Учебно-методическое пособие Практическая грамматика английского языка. Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов 1-2 курсов лингвистических специальностей Шевченко М. Ю

НазваниеУчебно-методическое пособие Практическая грамматика английского языка. Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов 1-2 курсов лингвистических специальностей Шевченко М. Ю
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ТипУчебно-методическое пособие
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Use the verb in the required form. Check your answers in the keys.

1. The building ______ two years ago.
a) destroyed b) was destroyed

2. I ______ by the news he had told me the day before.
a) am surprising b) surprised c) was surprised d) am surprised

3. ______ he ______ at the airport tomorrow?
a) Is ____ being met b) Will ____ be meet

4. The place ______ to me.
a) is hands b) was handed c) will be handing

5. I ______ into buying a motorbike by Martha.
a) was talked b) talk c) have been talked

6. Yesterday the whole program ______ over to a report from Bosnia.
a) has been given b) was given c) gave d) gives

7. A number of priceless works of art ______ in the earthquake.
a) have been destroyed b) was destroyed c) has been destroyed

8. Because my visa had expired I ______ from re-entering the country.
a) prevented b) am prevent c) prevent d) was prevented

9. It’s generally agreed that new industries ______ for the southern part of the country.
a) are need b) are needed c) need

10. It’s incredible to think that these clothes ______ by Queen Victoria.
a) wear b) are being worn c) were worn

11. A new drug ______ to combat asthma in small children.
a) is developing b) has been developed c) develops

12. A number of political prisoners ______ within the next days.
a) will be released b) release c) were released

13. The problem ______ to me.
a) was saying b) was mentioned c) was being mentioning

14. The game ______ to the children.
a) demonstrates b) was demonstrate c) is demonstrating d) will be demonstrated

15. When I was young I ______ by my aunt and uncle.
a) was looked for b) was looked after c) was looked at d) was being looked

16. He ______ for nearly 12 hours.
a) operates with b) is operated at c) was operated on

17. His decision ______.
a) approves of b) was approved of

18. The land next to our house ______.
a) has been bought b) have been bought c) was being bought

19. The tennis court ______ so we couldn’t play.
a) has been used b) was used c) was being used

20. Better results ______ soon.
a) will be expected b) are expected c) expect


Modal Verbs

Preparatory activities.

Review the following topics:

  1. What is modality? What do modal verbs express?

  2. Name modal verbs and combinations existing in English.

  3. Why do we call modal verbs defective? Comment on their peculiarities.

  4. Comment on the meaning and use of modal verbs and combinations.

  5. What for and in which cases is the Perfect Infinitive used with modal verbs?

  6. Which modal verbs or combinations are used to express possibility due to circumstances?

  7. Which modal verbs or combinations are used to express obligation?

  8. Which modal verbs or combinations are used to express command or order?

  9. Comment on interchangeable modal verbs and combinations.

  10. Illustrate regular and modal use of the verbs dare and need.

Exercise 1. Comment upon the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Russian (can, may).

1. "Can't you sleep, Signor Tenente?" he asked. "No." "I can't sleep, either." 2. Alice: .I'll come too if I may. 3. I said, "I am Martin Lynchgibbon. We have met before, though you may have forgotten. Palmer asked me to meet you. May I carry something?" 4. "She can-not have heard of her father's death," said Braybrooke. "But she had! For I expressed my sympathy and she thanked me." 5. It was not many hours ere he, Esmond, was in London, of that you may be sure, and received with open arms by the old Dowager of Chesley. 6. Darling, I'm sorry I was so drunk yesterday. I may have seemed churlish, but don't think I'm not deeply grateful for your concern. I may yet need your help. 7. Julia: Why is she coming home? Maude: I don't know.. I suppose she got fed up with Paris after five years. She couldn’t have had much fun. 8. Howard: Lieutenant, may I ask a question? 9. "Can I possibly have made a mistake?" she thought. 10. Oh, this house, this house! I come back to it after twenty-three years, and it is just the same really. Someone might at least have been here: some preparation might have been made for me. 11. "He may not even know I'm here." 12. They can't understand the English language, anyway.
Exercise 2. Insert may (might), can (could) or the contracted forms of may not, might not, cannot, could not (mayn't; mightn't; can't, couldn't). Translate into Russian.

1. "There is a man I know," I said; "you ____ have met him, a man named Longrush." 2. He noticed at once that her manner was as natural almost as a frank, manly schoolboy's, there ____ never – he thought – have been a grain of affectation in her. 3. I ____ neither lie comfortably in bed nor find anything to do with myself if I got up. 4. She jumped up when she saw me and said, "Really, I think she ____ have waited a bit before dismantling the house!" 5. I beg the Magistrate's pardon, but ____ I request a few minutes private conversation with him on a matter of deep importance to himself? 6. "You are a sworn constable?" "I be, sir." "Then pursue the criminal at once, with assistance, and bring him back here. He ____ have gone far," (contracted) 7. I said, ": ____ I help you?" 8. "Perhaps," said the Captain, "you ____ have heard your head governor mention my name?" 9. "She's gone, she's gone! Your Heathcliff's run off with her!" gasped the girl. "That is not true!" exclaimed Linton, rising in agitation. "It ____ not be: how has the idea entered your head? Ellen Dean, go and seek her. It is incredible: it ____ not be." 10. "I didn't say he wasn't a colonel," he said, "he ____ have been once for all I know. After all, lie's almost forty." 11. Catherine's cup was never filled: she ____ neither eat nor drink 12. Oh, well, you ____ be right. I don't know. I'm not going to try to explain or adjust myself now. 13. "Old Callendar wants to see me at his bungalow", he said not rising. "He ____ have the politeness to say why."
Exercise 3. Translate into English using the verbs can and may whenever possible.

1. He может быть, чтобы она прочла эту книгу за два дня; она, возможно, только просмотрела ее. 2. «Не может быть, чтобы вы потеряли билет, вы могли положить его в карман». – «Нет, я могла выронить его в трамвае». 3. Не может быть, чтобы он уже приехал, я получила телеграмму только вчера. 4. Неужели он уже получил мое письмо? 5. Неужели он не получил моего письма? 6. Ваши часы, возможно, спешат; не может быть, чтобы сейчас было девять часов. 7. Он не мог получить книгу, потому что библиотека была закрыта. 8. Не может быть, чтобы он полу­чил книгу, ведь библиотека была закрыта. 9. Не могли ли бы вы дать мне эту книгу дня на два? 10. Нет, я не верю этому, не может быть, чтобы она меня обманула. 11. Я останусь дома; она, возможно, будет мне звонить. 12. Право, Джордж, ты мог бы помочь мне нести этот тяжелый чемодан, разве ты не видишь, как мне это тяжело? 13. «Где ключ?» – «Не знаю, Ольга могла взять его с собой по ошибке». – «Не может быть, чтобы она его взяла, у нее ничего не было в руках, когда она уходила». 14. Наконец-то вы пришли! Вы могли прийти пораньше, ведь вы же знали, что я больна.
Exercise 4. Comment on the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Rus­sian.

1. I have brought back your man – not without risk or danger but every one must do his duty. 2. "May I escort you home?" he said. 3. Blanche: I'm sorry. I must 'have lost my head for a moment. 4. "There must be something wrong somewhere," he said with a solemn, dejected movement of his head. 5. Gracing the centre table was a Bible and a yellow plush album, in which was not a single picture. It must have been the yellow plush that had fas­cinated them. 6. "Something must have happened. He behaves quite – differently to me, he's cold and he looks at me in such a terrifying way as if he were thinking about killing me. And honestly Martin, I'm frightened." "Pull yourself together," I said. "You must be imagining all this." 7. Sir Robert: Gert­rude, what you tell me may be true, but it happened many years ago. It is best forgotten! Mrs. Cheveley may have changed since then. 8. She passed the girls' room, noticed that they were quiet and therefore must be doing as they had been told, and went on to the children's room. 9. "May not the editor have been right in his revision of your Sea Lyrics?" she ques­tioned. "Remember, an editor must have proved qualifications or else he would not be an editor." 10. Stanley: That must have been a pretty long time ago. 11. Both of you behaved very badly. You might have given me a little encouragement.
Exercise 5. Insert may (might) or must. Translate into Russian.

l. She said: "Please, please make no sign. That man at the door is mad. Do something. He ____ kill me!" 2. He was the father of three sons and two daughters, so I was told, all of whom ____ have hated him; those I knew did anyhow. 3. You ____ be exhausted after all the tennis you played this after­noon, Minnie. 4. You ____ be getting better, since you can leave your bed? 5. "I can't stay," Stephanie said. As she walked down the corridor, she heard Marguerite calling after him. "You ____ have told me before I started tea." 6. I said, "What time is it, Antonia?" "Ten o'clock." "I ____ have slept for twelve hours." 7. She ____ have recognised his voice, for the light disappeared from the apartment, and in a second or two the door was unlocked and opened. 8. Late 299 stood, smiling, in front of the door. "Well, Bertha?" he said. "Ah, Beryl! Well, Jack! His daughter alone replied. "Well, father, you ____ have let us know beforehand!" 9. "How did it happen?" "It was the streetcar," Esther said. "It hit her. It ____ have tossed her right onto the cinders at the side of the track." 10. It occurred to him that perhaps his hostess ____ be in her boudoir. It was a possibility; he would go and see. 11. The doorway was all dark. The lights in the house, ____ have gone out. 12. I ____ do these things sometimes in absence of mind; but surely I don't do them habitually.
Exercise 6. Translate into English using the verbs can, may, must.

1. Уже пять часов. Собрание могло уже кончиться; подождем немножко, он может скоро прийти. 2. Петя, должно быть, забо­лел, иначе он был бы уже в театре, он никогда не приходит в последний момент. 3. Не может быть, чтобы она забыла о кон­церте, это совсем на нее не похоже. 4. Я его сегодня не жду; но, кто знает, может быть, он и придет. 5. «Хотела бы я знать, где она достала "Три товарища" Ремарка?». – «Она могла взять ее в нашей библиотеке». – «Не может быть, чтобы она взяла ее в нашей библиотеке: Семенова вчера взяла последний экзем­пляр». – «Ну, должно быть, она взяла ее в другой библиотеке». 6. «Где Павел?» – «Не знаю, он, возможно, пошел в филармо­нию». – «Ну, это не очень-то любезно с его стороны; он мог бы взять билет и для меня». – «Посмотрите-ка, на столе что-то ле­жит, он, должно быть, оставил вам билет и записку». 7. Не мо­жет быть, чтобы она здесь была вчера. Если бы она была здесь, она оставила бы мне записку. 8. Не возвращайте пока книгу в библиотеку; она может вам понадобиться для доклада. 9. Можно мне взять вашу книгу? 10. Можно употребить здесь настоящее продолженное время? 11. Он сказал, что доклад у него уже готов, и он может прочесть его завтра на собрании. 12. «Он, должно быть, уже ушел». – «Не может быть, чтобы он ушел, не повидав меня». 13. «Где Мария?» – «Она, должно быть, еще спит». 14. Вы, должно быть, ошибаетесь, на двадцать пятой странице нет таких слов.
Exercise 7. Translate into English using the verbs can, may, must. (Based on an episode from To Let by J. Galsworthy.)

Сомc остановился перед картиной одного из начинающих ху­дожников, с интересом ее рассматривая. «Что бы это могло изо­бражать?»— думал он, «Они могли бы, по крайней мере, сделать надпись. Ах, вот, судя по каталогу, это, наверное (должно быть), и «есть картина, изображающая “Город будущего”. А что значат эти вертикальные черные полосы? Может быть, это самолеты? Джун опять устраивает выставки произведений молодых худож­ников. Она, должно быть, все еще полна иллюзий и думает, что со временем они могут стать знаменитостями. Но где же Флер? Что могло ее задержать? Не могла же она забыть о своем обе­щании? Да нет, она, наверное, опять пошла к Имоджин Карди­ган. Эти женщины! На них никогда нельзя положиться!» Вдруг он заметил даму и юношу. Что-то в ней показалось ему знако­мым. Неужели Ирэн?- После стольких лет! И она его увидела. В глазах его, должно быть, отразилась саркастическая улыбка Джорджа Форсайта, так как лицо ее приняло жесткое выражение, и она прошла мимо.

Exercise 8. Comment and translate into Russian (to be + infinitive).

1. The typewriter people were again claming for money, in­sistently pointing out that according to the agreement rent was to be paid strictly in advance. 2. By that time of evening only a few persons were to be seen on the wet streets and most of the shops and stores were closed for the night. 3. "You're to go now, Blick!" said Hunter, getting up. 4. I distinctly told you to stay with her every minute I was away. You are not to be trusted. 5. It was after breakfast, and we had been summoned in from the playground, when Mr. Sharp entered and said: "David Copperfield is to go into the parlour." 6. Demetrius was nowhere to be found. 7. When my wife and I settle down at Willowmere it's possible that we shall all come together. But if this isn't to be, for Heaven's sake, let us recognise that it is simply because it can't be, and not wear hypocritical faces and suffer and be wretched 8. The snow which had lain so thick and beautiful when I left the country was scarcely to be seen in the city. 9. Your mother arranged that she was to come down from London and that I was to come over from Dover to be in­troduced to you. 10. Mrs. Moore, your delightful doctor has decided on a picnic, instead of a party in his house; we are to meet him out there. 11. For June this evening, that was to have been "her treat", was the most miserable she had ever spent. 12. Elise, you are to live here for the next six months, learning how to speak beautifully, like a lady in a flor­ist's shop.
Exercise 9. Comment and translate into Russian (to have + infinitive, to be + infinitive).

1. Blanche: I didn't save a penny last year and so I had to come here for the summer. That's why I have to put up with my sister's husband. And he has to put up with me, apparently so much against his wishes. Surely he must have told you how much he hates me. 2. "His mother, my dear," said Miss Fox, "whose acquaintance I was to have made through you, does not at all resemble her." 3. I had made arrange­ments so as not to have to come to the office again for a little while. 4. I could scarcely repress my curiosity as to the nature of this composition which was to be published, at his request, presumably by The Banner. 5. There are some things that have to be said sooner or later, and I'd rather hear them from you than from anybody else. 6. She begins stroking Mangan's head, reversing the movement with which she put him to sleep. "Wake up, do you hear! You are to wake up at once. Wake up. " 7. "I can't stay in this place any longer!" she cried in utter desperation. We've got to move out of this apartment. 8. He had been indeed with that luck­less expedition of the Chevalier de St. George, who was sent by the French King with ships and an army from Dunkirk, and was to have invaded and conquered Scotland.
Exercise 10. Insert to have (to have got) or to be in the appropriate form. Translate into Russian.

1. He worked hard all day, recollecting, at the last moment, that he ____ to have dinner at the Morses. 2. He shook his head again, when Gertrude offered him money, though he knew that within the day he ____ to make a trip to the pawnbroker. 3. There were thirty poems in the collection and he to receive a dollar apiece for them. 4. But just then we hit a stretch of unpaved road where the mud was thick and the ruts were hard to follow. I ____ to stop talking and watch what I was doing. 5. During their absence, Mahmed Ali had gone off in his carriage leaving a message that he should be back in five minutes, but they ____ on no account to wait. 6. At this meal they arranged their daily habits. The major ____ to take the responsibility of ordering everything to eat and drink; and they ____ to have a late breakfast together every morning, and a late dinner together every day. 7. Stella: People ____ to tolerate each other's habits, I guess. 8. He told me to say you ____ not to worry about him and that he'll recover in time. 9. She trembled that day as she prepared to go down to the wedding. She ____ to be a bride’s maid. 10. The time was fixed for his sailing. It ____ to take place almost immediately: yet much remained to be done; many domestic preparations ____ to be made. 11. "You see practically the minute he left town, Lon spent his whole allowance. All of it." "But he's only been there a week and that money ____ to last him through October," Mrs. Smith said.

Exercise 11. Translate into English using modal verbs and expressions (should, ought, to have to, to be to).

1. Вы должны были давно эту книгу. 2. Как это вы умудрились по­терять книгу? Вы должны были положить ее в портфель, тогда вы бы ее не потеряли. Теперь вам придется расстаться с какой-нибудь из своих книг. 3. Собрание должно было состояться вчера, но не состоялось. 4. Мне придется пойти к ней, у нее испорчен телефон. 5. Вам бы следовало сделать то, что я вам говорила, тогда вы не оказались бы в таком глупом положении теперь. 6. Как мы условились, я должна была зайти к ней и привести ее сюда. 7. Вы должны были мне сказать, что вы были больны. 8. Это случилось как раз в то время, когда она должна была уехать на юг. 9. Я должен был прийти к ней в два часа, но я оставил дома ее адрес, и мне пришлось вернуться; поэтому я опоздал. 10. Вам следует помочь ей, она ведь очень устала.
Exercise 12. Comment on the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Russian (shall, will).

1. "Don't want it, thanks. Finish it yourself." "Shall I? or shall I keep it for an emergency?" 2. No, Hubert; no chivalry and that" sort of nonsense. You shan't have all this beast­liness alone. I'm going to share it. 3. I ask your advice; and I am waiting for it. I will not have all the respon­sibility thrown on my shoulders. 4. Ellean: I will offer to go down to the village with Paula this morning – shall I? Aubrey (touching her hand gently): Thank you – do. 5. I am yours for ever and ever. Nothing can or shall divide me from you, unless you stop loving. 6. James lifted his eyes: "I won't have anything said against her," he said unexpectedly. 7. Let snobbish people say what they please. Barbara shall marry not the man they like, but the man I like. 8. He won't see a doctor, or take any advice. He won't see anyone. 9. And now, Dr. Trench, since you have acted handsomely, you shall have no cause to complain of me. There shall be no difficulty about money; you shall entertain as much as you please: I will guarantee all that. 10. "If I could have a picture of you, I should treasure it." "Of course you shall!" 11. I've told you over and over again that I will not be interfered with when I'm playing patience. 12. Will you have rum in your tea? 13. I've proved to you that I love you more than anybody else loves you and still you won't leave that Glenn Kenworthy and go with me. 14. Barbara: I will not have Charles called Cholly: the vul­garity of it positively makes me ill. 15. Only don't talk to me about divorce, for I simply won't hear of it!
Exercise 13. Insert shall, will or the contracted forms of shall not, will not (shan't, won't). Translate into Russian.

1. You ____ not run away before you answer. I have found out that trick of yours. 2. " ____ you come in a moment?" "Thank you kindly, young man." (contracted) 3. Once more, and only once, will you give me those papers or ____ I tear them from you by force! 4. You must be tired, dear; ____ you go to bed? (contracted) ____ I bring you something up? 5. James is very fond of you, he ____ have anything said against you; why don't you show him more affection? (contracted) 6. You may come, if you ____ . 7. ____ you please leave my room? 8. Then he ____ be here in a few minutes! What ____ I do? 9. "____ I speak to Diana, then, about what we've been saying?" "If you ____ , Dinny." 10. Mohammed Latif ____ be severely punished for inventing this. 11. Jack: Gwendolen, ____ you marry me? Gwendolen: Of course I ____ , darling. 12. I give and bequeath a hundred pounds to my younger son Christopher Dudgeon, fifty pounds to be paid to him on the day of his marriage to Sarah Wilkins, if she ____ have him. 13. "Martin darling, you're drunk," said Antonia. " ____ I order you a taxi to go home in?" 14. Mrs. Cortelyon: You know we are neighbours, Mrs Tanqueray. Paula: Neighbours? Are we really? ____ you sit down? (contracted) 15. A man who ____ work is no good, take that from me. (contracted) 16. I'll go, Dinny, if Hallorsen ____ take me. 17. Since you have taken the minister's place, you ____ go through with it. The execution will take place at 12 o'clock as arranged; and unless Anderson surrenders before then, you ____ take his place on the gallows. 18. "I'm not lying," I said. "If you ____ believe what I say why do you keep asking me?" (contracted) 19. ____ we go, Blanche? 20. "Your master is a true scoundrel!" I replied. "But he ____ answer for it."
Exercise 14. Comment on the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Russian (should or ought, would).

1. If I do lose my temper, 'tis not with you, or Cornelia either, but with him that should be helping me and never does. 2. Dad's away at some conference. I wanted him to take me, but he wouldn't. 3 "If Clare's to see Kit and Kat before we start," said Dinny, "we ought to go up, Fleur." 4. "I was for letting you sleep on," she said, "but they would go up and wake you. I said you didn't really want to come." 5. He ought to have phoned Simkin earlier, knowing his habits. 6. After a hasty breakfast they consulted. To whom should they go? "Not to the police," said Dinny. "No, indeed." "I think we should go to Uncle Adrian first." 7. The lady I liked wouldn't marry me – that is the main point, but that's fifteen years ago and now means nothing. 8. If only one editor, he sometimes thought, would descend from his high seat of pride to write me one cheering line! 9. I did something – a certain thing – something I shouldn't have done – but couldn't help it! 10. And now you feed me, when then you let me starve, forbade me your house, and damned me because I wouldn't get a job. 11. It isn't the sort of thing one should talk of in private. 12. He seemed to me quite normal, except that he would not go out or see anybody.
Exercise 15. Insert should or would. Translate into Russian.

1. Never forget that we ____ always think of others and work for others. 2. Anna began to feel a little uncomfortable, but she ____ not admit it. 3. I had that door painted only last week, you ____ be more careful. 4. You, Patty and Pricilla, are going to college, and ____ realise the necessity of being prepared. 5. "Then Agnes came by with Bunchie's sister," Tootie went on. "They were going to ride on the bridge, and we wanted to go. But she and Bunchie ____ n't take us." 6. I tried often to get him to talk. It was not that he ____ n't talk, it was rather that he didn't seem to hear me. " 7. A man ____ always have an occupation of some kind. 8. Every one, except Mrs. Reffold, seemed to recognise that Mr. Reffold's days were numbered. Either she did not or ____ not understand. 9. Algernon: Oh! it is absurd to have a hard and fast rule about what one ____ read and what one ____ n't. 10. All of her other former belongings. Had either been sold or lost for non-payment of dues. Just the same, she either could not or ____ not work. 11. Eunice: How is she? Stella: She ____ n't eat anything but asked for a drink. 12. "Why didn't you come before?" he said. "You ____ have come, instead of writing."
Exercise 16. Comment on the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Russian.

1. On the fourth day, feeling that she could bear the suspense no longer, she telephoned to Fleur and asked if she might come up to them. 2. I should be grateful if you would keep your hands off my business in future. 3. You know you didn't dare give the order to charge the bridge until you saw us on the other side. 4. Poker shouldn't be played in a house with women. 5. They didn't have to worry about money. 6. Although his residence and his family were in the country, he was frequently to be found about the restaurants and resorts of the radical section of the city. 7. She would not answer me, of course, but went on cording the crate. And when I thought it was done with, she found a volume slipped under a chair, and she would open up the crate and put it in. 8. "I suppose you know what I've been through since that bag came this morning," said mother. "You might have had some consideration for me. There is simply no excuse for all this." 9. You need not meet him unless you like. 10. He's... let me see... He can't be more than thirty, dear. 11. Misha followed her, and they were to be seen a moment later in conversation. 12. Meanwhile, Margaret seemed to hear a faint knock­ing, but as no one appeared to hear it, she thought she must be mistaken. 13. And of course you should have introduced us long ago. 14. I could not, and would not, believe that she was becoming interested in me. That could not be. 15. Anyhow, John won't hear of you seeing her. 16. And here now was this young and promising doctor, who could, if he would, keep her supplied with work, and might even eventually marry her. 17. Aubrey: What is to be her future? It is in my hands; what am I to do? 18. Your family may object to me; and then it will be all over between us. 19. Rosa reflected, as the train was leaving Naples, that perhaps she ought not to have left Hunter alone. 20. How dare he speak so to me? 21. I need hardly say I would do anything in the world to ensure Gwendolen's hap­piness. 22. How dare you address me as dear Sir, Sir? How dare you look me in the face and do it, Sir? 23. Mama came down, and in a voice which was both astonished and distraught, exclaimed: "Grandpa is not upstairs. Where can he have gone?" 24. But you might have been firing away at the Australians still if we cavalry fellows hadn't found the ford and got across. 25. You must be dying with curiosity. Take a peep. 26. Madam, may I speak 'to you a moment? 27. She gazed at me severely. "You ought to be in at your essay." 28. "Land ought to be very dear about there," he said. 29. The substance of her observations, along with those of others, is to be found in a series of articles published in a series of screen publications of the time. 30. But you've got to finish college. We can't get married for a long time. 31. Cain said: "I don't have to pay to find that out. I could have asked anybody at the meeting, and found out." 32. Soames would often come down to watch with secret pride the building of the house which was to have been his home. 33.. Miss Femm opened the door. "I've none of this electric light. I won't have it. You'll have to wait till I've lit the candles." 34. "Well," James said, with a nervous emphasis, "I don't see what you want with a tree." "It shall come down to-morrow," said Bosinney. 35. "What are we to do?" she gasped. "Can't we stay here? Shall I lock the door?" 36. I felt suddenly dizzy with pain and unable to face whatever scene was to follow. 37. But Sally, with a towel round her, went down to the water's edge. "You're to come out this minute, Philip," she called, as though he were a small boy under her charge. 38. It seemed like an age, but I suppose the whole thing can't have lasted thirty seconds really.
Exercise 17. Insert modal verbs and explain their use (use the contracted forms shan't, won't, shouldn't, wouldn't if necessary). Translate into Russian.

1. You ____ have looked lovely in a veil, Aunt Em. Didn't she, Uncle? 2. Won't you sit down, Mr. Anderson? I ____ have asked you before; but I'm so troubled. 3. I went over to the window. The pavements were damp and reflected the yellow light. It ____ have rained to-day. 4. "Now please tell me how you are going to celebrate the great event of my having won a scholarship. ____ we have a grand sort of school-room treat?" "We certainly will," replied the mother. "You have ____ worked hard and ____ have your reward." (contracted) 5. "I mean they're sending me to New York for good. To be the head of the New York office." "I don't believe it," Mrs. Smith said. "I simply don't believe it. I think you ____ have lost your mind." "It's true," he said, "I ____ to start a week from Saturday." 6. There were two letters for him. One from his guardian, the other from his sister. The man she was engaged to was afraid that his leave was going to be curtailed. They would ____ to be married at once. They might even ____ to get a special licence. 7. Pearl: I sent out to the garage and gave instructions that the old Rolls-Royce ____ to be taken down at once and the other ____ to go to London. 8. "Tootie ____ have been in school this year," Mr. Smith said defiantly. "And would have been too, if you hadn't carried on so about her being the baby. She'll ____ to start school sometime, you know." 9. Hush! He's still asleep. What ____ we to do when he wakes? ____ we go up to him and wait for it? 10. Let's go over and see old Shropshire. He ____ have known your father well, Con. 11. "Did you ____ to take a cab?" "No, there was nothing much to bring." 12. Mrs. Ferse asked him if he had had dinner, and if he would like to go to bed; and if he would see a doctor; but he ____ speak, he sat with his eyes closed, (contracted) 13. From time to time he and Esther ____ to be seen together. 14. You ____ to stay out so late, it makes you fit for nothing. (contracted) 15. A doctor called in at this late hour. He suggested a nurse, but this Mrs. Widdle, ill as she was, ____ not hear of. It would cost so much. 16. You ____ not be so careless with your things. 17. You ____ not to tell Dad what I told you, Mother. 18. Indignation against Martin ran high. No one ____ have anything to do with a Socialist traitor. 19. It's all over the town, and ____ injure your reputation. 20. We ____ have children, Gretta – a lot of children. There would be no time to worry about ourselves then. 21. "O Sue!" he cried, sitting down beside her and taking her hand. "How is this! You couldn't write?" "No, it wasn't that!" she answered. "I did catch a bad cold — but I could have written. Only I ____!" (contracted) 22. She was always well-dressed and carried herself with an inimitable air that ____ have been born in her. It ____ never have been acquired. 23. "Go and order your men to drop their arms. They ____ to leave the hotel singly and with upraised hands." 24. There are some houses there somewhere. We'll ask, they ____ have seen him. 25. "Well, Annie," he said. "I gave Trask a dollar for his trouble." "You ____ not have done that, Father," Mrs. Smith said. "After all, we do pay him to watch the house." 26. On the inland side hills____ to be seen, spotted with olive trees. 27. "____ I ask," he said, "what it is that is bothering you, my dear?" 28. "I ____ be out again directly," he said to the driver, or I ____ be kept some time." 29.
Exercise 18. Translate into English, using modal verbs.

1. «Помочь вам?» - «Нет, спасибо, я сделаю все сама». 2. «Не знаю, справлюсь ли я с этой работой в такой короткий срок». - «Вы должны были подумать об этом раньше». 3. Не может быть, чтобы он уже вернулся, ведь он вчера только уехал в Москву. Вы, должно быть, ошиблись. 4. Вы не должны позволять ей чи­тать в сумерки, она может испортить глаза. 5. Вы не должны были оставлять гореть газ, такими вещами нельзя шутить, ведь мог произойти пожар! 6. Он должен был поехать в Москву на прошлой неделе, но конференция задержала его на несколько дней. 7. Тысячу раз я просила ее не хлопать дверью, когда я за­нимаюсь, но она все равно хлопает. 8. Я вас, должно быть, неправильно понял и поэтому пришел так рано. 9. Вам не к чему брать зонтик, на небе нет ни облачка. 10. Мне придется оста­вить ей записку, я ее, наверно, не увижу. 11. «Почему они ее тогда не видели?» - «Она могла уйти до их прихода». 12. Вам незачем идти на почту, я отправлю ваше письмо. 13. Джордж должен был вчера у нас обедать, но он не пришел. 14. Погода была прекрасная; мы пошли в сад, всюду можно было видеть счастливые лица детей. 15. «Купить вам “Сдается в наем” Голсуорси?» - «Нет, не надо; моя сестра была вчера в книжном магазине, она, возможно, купила эту книгу». 16. Доктор велел ей лежать в постели, но она и слышать об этом не хотела. 17. Обыч­но я хожу в филармонию пешком, но вчера я вышел поздно, и мне пришлось сесть в автобус. 18. Концерт должен был быть пятого февраля, но был отложен из-за болезни дирижера. 19. Петя узнал об этом до дня концерта, но не сообщил своему приятелю Коле, так как у него был испор­чен телефон. 20. Коля очень рассердился на него. «Ты должен был сказать мне, не мог же ты быть так занят, чтобы не зайти на почту или позвонить», - сказал он, когда они увиделись. 21. Петя объяснил, что как раз в тот день заболела его сестра, и он должен был за ней ухаживать. 22. Но его приятель и слушать не хотел его объяснений. 23. «Ты мог бы найти способ дать мне знать», - упрямо повторял он, хотя Петя продолжал оправдываться, говоря, что никого не было дома, и он боялся, что сестре может что-нибудь понадобиться во время его отсутствия. 24. Кристин поражалась перемене, происшедшей в Эндрю. «Не может быть, чтобы он потерял интерес к работе, не мо­жет быть, чтобы он думал только о деньгах», - думала она. Эндрю в свою очередь не понимал, почему Кристин стала такой нервной и почему она ни за что не хочет сказать, что с ней такое. 25. Он думал, что вместо того, чтобы сердиться на него, ей следовало бы радоваться его успеху. 26. «Она могла бы поду­мать о том, как получше обставить нашу квартиру теперь, когда мы можем позволить себе это», - думал он. 27. Но он не мог долго думать об этом, так как был очень занят: ему надо было обслу­жить всех своих пациентов, поэтому он решил, что ее странное поведение - просто каприз, на который он не должен обращать внимания. 28. Однажды миссис Лоренс позвонила ему и, сказав, что супруг ее уехал на рыбную ловлю в Ирландию и она, быть может, через несколько дней поедет к нему, позвала его к завтраку. 29. Он принял ее приглашение, хотя и подумал, что она могла бы пригласить и Кристин. 30. Потом он пришел к заключению, что это визит скорее деловой, а не светский и что он должен бывать в об­ществе и заводить знакомства, которые могут быть полезны для его карьеры, и что ему не к чему говорить об этом Кристин.

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