The Republic of Kazakhstan


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Unit 1

The Republic of Kazakhstan

The Republic of Kazakhstan is a sovereign independent state in the center of the Eurasian continent. It is the second largest of the former Soviet Republics, extending some 1,900 km from the Volga river in the west to the Altai mountains in the east and about 1,300 km from the Siberian plain in the north to the Central Asian deserts in the south. To the south it borders the Republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. To the east there is an international frontier with the People’s Republic of China. There is a long border in the north with the Russian Federation and a 2,320 coastline on the Caspian Sea in the south-west. The total area is 2,717,300 sq km, and in the ninth place in the world by its territory size. The landscape of Kazakhstan is diverse. The northern forest-steppe becomes steppe, semi-desert and desert in the south. The Western regions are dominated by the lowlands of the Caspian Depression, which is drained by the river Ural. To the east of the western lowlands is the vast Turan plain, much of which is sparsely inhabited desert. On the eastern and south-eastern borders there are high mountain rangers. The major rivers are the Irtysh, which rises in the north-east of the Republic and flows north, across Siberia, and empties into the Arctic Ocean; the Ural, in the west, which flows south into the Caspian Sea; and the Syrdarya which rises in the Tien Shan mountain range and empties into the Aral Sea. The waters of the Syrdarya have been extensively used for irrigation, causing serious desiccation of the Aral Sea. The climate of Kazakhstan varies widely throughout the country. Average January temperatures range from -19° C in the north to -3°C in the south, but temperatures in northern regions may fall as low as -40°C or below.

Kazakhstan’s relatively developed economic structure is based on its vast deposits of natural resources such as iron ore, oil and natural gas. In addition Kazakhstan is a major producer and exporter of agricultural products – primarily grain, wool and meat. The main branches of industry are metallurgy, production of heavy machinery, industrial equipment, chemicals, textiles and processed foods. National currency of Kazakhstan is tenge introduced in 1993.

Kazakhstan can be divided into 5 main zones, according to climatic and economic conditions. They are: Eastern, Northern, Central, Southern, Western Kazakhstan. The population of Eastern Kazakhstan is about 1,7 mln. people. The main cities are Semipalatinsk, Oskemen, Zyrianovsk. The region is rich in polymetal ores, containing lead, zink, copper and gold, silver. The main branches of industry are metallurgy and production of heavy machinery, non-ferrous metallurgy, machine-building, timber cutting. Northern Kazakhstan is the granary of the country, about three quarters of agricultural land is used for grain production. The useful minerals are deposits of iron, hard coal, limestone. Industries include machine-building, instrumental plants, food-processing. Central Kazakhstan covers the territory of 398 square km. The main cities are Karaganda, Dzeskazgan, Temirtau. The population is overwhelmingly urban – more than 80% live in cities. The region is famous for hard coal deposits; about 30% of the Republic’s hard coal stocks are concentrated in Central Kazakhstan. Highly developed industries: are ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, construction industry. In Southern Kazakhstan agriculture is developed. The population density is the highest in the Republic. The main cities are: Kyzylorda, Aralsk, Taraz. The region is the main centre of irrigated viticulture, with well-developed cotton, sugar, beet and rice growing. Western Kazakhstan is mainly famous for its mineral resources, such as oil, gas and chromate, copper. The Tengiz oil-field is one of the largest in the world. The region attracts foreign investors to stimulate the development of the industry in the region.

Glossary

desert – пустыня

to border on – граничить с

international frontier- международная граница

diverse – разнообразный

forest-steppe – лес-степь

lowland – низменность

desiccation – высушивание

irrigation – орошение

heavy machinery – тяжёлое машиностроение

industrial equipment – производственное оборудование

currency – валюта

lead – свинец

copper – медь

ferrous and non-ferrous metal – цветной и не цветной металл

limestone – известняк

chromate - хром

overwhelmingly - слишком много

population density – плотность населения

viticulture - виноградник

sugar – сахарный тростник

beet – свекла

rice – рис

5.1.2 Answer the questions:

1. Where is Kazakhstan situated? 2. How long does it extend from the Volga river in the west to the Altai mountains in the east? 3. What countries does our republic border on? 4. Can you name the major rivers? 5. How many zones is Kazakhstan divided into according to climatic and economic conditions? 6. What is the cause of the desiccation of the Aral Sea. 7. What part of Kazakhstan is considered to be the granary of the country? 8. Name the main cities of Central Kazakhstan. 9. What natural resources is Western Kazakhstan rich in? 10. What is developed in Southern Kazakhstan?

5.1.3 Fill in suitable words: natural gas, currency, a sovereign and secular state, lead, copper, population density, climate, iron ore, the Aral Sea, plain, deposits, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, Tien Shan, irrigation

1. The Republic of Kazakhstan is ... in the center of the Eurasia. 2. Highly developed industries in Central Kazakhstan are ..., chemical industry, construction industry. 3. The Eastern Kazakhstan is rich in polymetal ores, containing ..., zink, ..., gold, silver. 4. The ... of Kazakhstan varies greatly throughout the country.

5. The Syrdarya rises in the ... mountain range and empties into ... . 6. National … of Kazakhstan tenge was introduced in 1993. 7. The vast Turan … is sparsely inhabited desert. 8. The waters of the Syrdarya are used for … . 9. The … of southern Kazakhstan is the highest in the Republic. 10. Kazakhstan’s economic structure is based on its vast … of natural resources such as …, oil, … .

^ 5.1.4 Fill in prepositions

1. Eastern Kazakhstan is mainly famous … its polymetal ores, containing lead, zink, copper, gold, silver. 2. According to climatic and economic conditions Kazakhstan is divided … 5 main zones. 3. Western Kazakhstan is rich … mineral resources, such as oil, gas, chromate, copper. 4. Our country borders … the Russian Federation … the north. 5. The Western regions are dominated … the lowlands … the Caspian Depression. 6. The Irtysh rises … the north-east … the country and flows north, … Siberia, and empties … the Arctic Ocean. 7. Kazakhstan … (to be) among 50 developed states by the end of the decade.

^ 5.1.5 Use the correct Passive Voice form

1. Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, construction industry … (to develop) in Central Kazakhstan. 2. The sovereign Republic of Kazakhstan … (to locate) in the center of the Eurasian continent. 3. Since 1993 national currency tenge … (to use) in our territory. 4. Tenge … (to introduce) in 1993. 5. Kazakhstan … (to wash) by the Caspian Sea in the west. 6. Kairat … (to show) all the sights of Astana by the evening yesterday. 7. The photos of the beautiful buildings … (to take) by Almas yesterday.

Grammar: The Past Continuous Tense.

AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

I was reading

I was not reading

Was I reading?

We were reading

We were not reading

Were we reading?

  • The Past Continuous denotes a temporary action taking place at a given moment in the past:

at 5 o’ clock yesterday.

I was writing a letter to my friend from 5 to 6 on Sunday.

When Mum came.

  • We often use the Past Continuous and the Past Indefinite (Simple) together to say that something happened in the middle of something else:

I saw Irene in the park. She was sitting on the bench and waiting for somebody.
Ex.5. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Continuous Tense and translate them.

1. The children were frightened because it (get) dark. 2. It was a fine day and the roads were crowded because a lot of people (rush) to the seaside. 3. He usually wears sandals but when I last saw him he (wear) boots. 4. Ton ate nothing for lunch because he (diet). 5. Who you (talk) to on the phone as I came in? 6. I went into the garden to see what the boys (do). 7. He was a little mad. He always (try) to prove that the earth was flat. 8. Just as I (wonder) what to do next, the phone rang.

Ex.6. Translate into English.

Я посидел на скамейке, а потом начал читать книгу. 2. Он увидел Лену, которая рисовала странную картину.3. Мы как раз говорили о нем, когда он пришел. 4. Вчера в шесть часов она накрывала на стол. 5. Что ты играл, когда я вошла? 6. Вода в чайнике кипела, когда мои друзья вернулись в лагерь. 7. Старший брат решал кроссворд, мама вязала, остальные читали. 8. Когда она проснулась, в саду весело пели птицы.
Ex 7. Translate the joke paying special attention to the italicized words.

Озорник.

Однажды пожилой джентльмен прогуливался по улицам. Он увидел маленького мальчика у двери одного из домов. Мальчик стоял у двери и пытался дотянуться (reach) до звонка (door-bell), который находился слишком высоко для него. Пожилой джентльмен был добрым человеком, поэтому он остановился, чтобы помочь мальчику. «Я позвоню в звонок за тебя,» - сказал он и дернул (pull) за звонок. Маленький мальчик посмотрел на него и сказал, смеясь: «А теперь нам надо убегать.»

Пожилой джентльмен не понял, что происходит. Мальчик исчез (disappear) за углом, а старику пришлось объяснять (explain to) рассерженному хозяину (owner of the house), почему он звонил в звонок.
^ Manual and automatic transmissions

1.The transmission is a mechanism that changes speed and power rations between the engine and the driving wheels. Three general types of transmission are in current use: conventional or sliding-gear, Hydra-Matic, and torque-converter systems.

2.The conventional transmission provides for three or four forward speeds and one reverse speed. It consists of two shafts, each with gears of varying diameters. One shaft drives the other at a preselected speed by meshing the appropriate set of gears. For reverse speed, an extra gear, known as the idler gear, is required to turn the driven shaft in the opposite direction from normal rotation. In high gear, the two shafts usually turn at the same speed. In low, second, and reverse gears, the driven shaft turns more slowly than the driving shaft. When a pair of gears permits the driven shaft to turn more rapidly than the driving shaft, the transmission is said to have overdrive. Overdrive is designed to increase the speed of a car.

3.The Hydra-Matic type of transmission combines the automatic clutch provided by fluid coupling with a semi-automatic transmission. A mechanical governor, controlled by the pressure exerted on the accelerator pedal, regulates gear selection through a system of hydraulically controlled shift valves. Hydra-Matic transmission provides for several forward gears.

4.The torque-converter type of transmission provides an unlimited number of gear ratios with no shifting of gear. The torque converter is a hydraulic mechanism using engine power to drive a pump, which must impel streams of oil against the blades of a turbine. The turbine is connected to the drive shaft and causes it to rotate.

5.Both Hydra-Matic and torque-converter systems are controlled by a selector lever on the steering column, which provides also for reverse and sometimes for emergency-low gears.

  1. ^ Прочтите текст и письменно ответьте на вопросы на русском языке:

а) Что такое трансмиссия?

б) Какие виды трансмиссии сейчас используются?

в) Для чего предназначена повышенная скорость?

г) Что контролирует переключатель на рулевой колонке?

  1. ^ Найдите в тексте предложение, в котором говорится о :

а) предназначении традиционной трансмиссии.

б) конструкции традиционной трансмиссии.

в) предназначении переключателя на рулевой колонке.

  1. Выберите правильный ответ:

  1. The conventional transmission provides for ….

a) four forward speeds and two reverse speeds.

b) four forward speeds.

c) three or four forward speeds and one reverse speed.

  1. Overdrive is designed to … the speed of a car.

  1. increase

  2. limit

  3. stop.

  1. Hydra-Matic transmission provides for several ... gears.

  1. reverse

  2. forward

  3. idler

4. Both Hydra-Matic and torque-converter systems are under control of …

a) a mechanical governor.

b) a selector lever.

c) a turbine.

^ IV. Выберите из абзаца 2 предложения в пассивном залоге, переведите и укажите их видовременную форму.

V Выпишите из абзаца 4 предложение с модальным глаголом и переведите его.

^ VI. Составьте краткую аннотацию к тексту, используя следующие выражения:

  1. The text under the headline … is about…

  2. Besides it deals with …

  3. It should be noted that …

  4. The importance of … is stressed.

  5. At the end of the text it is pointed out that …


Unit 2 INTERNET AND ITS GREAT POSSIBILITIES.
Практические цели: формирование навыков устной речи на основе изучения текста, интересного в познавательном отношении для обсуждения в аудитории и выработка собственной точки зрения на проблему.
^ Intelligent machines.
The evolution of artificial intelligence is now proceeding so rapidly that by the end of the century cheap computers no larger than portable type-writers will exist that will be able to solve almost any problem faster and more efficiently than we can.

“Intelligence” in a machine, as in a human, is best defined as the ability to solve complex problems swiftly. This may involve medical diagnosis and prescriptions, resolving legal matters or playing war games: in other words advising governments whether or not to go to war.

While computers have already enhanced the deadlines of weapons, the prospect for the future is that they will play the more beneficial role of preventing wars. If asked to assess the chances of victory, the computer will analyze facts quite differently from the life-long military expert with his enthusiasm and ambitions. The computer coolly appraises the chances of success before the conflict begins, may well advise that the fight is unwinnable or that chances of victory are unacceptably low and needless disaster can be avoided.

At what point do we decide that their mental capacity is approaching the human level? This question will be answered by an ingenious trick known Alan Turing. He proposed a simple test. A person would sit alone in a room talking by teleprinter with two other beings elsewhere, one of them human and the other a computer. When after substantial conversation he no longer knew which was which, the computer would have passed the Turing Test, and arguably would have attained human intelligence.

No machine today comes near to passing the Turing Test. Professor Isaac Asimov may have solved the problem with a masterpiece of mathematical logic. He proposes that all intelligent machines should have the following three “Laws” programmed into them as instincts:

  1. A robot may not injure a human being, or through inaction allow a human being to come to harm.

  2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings, except when such orders would conflict with the First Law.

  3. A robot must protect its own existence so long as such protection does not conflict with the First and Second Laws.

It sounds foolproof, but will it work? Pessimists will still pay attention to the ominous words of Arthur Clarke: “The first invention of a super-intelligent machine will be the last invention mankind will be allowed to make”.
Ex.1. Answer the questions.

  1. How can the “intelligence” of a computer be defined best?

  2. What are the possible uses of a computer?

  3. What does the Turing Test consists of?

  4. Are you enthusiastic or skeptical about the planet “run by the computers”?


Ex.2. Discuss the questions.

  1. People can’t manage without computers.

  2. The number of computers in the world is constantly growing.

  3. A number of problems have already been solved by computers.

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