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|Exercise 2. Answer the questions using the information given in Text A|
Unit VI Oil Storage System. Storage Facilities
Text AStorage System
Exercise 7. Retell Text A, using the following word-combinations
JSC (Joint-Stock Company) –
Exercise 2. Read and translate the text given below, paying attention to the new words and word-combinations
TEXT 2Auger drilling
TEXT 3Air core drilling
TEXT 4Cable tool drilling
TEXT 5Diamond core drilling
TEXT 6Direct Push
Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences, using Text A:
Exercise 4. Translate the following word-combinations. See Text A.
A land-based structure, infrequent crew rotation, sample of oil, drilling technologies, State Standard, nominal length of stalks, to transcend, hydraulic power, downhole drilling motor, mechanisms for purification, to achieve deviation.
Exercise 5. Translate the following text in English and using the active vocabulary of this unit and answer the question: What is drilling rig and what does it consist of?
^ – это сооружение для проведения глубинного бурения. Буровая вышка состоит из множества элементов: кран, платформа, подъемное оборудование, генератор энергии, буровая труба, насос и множество других элементов. А вы знаете, что некоторые из вышек могут бурить на глубину до 8 км. Это же высота Эвереста!
Exercise 6. Give brief outlook of Text A (main terms and definitions).
Exercise 7. Read and translate text B, using the vocabulary of the unit:
Text B. Applied drilling equipment.
Drill tower and base is one of the most important elements of the drilling rig. Drill tower is used for running and hoisting drill-string and casing pipes into the well, keeping the casing pipe during the drilling and for arrangement of tackle system, drill pipes, and construction parts necessary for the drilling process.
Drill towers differ in carrying capacity, height, and construction.
In construction, drill towers are subdivided into two types: tower derricks and masts. Tower derricks have stress on four legs. Drill towers of mast type have stress on one or two legs.
In domestic industry, drill towers of 41 m of tower derrick type are widely used. It is a four-panel tower derrick in the shape of truncated pyramid. Tower legs in the lower part have bearing plates and for these plates the tower is mounted to the base with the help of screws. To the upper legs of the tips, special tables are welded for installing and fastening of crownblock beams, on which crownblock is mounted.
Depending on the length of the used stalks around the tower, stabbing board is set. Derrickman (driller assistant) is working on the stabbing board during round-trip operations.
Drill towers of mast type (twin-pole mast) are widely used. Twin-pole sectional masts represent A-shaped metal construction, which consists of dihedral, trihedral, or tetrahedral legs. Upwardly legs are jointed to each other with crownblock frame on which crownblock is mounted.
In comparison with tower derricks, twin-pole masts have a number of advantages: they demand less metal for the construction, they have less number of components, they are easy to assemble and disassemble, conditions of work in drill pipes picking-up to the well and their laydown to the access board are improved and tower visibility becomes better.
In-derrick constructions are built simultaneously with drill tower assembly. To in-derrick constructions belong the following ones.
Geared and pump barns, receiving bridge, device system for purification, a number of auxiliary constructions and social cultural objects: lounge, dining room, car – dormitories and others.
Equipment for trip mechanization and automation includes drawworks and tackle system.
A drawwork is the basic element of the rig; it is used for running and pulling of drill string, casing running, keeping of motionless drillstem in the process of drilling. Besides drawwork is used for power transmission from engine to rotor, spinning-up, and uncoupling of pipes, dragging of loads and other auxiliary works.
Drawworks consists of welded frame, on which band and hydraulic or electrical brakes and control board are mounted. Drawworks are equipped with brakes of two types: band and hydraulic or electrical brakes.
Tackle system of drilling rigs is intended for transformation of winch barrel rotary motion to translational (vertical) displacement of the hook and stress reduction on cable branches.
Tackle wire cable is passed through cable pulleys of crownblock and tackle block, one end is fixed motionless, the other end, called fast line, is fixed to winch barrel. Crownblock represents a frame on which axes and supports with pulleys are mounted.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences using information given in Text B.
Exercise 9. Make up a report “The arrangement of the drilling rig. Basic mechanisms and equipment of the drilling rig”, using the information given in Texts A and B.
Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words and word combinations:
sediment – осадок; отстой; осадочная порода; мн.ч. насосы; отложения; basic sediment – осадок на дне резервуара (состоящий из эмульсии нефти, воды и грязи); отстой; основной осадок
tank farm (tank battery)– резервуарный парк (промысла или нефтезавода)
pipeline run – партия нефти или нефтепродуктов, транспортируемая по нефтепроводу
lease – участок; отвод
frequency – частота; повторяемость; периодичность
custody – забота о сохранности
transfer unit – устройства передачи
storage capacity – вместимость (резервуара, бака)
welded steel – сварная сталь
bolted steel – сболченная сталь
drain outlet – выход стока/слива
outlet valve – выпускной клапан
thief – пробоотборник (прибор для отбора проб нефти или донного осадка из резервуара или трубопровода); трубка для отбора проб нефтепродуктов
gage hatch – замерный люк; замерное отверстие (в крышке нефтяного резервуара)
^ – плотность (нефти) в градусах Американского нефтяного института
to seal - закрывать, закупоривать; уплотнять; seal – уплотнение
level controllers – регуляторы уровня
schedule – расписание; график; распорядок
acceptance - получение, прием, принятие
cleanout plate – зачистная крышка
sample - образец, проба
trolly oil – водно-нефтяная эмульсия
production rate – нефтеотдача
ultimate production – суммарный выход
formation water – пластовая вода
thieving - взятие пробы ( нефтепродукта ); определение уровня донной воды в нефтяном резервуаре
нефтехранилище - oil tank
амбар для хранения бурового раствора - mud pit; drilling mud pit, mud-storage pit
замер нефти - oil measurement
заградителями пламени – fire rejecter
змеевик - coiled pipe, worm pipe, pipe coil
Exercise 2. Read and translate text A, paying attention to the new words and word-combinations:
After gas has been separated from the oil and the oil has been treated to remove water and sediment (if present), the oil goes to stock tanks which are commonly referred to as the tank battery. The tanks in a tank farm will vary in number and size, depending upon the daily production of the lease and the frequency of pipeline runs. The introduction of automatic custody transfer units and their acceptance by pipelines and producers has reduced storage requirements. The total storage capacity of a tank farm is usually 3 to 7 days’ production; that is, 3 to 7 times the maximum daily production or allowable of the wells connected to the tank farm. There are usually two or more tanks in a battery, so that while oil is being shipped from one tank the other tank can be filling.
Most tanks are made of either bolted steel or welded steel. Stock tanks usually have a bottom drain outlet for draining off basic sediments and water. In some areas tanks must be cleaned frequently due to collection of paraffin and basic sediments, which can be removed through the drain outlet. Therefore tanks are equipped with cleanout plates. Cleanout plates can be removed so that a workman can enter the tank.
The point where the pipeline company connects to lease stock tanks is usually one half meter above the bottom of the tank. The space below the pipeline outlets provides room for collection of basic sediments and water. The pipeline outlet valve is sealed and closed with a metal seal when the tank is being filled and similarly locked in the open position when the tank is being emptied. Oil enters the tank at the top at the inlet opening. Usually a valve is on the inlet line so that it may be closed to prevent oil from entering the tank after the tank is full and ready for delivery. Where oil storage is controlled manually the tank is fitted with a thief or gage hatch in the tank roof so the amount of oil in the tank can be determined with a steel measuring line. The thief hatch is large enough so that a device which is called a “thief” can be lowered into the tank and samples of oil obtained to determine the basic sediments and water content in the oil and its API gravity. This operation is called “thieving” a tank. The temperature of the oil in the tank is determined while thieving the tank.
When storage is done automatically, devices called liquid level controllers signal when tanks are filled and valves open and close according to a prearranged schedule.
Salt water often is extracted with the oil as trolly oil and the storage of such water is an important part of extraction works. Such water after its processing can be used for pressure recovery or watering of oil reservoirs in order to increase total production rate. Sometimes water is pumped back to the reservoir for increasing of oil and gas ultimate production. System of formation water storage and processing includes separators, reservoir, cleanout device and pumping device.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
Exercise 4. Make up your own questions to each paragraph of text A.
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentence into Russian:
Exercise 6. Read Text B and try to translate it using the vocabulary of the Unit. Answer the question using the information given below: What are oil tanks and what are they equipped with?
Нефтехранилище - искусственный резервуар для хранения нефти или продуктов её переработки. По расположению различают нефтехранилища наземные, полуподземные и подземные; по материалам, из которых они изготовляются, - металлические, железобетонные, а также подземные (сооружаемые в толще отложений каменной соли). Ранее в нефтяной промышленности применялись также земляные, каменные, кирпичные и деревянные. Земляные нефтехранилища или амбары применялись для хранения некоторых наиболее тяжелых нефтепродуктов (мазута, битума, гудрона). Каменные и кирпичные нефтехранилища применялись для хранения нефти и темных нефтепродуктов.
Резервуары нефтехранилищ оборудуются люками для проветривания, осмотра, чистки, замера нефти, отбора проб, а также замерными приборами, водоспускными приспособлениями, дыхательными клапанами (т.е. клапанами, выпускающими нефтяные пары при повышении сверх нормы их давления в резервуаре и впускающими воздух при образовании вакуума), с заградителями пламени, приспособлениями для подачи пены в случае пожара, трубами для ввода и забора продукта, устройствами для дистанционного управления наполнением, опорожнением и замерами. Наземные резервуары снабжаются лестницами. Нефтехранилища, предназначенные для хранения очень вязких и легко застывающих продуктов, оборудуются змеевиками для парового или водяного подогрева. В целях пожарной безопасности нефтехранилища обносят земляным валом.
storage capacity, daily production, drain outlet, tank farm, basic sediments, thief or gage hatch, samples of oil, liquid level controllers, prearranged schedule, extraction works, cleanout device.
Unit VII Rig Construction Plants
Exercise 1. Read and remember the following words and word combinations:
^ открытое акционерное общество
jockeying – переход
replenish - пополнять; восполнять
floating crane - плавучий кран; понтонный кран; плавкран
self-elevating drilling rig - самоподнимающаяся буровая установка; самоподъёмная буровая установка
semi-submersible drilling rig - полупогружная буровая установка
shallow-draft rig – буровая вышка с малой осадкой
hydrocarbon deposit - месторождение углеводородов
utility barge - портовая баржа; рабочая баржа
surveillance – инспектирование; контроль; наблюдение, технический надзор
JSC “Astrakhan Korabel”
As well as recently discovered oil fields, large natural gas supplies are also in evidence, though further exploration is needed to define their full potential. Geopolitical jockeying is taking place amongst Caspian-bordering countries, especially in the light of Middle East instability and the subsequent recasting of many Western countries' energy policies. Another factor influencing this is the new US military deployment to the Central Asian region.
A key problem is the status of the Caspian Sea and the establishment of the water boundaries among the five littoral countries. Russia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan signed an agreement in 2003 to divide the northern 64% of the sea among themselves, although the other two bordering countries, Iran and Turkmenistan, did not agree to this. This is likely to result in the three agreeing nations proceeding with oil development regardless; Iranian and Turkmen development is likely to stall.
As you know Astrakhan is a port which links Russia with Caspian Sea. Thus, we have many ship-building yards which provide great opportunities for drilling rig construction. One of such yards is ship-building yard “Astrakhan Korabel”.
JSC “Astrakhan Korabel” is one of the largest shipbuilding enterprises in South Region of Russia. During more than seventy-years history the yard got unique experience in construction of cargo ships in different purposes and drilling rigs of different types. Experienced personnel of the yard is able to solve difficult engineering and production tasks, ensure the highest quality of work execution and guarantee observance of international standards at vessels construction and realization of offshore projects.
The yard was founded in 1930 on the bank of Zolotoi Zaton that has straight outlet to Volga and is situated in 7 kilometers from district centre. In 80-s and 90-s new workshops were built, the yard capacities were replenished with floating cranes of heavy cargo capacity: “Bogatyir” – cargo capacity 300 t, and “Volgar” – cargo capacity 1400 t.
Technical organization measures carried out in 2001 – 2003 enabled to modernize yard capacities regarding main branches of industry. JSC “Astrakhan Korabel” has experience of: self-elevating drilling rigs, semi-submersible drilling rigs, shallow-draft rig, deck-modules of stationary drilling platforms, crane vessels, metal structures of different type of rigs. Nowadays the yard is involved in different great projects.
In October 2004 there were started dismantling of basic semi-submersible load-bearing hull “Shelf-7”. During the work, which has finished in May, 2005, there was carried out dismounting of equipment, systems and cable passages of main technological units of the drilling rig. Some units were completely dismounted. Dismounting of outdated equipment and metal structures was carried out for provision of further converting of the rig into Class LSP-1 (Ice-resistant Fixed Platform) for the exploitation at the deposit named after Y. Korchagin in North Caspian. The next stage of modernization is fabrication and mounting of ice-proof metal structures, supports and piles.
Also JSC “Astrakhan Korabel” takes part in Kashagan Development project – the largest hydrocarbon deposit of Caspian Sea. The responsibility of the yard is supply of completed Utility barge. Main systems on the barge board-system of compressed air production, system of diesel oil storage, system of service water production and system of its storage, system of nitrogen production, fire system, including main fire pumps.
“Astrakhan Korabel” carries out construction of vessels under surveillance of world leading classification societies: Lloyd’s Register Shipping, Det Norske Veritas, Germanischer Lloyd, Bureau Veritas. Quality policy is based on mandatory observance of international standards, norms and regulations which regulate requirements of order and production quality of shipbuilding and ship repair, and covers all levels of work organization at the Yard.
Due to long-term experience, modern production facilities and information technologies, qualified personnel and also favorable geographical location and prospects of the Caspian Shelf development JSC “Astrakhan Korabel” has a steady position of the leader of offshore shipbuilding in the Caspian Region.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences using the information from the text:
Energy policy of Russia
The main document defining the Energy policy of Russia is the Energy Strategy, which sets out policy for the period up to 2020. Energy policy is the stated and unstated government legislated use of energy.
Russia, one of the world's energy superpowers, is rich in natural energy resources, the world’s leading net energy exporter, and a major supplier to the European Union.
A concept for the Russian national energy policy was approved by the government in 1992. At the same time government decided to develop the Energy Strategy of Russia. For this purpose, the Interagency Commission was established.
In December 1994, the Energy Strategy of Russia (Major Provisions) was approved by the government, followed by the presidential decree from 7 May 1995 confirming the first post-Soviet Russian energy strategy On the Main Directions of Energy Policy and Restructuring of the Fuel and Energy Industry of the Russian Federation for the Period up to the Year 2010, and the governmental decision from the 13 October 1995 approving the Main provisions for the Energy Strategy of the Russian Federation.
The strategy was changed under the presidency of Vladimir Putin. On 23 November 2000, the Russian government approved main provisions of the Russian energy strategy to 2020. On 28 May 2002, the Russian Ministry of Energy gave an elaboration on the main provisions. Based on these documents, the new Russian energy strategy up to 2020 was approved on 23 May 2003 and confirmed by the government on 28 August 2003.
The main objective of Russian energy strategy is defined to be determination of the ways of reaching a new quality of fuel and energy complex, the growth of competitive ability of its production and services on the world market. For this purpose the long-term energy policy should concentrate on energy safety, energy effectiveness, budget effectiveness and ecological energy security.
The energy strategy document defines as the main priority of Russian energy strategy an increase in energy efficiency (meaning decreasing of energy intensity in production and energy supply expenditures), reducing the impact on environment, sustainable development, energy development and technological development, as well as an improvement of effectiveness and competitiveness.
Russia is a rich on energy resources. Russia has the largest known natural gas reserves of any state on earth, along with the second largest coal reserves, and the eighth largest oil reserves. This is 32% of the world proven natural gas reserves (23% of the probable reserves), 12% of the proven oil reserves (42% of the probable reserves), 10% of the explored coal reserves (14% of the estimated reserves) and 8% of the proven uranium reserves.
In recent years Russia has identified the gas sector as being of key strategic importance. The share of natural gas as a primary energy source is remarkably high compared to the rest of world. Russia has the world biggest natural gas reserves, mainly owned and operated by the Russian monopoly Gazprom, which produces 94% of Russia’s natural gas production. In global context Gazprom holds 25% of the world’s known gas reserves and produces of 16% of global output. In total, Russia is the world biggest natural gas producer with 21.8% of global natural gas production and also the biggest exporter with 24.0% of global natural gas export.
There are a variety of drill mechanisms which can be used to sink a borehole into the ground. Each has its advantages and disadvantages, in terms of the depth to which it can drill, the type of sample returned, the costs involved and penetration rates achieved. There are two basic types of drills: drills which produce rock chips, and drills which produce core samples.
Auger drilling is done with a helical screw which is driven into the ground with rotation; the earth is lifted up the borehole by the blade of the screw. Auger drilling is used for well drilling, fence construction, soil engineering and geochemistry reconnaissance work in exploration for mineral deposits. In some cases, mine shafts are dug with auger drills. Small augers can be mounted on the back of a utility truck, with large augers used for sinking piles for bridge foundations.
Auger drilling is restricted to generally soft unconsolidated material or weak weathered rock. It is cheap and fast.
Air core drilling
Air core drilling and related methods use hardened steel or tungsten blades to bore a hole into rock. The drill bit has three blades arranged around the bit head, which cut the rock. The rods are hollow and contain an inner tube which sits inside the hollow outer rod barrel. The drill cuttings are removed by injection of compressed air into the hole via the hollow inner rod. The cuttings are then blown back to surface via the outer space inside the barrel where they are collected if needed, or discarded. Drilling continues with the addition of rods to the top of the drill string. Air core drilling can occasionally produce small chunks of cored rock.
This method of drilling is used to drill the weathered regolith, as the drill rig and steel or tungsten blades cannot penetrate fresh rock. Where possible, air core drilling is preferred over RAB drilling as it provides a more representative sample. Air core drilling can achieve depths approaching 200 meters in good conditions as the cuttings are removed inside the rods and are less likely to clog. However, this method is more costly and slower than RAB.
Cable tool drilling
Cable tool rigs are a traditional way of drilling small bore water wells in rural areas of the USA. Commonly called "spudders", these rigs raise and drop the bit to finely crush the rock surface. Then the bit is raised and a bail is lowered; if the borehole is dry, water is added. The bail receives the water and rock fragments, then closes, allowing them to be raised and removed. The bit is again lowered until contact is made with the rock surface, upon which it is again raised and dropped until additional bailing is possible. Cable tool rigs are simpler (thus cheaper) than similarly sized rotary rigs. The world record Cable Tool Well was drilled in New York to a depth of almost 12,000 feet. The common Bucyrus Erie 22 can drill down to about 1,100 feet. Since cable tool drilling does not use air to eject the drilling chips like a rotary, instead using a cable strung bailer, technically there is no limitation on depth.
Diamond core drilling
Multi-combination drilling rig (capable of both diamond and reverse circulation drilling). Rig is currently setup for diamond drilling.
Diamond core drilling (Exploration diamond drilling) utilizes an annular diamond-impregnated drill bit attached to the end of hollow drill rods to cut a cylindrical core of solid rock. The diamonds used are fine to microfine industrial grade diamonds. They are set within a matrix of varying hardness, from brass to high-grade steel. Matrix hardness, diamond size and dosing can be varied according to the rock which must be cut. Holes within the bit allow water to be delivered to the cutting face. This provides three essential functions; lubrication, cooling, and removal of drill cuttings from the hole.
Diamond drilling is much slower than reverse circulation (RC) drilling due to the hardness of the ground being drilled. Drilling of 1200 to 1800 meters is common and at these depths, ground is mainly hard rock. Diamond rigs need to drill slowly to lengthen the life of drill bits and rods, which are very expensive.
Core samples are retrieved via the use of a lifter tube, a hollow tube lowered inside the rod string by a winch cable until it stops inside the core barrel. As the core is drilled, the core lifter slides over the core as it is cut. An overshot attached to the end of the winch cable is lowered inside the rod string and locks on to the backend, located on the top end of the lifter tube. The winch is retracted, pulling the lifter tube to the surface. The core does not drop out the inside of the lifter tube when lifted because a "core lifter spring," located at the bottom of the tube allows the core to move inside the tube but not fall out.
Once a rod is removed from the hole, the core sample is then removed from the rod and catalogued. The Driller's offsider screws the rod apart using tube clamps, then each part of the rod is taken and the core is shaken out into core trays. The core is washed, measured and broken into smaller pieces using a hammer to make it fit into the sample trays. Once catalogued, the core trays are retrieved by geologists who then analyze the core and determine if the drill site is a good location to expand future mining operations.
Diamond rigs can also be part of a multi-combination rig. Multi-combination rigs are a dual setup rig capable of operating in either a reverse circulation (RC) and diamond drilling role (though not at the same time). This is a common scenario where exploration drilling is being performed in a very isolated location. The rig is first setup to drill as an RC rig and once the desired meters are drilled, the rig is setup for diamond drilling. This way the deeper meters of the hole can be drilled without moving the rig and waiting for a diamond rig to setup on the pad
Direct push technology should perhaps not properly be called drilling, however the same basic results are achieved. Direct push rigs use a hollow core sampling bit. The bit and rod are pushed directly into the soil with hydraulic rams. The speed and depth of penetration is largely dependant on the soil type and the weight of the vehicle the rig is attached to. The technique is generally limited to shallow soil sample recovery in clay or silty soils. The advantage of direct push technology is that in the right soil type it can produce a large number of high quality samples quickly and cheaply. Direct push is often combined with sonic (vibratory) methods to increase drill efficiency.
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