling rigs parameters, including basic mechanisms drive power, nominal length of stalks, height marks of units and some other factors.

A drilling rig for drilling a given well or a group of wells is chosen by safe bearing load on the hook, which can’t be transcended by the weight (in the air) of more heavy casing pipe.
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