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|Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words and word combinations|
Exercise 2. Read text A and translate it, paying attention to the new words and word-combinations
1 methods of production rate increasing – методы увеличения нефтеотдачи
2 pore space or reservoir fractures – поровое пространство или трещины коллекторов
3 methods of keeping pressure – методы поддержания давления
Exercise 3. Speak on the following:
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian, using text A:
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into English:
Exercise 6. Make up sentences with the following word-combinations: efficient performing, producing equipment, pressure gage, flow rate, orifice meter, producing allowables, well test, routine.
Exercise 7. Express your disagreement on the following statements. Prove your answers with facts from text A, use the word-combinations given below:
It seems to be wrong; I don’t agree with you; I don’t think so; on the contrary; that’s not quite so; as far as I know, etc.
Exercise 8. Retell text A.
Exercise 9. Read and translate text B, using the vocabulary of the unit:
Separation of Oil and Gas
Well fluids must be separated into oil, gas, and water and each of them must be measured. In the early days of the oil industry, separators were not used. The production from wells was discharged directly into storage tanks. Although this resulted in separation of the liquids and gases, the practice was both wasteful and dangerous. The separators were developed to reduce such waste and the danger of fire and explosion.
Petroleum mixtures are often complex and difficult to separate efficiently. The equipment used to separate the liquids from the gases is referred to as a separator. The simplest form of an oil and gas separator is a small tank in which the force of gravity is used to separate the oil and gas1. Oil, being heavy compared to the gas, falls to the bottom of the tank from which it goes into storage tanks. Gas, being lighter, rises to the top of the tank and goes from there into gas-gathering system.
In addition to using the force of gravity, modern separators make use of other forces to get the best possible separation of oil and gas. The way in which each of those forces is used can be better understood by following the flow of mixture of oil and gas through a separator.
Vertical separator: the mixture of oil and gas enters inlet, where it given a swirling motion by a spiral inlet baffle in the separator space or chamber. As this point there are two forces tending to separate the oil from gas. The first is the effect of gravity; the second is the centrifugal action, which causes the heavy oil particles to collect on the walls of the separator. Gas, which still contains some oil, rises through chamber and then enters the swirl cylinder and oil drains through tubes to the bottom of separator. The gas then passes through another chamber and leaves the separator through gas outlet.
Oil leaves separator at the oil outlet. The oil is regulated by a float and control valve, so liquid covers the drain tubes and the oil outlet.
Horizontal separator: separators of horizontal type are also common; although of different design, they have the same uses as the vertical separator. There are single tube and double tube separators. Horizontal separators of the two tube design are often used. The unit is made if two horizontal tubes mounted one above the other. The tubes are jointed by flow channels near the ends of the tubes. The mixed stream of oil and gas enters at one end of the upper tube. The liquids fall through the first connecting flow pipe into the liquid reservoir, which occupies the lower potion of the bottom tube. Oil separated from gas, goes to stock tanks. Gas leaves the separator through the gas outlet.
Stage separator: under certain conditions it is often desirable to use more than one stage of separation in order to obtain more complete recovery of liquids. For instance, three-stage separation system operates as follows: the first stage operates at the highest pressure and the second and third at lower pressures.
Low temperature separators: low-temperature separation is a method of separation sometimes used to handle the production of high-pressure gas wells that produce some light liquids. The liquid separation is made possible by cooling the gas stream before separation.
Exercise 10. Match two parts of the sentences:
Exercise 11. Answer the following questions:
Exercise 12. Translate the following sentences into English:
Exercise 13. Give summary of text B.
Unit V Drilling Rig. Applied Drilling Equipment
tackle system – талевая система
drawworks – лебедка буровой установки
tool hoisting - подъём бурового инструмента
tool advance – подача (бурового) инструмента
circulation fluid pumps – насосы бурового раствора
trip – спуско-подъёмная операция (спуск и подъём бурового инструмента, скважинного прибора )
dimension-type – типоразмер
to facilitate - облегчать; способствовать; облегчить; содействовать; оказать содействие; поспособствовать; продвигать; продвинуть; обеспечить
power grid - электрическая сеть; электроэнергетическая система
coil tubing - колонна гибких труб
hexagonal pipe (the kelly) - ведущая труба шестигранного сечения
derrick – вышка
load capacity – грузоподъёмность
hook - захват; подъёмный крюк
stalk - свеча (бурильных труб)
bearing load - нагрузка на подшипники; нагрузка на опору
casing pipe - обсадная труба; обсадная колонна
shaft – вал лебедки
brake – тормоз, hydraulic brake - гидродинамический тормоз, electrodynamic brake - электродинамический тормоз
drill tower – буровая вышка
crownblock - кронблок
geared and pump barn – агрегатный и насосный сарай
crownblock beam - подкронблочная балка
stabbing board - балкон (полати) буровой вышки (сооружаемые при спуске обсадной колонны); балкон буровой вышки для работы с обсадными трубами
spinning-up – свинчивание
winch barrel - барабан лебёдки
Definition and Classification of the Drilling Rig
The well is drilled with the help of drilling rig, which represents a complex of units, mechanisms, and constructions, placed on the surface.
A drilling rig is a structure housing equipment used to drill into underground reservoirs for water, oil, or natural gas, or into sub-surface mineral deposits. The term can refer to a land-based structure, or a marine-based structure (oil platform) commonly called an 'offshore oil rig'. While marine-based rigs can drill through the ocean bottom for minerals, the technology and economics of under-sea mines is not yet commercially viable. The term "rig" therefore generally refers to the complex of equipment that is used to drill the surface of the earth's crust for samples of oil, water, or minerals.
Oil and Natural Gas drilling rigs can be used not only to identify geologic reservoirs but also to create holes that allow the extraction of oil or natural gas from those reservoirs. An oil or gas pumping rig, sometimes called a derrick, is used to retrieve oil / gas from a reservoir.
Drilling rigs can be:
There are many types and designs here when one shows up on time of drilling rigs, depending on their purpose and improvements; many drilling rigs are capable of switching or combining different drilling technologies.
electric - rig is connected to a power grid usually produced by its own generators
mechanic - rig produces power with its own (diesel) engines
hydraulic - most movements are done with hydraulic power
pneumatic - pressured air is used to generate small scale movements
cable - a cable is used to slam the bit on the rock (used for small geotechnical wells)
conventional - uses drill pipes
coil tubing - uses a giant coil of tube and a downhole drilling motor
single - can drill only single drill pipes, has no vertical pipe racks (most small drilling rigs)
double - can store double pipe stands in the pipe rack
triple - can store stands composed of three pipes in the pipe rack (most large drilling rigs)
quad - can store stands composed of four pipes in the pipe rack
no rotation (most service rigs)
rotary table - rotation is achieved by turning a hexagonal pipe (the kelly) at drill floor level.
top-drive - rotation and circulation is done at the top of the drillstring, on a motor that moves along the derrick.
conventional - derrick is vertical
slant - derrick is at an angle (this is used to achieve deviation without an expensive downhole motor).
A drilling rig consists of: a rig for tackle system suspension and drill pipes arrangement, equipment for tool running and hoisting, machinery for tool advance and rotation, circulation fluid pumps, power drive, mechanisms for preparation and purification of circulation fluid, devices for trip automation and mechanization, instrumentation and auxiliaries. A drilling rig also includes metal bases, on which the equipment is mounted and transported.
Different conditions and aims of drilling under with the variety of depths and wells construction can’t be satisfied by one drilling unit dimension-type and that is why State Standard provides a number of drilling rigs. Drilling rigs are classified by load capacity on hook.
Standard also provides a number of other drilling rigs parameters, including basic mechanisms drive power, nominal length of stalks, height marks of units and some other factors.
A drilling rig for drilling a given well or a group of wells is chosen by safe bearing load on the hook, which can’t be transcended by the weight (in the air) of more heavy casing pipe.
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