Литература Для специальности 1-02 03 06-01 Английский язык. Немецкий язык. 3-й

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^ Контрольные задания
I. Choose the correct fact
1. The term romantic first appeared in … -century English.

  1. 19th

  2. 18th

  3. 17th

  4. 16th

2. Scottish poet and writer of traditional Scottish folk songs is …

  1. Walter Scott

  2. George Byron

  3. John Keats

  4. Robert Burns

3. Innocence and Experience, “the two contrary states of the human soul,” are contrasted in such companion pieces as …

  1. “The Lamb” and “The Tiger”

  2. “The Girl” and “The Boy”

  3. “The Lamb” and “The Lion”

  4. “The land” and “The Sky”

4. The beginning of the Romantic Movement in English poetry is marked by a book of poems entitled …

  1. Songs of Experience

  2. Songs of Innocence

  3. Don Juan

  4. Lyrical Ballads

5. Burns touched with his own genius the traditional folk songs of …

  1. Wales

  2. Great Britain

  3. Ireland

  4. Scotland

6. Wordsworth and Coleridge collaborated on a book of poems entitled …

  1. Lyrical Ballads

  2. Natural Ballads

  3. Lyrical Poetry

  4. Songs of Nature

7. The famous “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” is written by…

  1. Robert Southey

  2. William Wordsworth

  3. John Keats

  4. Samuel Coleridge

8. Byron’s poem narrating travels in Europe is…

  1. Don Juan

  2. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage

  3. Manfred

  4. The Destruction of Sennacherib

9. A “Frankenstein” is any creation that ultimately destroys its …

  1. creator

  2. body

  3. soul

  4. head

10. A poet who wrote about Belarusian hero is…

  1. Walter Scott

  2. Mary Shelley

  3. William Blake

  4. John Keats

II. Select the term/name/place name that seems odd
11. Blake – poet – playwright – painter – engraver
12. Prophetic Books - Pilgrim’s Progress - Songs of Innocence - Songs of Experience
13. John Keats - Percy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - George Byron
14. Samuel Coleridge – Robert Burns - William Wordsworth - Robert Southey
15. imagination – individual thought – rationalism – the irrational
16. ode – stanza – song – ballad
17. Ozymandias - Don Juan - Lord Byron - Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage
III. Complete the following sentences
18. Romanticism is a movement in the literature of virtually every country of Europe, the United States, and Latin America that lasted from

  1. about 1750 to about 1850

  2. about 1750 to about 1870

  3. about 1790 to about 1870

  4. about 1800 to about 1870

19. Much of Blake’s painting was on religious subjects: illustrations for the work of his favorite poet …

  1. John Donne

  2. Geoffrey Chaucer

  3. John Bunyan

  4. John Milton

20. The young man of stormy emotions who shuns humanity and roams through life weighed down by a sense of guilt for mysterious sins of his past is known as…

  1. Childe Harold

  2. the romantic

  3. the Byronic hero

  4. Don Juan

21. Keats’s great creative outpouring came in April and May of 1819, when he composed a group of …

  1. nine sonnets

  2. five songs

  3. nine odes

  4. five odes

22. I hae been blythe wi' Comrades dear is written by…

  1. George Byron

  2. Robert Burns

  3. William Blake

  4. William Wordsworth

23. Scorn not the Sonnet, Critic, you have frowned is written by

  1. Samuel Coleridge

  2. William Wordsworth

  3. Percy Bysshe Shelley

  4. John Keats

24. Between 1808 and 1819 … gave his famous series of lectures on literature and philosophy.

  1. William Wordsworth

  2. George Byron

  3. Samuel Coleridge

  4. John Keats

IV. Fill in the correct definition / date / term / place name
25. Blake has been called a ________ because he rejected neoclassical literary style and modes of thought.
26. Poetry, Wordsworth asserted, originates from “________ recollected in tranquility.”
27. Many critics regard Shelley as one of the greatest of all English poets and point especially to his lyrics, including the familiar short ________ “To a Skylark”, “To the West Wind”, and “The Cloud”.
28. Shelley's was skillful in verse ________, a translation from Plato and critical work.
29. Don Juan, a mock epic in 16 cantos, encompasses a brilliant ________ on contemporary English society.
V. Read the descriptions. Replace one word in each passage which clearly is a mistake. Fill in the correct word/term/place name
30. Inspiration for the romantic approach initially came from two great shapers of thought, French poet Jean Jacques Rousseau and German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

The term ________ is incorrect. It must be ________ .
31. As was to be Blake’s custom, he illustrated the tracts with designs that demand an imaginative reading of the complicated dialogue between word and picture.

The term ________ is incorrect. It must be ________ .
32. Goethe's novel The Sorrows of Young Werther set a tone and mood much copied by the sentimentalists in their works and often in their personal lives: a fashionable tendency to frenzy, melancholy, world-weariness, and even self-destruction.

The term ________ is incorrect. It must be ________ .
33. Much of Wordsworth's easy flow of conversational blank verse has true lyrical power and grace, and his finest work is permeated by a sense of the human relationship to internal nature that is religious in its scope and intensity.

The term ________ is incorrect. It must be ________ .
34. Walter Scott created an enduring interest in Scottish traditions, and throughout the Western world he encouraged the cult of the ancient literature, which strongly characterized romanticism.

The term ________ is incorrect. It must be ________ .

Викторианские дети и викторианские чудаки (1836 – 1876)

  1. Становление критического реализма.

  2. Чарльз Диккенс: жизнь и творчество.

  3. Творчество Уильяма Теккерея.

  4. “Женская литература” викторианской эпохи.

  5. Возникновение детской литературы.


Информационно-методическая часть


(1836 – 1876)
Britain had emerged from the long war with France (1793–1815) as a great power and as the world's predominant economy. Visiting England in 1847, the American writer Ralph Waldo Emerson observed of the English that “the modern world is theirs. They have made and make it day by day.”

This new status as the world's first urban and industrialized society was responsible for the extraordinary wealth, vitality, and self-confidence of the period. Abroad these energies expressed themselves in the growth of the British Empire. At home they were accompanied by rapid social change and fierce intellectual controversy.

The juxtaposition of this new industrial wealth with a new kind of urban poverty is only one of the paradoxes that characterize this long and diverse period. In religion the climax of the Evangelical revival coincided with an unprecedentedly severe set of challenges to faith.

"The modern spirit," Matthew Arnold observed in 1865, "is now awake." In 1859 Charles Darwin had published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Historians, philosophers, and scientists were all beginning to apply the idea of evolution to new areas of study of the human experience. Traditional conceptions of man's nature and place in the world were, as a consequence, under threat.

In politics a widespread commitment to economic and personal freedom was, nonetheless, accompanied by a steady growth in the power of the state. But the fierce political debates led first to the Second Reform Act and then to the battles for the enfranchisement of women and were accompanied by a deepening crisis of belief.

The prudery for which the Victorian Age is notorious in fact went hand in hand with an equally violent immorality, seen, for example, in the writings of the Decadents.

Most fundamentally of all, the rapid change that many writers interpreted as progress inspired in others a fierce nostalgia. Enthusiastic rediscoveries of ancient Greece, Elizabethan England, and, especially, the Middle Ages by writers, artists, architects, and designers made this age of change simultaneously an age of active and determined historicism.

Despite this persistence critics of the 1830s felt that there had been a break in the English literary tradition, which they identified with the death of Byron. The deaths of Jane Austen and Sir Walter Scott should perhaps have been seen as even more significant, for the new literary era has, with justification, been seen as the age of the novel.

One of the most outstanding novelists of the day was Charles Dickens (1812-1870). In his enormous body of works, he combined masterly storytelling, humor, pathos, and irony with sharp social criticism and acute observation of people and places, both real and imagined.

Dickens spent most of his childhood in London and Kent, both of which appear frequently in his novels. He started school at the age of nine, but his education was interrupted when his father, an amiable but careless minor civil servant, was imprisoned for debt. The boy was then forced to support himself by working in a shoe-polish factory. A resulting sense of humiliation and abandonment haunted him for life, and he later described this experience, only slightly altered, in his novel David Copperfield.

Though Dickens again attended school, he was mostly self-educated. After learning shorthand, he began working as a reporter in the courts and Parliament, perhaps developing the power of precise description that was to make his creative writing so remarkable. At 21, Dickens published the first of a series of original descriptive sketches of daily life in London, using the pseudonym Boz. The success of this work, Sketches by Boz, permitted Dickens to marry and led to the proposal of a similar publishing venture in collaboration with a popular artist. Dickens transformed this particular project from a set of loosely connected vignettes into a comic narrative, The Pickwick Papers (1836-1837).

The success of this first novel made Dickens famous. At the same time it influenced the publishing industry in Great Britain, being issued in a rather unusual form, that of inexpensive monthly installments; this method of publication quickly became popular among Dickens's contemporaries. Dickens subsequently maintained his fame with a constant stream of novels. A man of enormous energy and wide talents, he also engaged in many other activities. He edited weekly periodicals, administered charitable organizations, and pressed for many social reforms. In 1842 he lectured in the United States in favor of an international copyright agreement and in opposition to slavery.

Dickens's extra-literary activities also included managing a theatrical company that played before Queen Victoria in 1851 and giving public readings of his own works in England and America. As Dickens matured artistically, his novels developed from comic tales based on the adventures of a central character, like The Pickwick Papers, to works of great social relevance, psychological insight, and narrative and symbolic complexity.

Among his fine works are Bleak House, Little Dorritt, Great Expectations (1860-1861), and Our Mutual Friend. Readers usually prized Dickens's earlier novels for their humor and pathos. While recognizing the virtues of these books, critics today tend to rank more highly the later works because of their formal coherence and acute perception of the human condition.

The novel Great Expectations is considered one of the most satisfying of all Dickens' books. Its tone varies a great deal – it is comic, cheerful, satirical, wry, critical, sentimental, dark, dramatic, foreboding, Gothic, and often sympathetic. As far as themes go, the novel contains one which is ambition and the desire for self-improvement – social, economic, educational, and moral. It is also a book telling the story of maturation and the growth from childhood to adulthood. The writer emphasizes the importance of affection, loyalty, and sympathy over social advancement and class superiority. Above all, the novel speaks directly about the difficulty of maintaining superficial moral and social categories in a constantly changing world.

One of Dickens' projects was the magazine Household Words. It was to this magazine that he requested a contribution from a female writer whose name was Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-1865). Dickens came to know her after the success of her first published novel. It was Mary Barton, a Tale of Manchester Life (1848), an attack on the behavior of factory employers during the 1840s, which was the time of depression and hardship for the British working class.

Gaskell contributed the papers to Dickens' magazine which were later published under the title of Cranford. This book, concerning elegant gentility among women in a country town, has become an English classic.

Gaskell is the novelist known for her compassion toward her subjects, and skillful narrative style. Her other works include a biography of her friend, the novelist Charlotte Bronte, published two years after Bronte had died.

Another great realist is William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-63). He was a novelist and humorist, one of the foremost exponents of the 19th-century realistic novel. His most famous work is Vanity Fair.

Thackeray was born in India. He entered the University of Cambridge. Leaving the university without taking his degree, he attempted to develop his literary and artistic abilities, first as the editor of a short-lived journal and subsequently as an art student in Paris. Thackeray began the serial publication of his great satirical novel Vanity Fair early in 1847, quickly establishing a reputation as one of the major literary figures of his time.

Thackeray is particularly noted for his exquisitely humorous and ironic portrayals of the middle and upper classes of his time. His narrative skill and vivid characterizations are strikingly evident in his masterpiece Vanity Fair, an elaborate study of social relationships in early 19th-century England. The character of Becky Sharp, a scheming adventuress, is drawn with consummate skill, serving as a model for the heroines of many later novels. Thackeray's keen awareness of social eccentricity is seen also in his short works, especially in The Rose and the Ring, in which his own clever drawings accent the text.

In other novels he broadened his observation of social situations to various eras and locales. These widely acclaimed works brought Thackeray new recognition. He became a principal competitor of his great contemporary, Charles Dickens, with whom he frequently disagreed on the nature of the novel as a vehicle for social commentary.

The Victorian age saw a great number of female authors whose works are still widely read and admired. The talents of the Bronte sisters produced the works that have become beloved classics.

Charlotte Bronte (1816-1855), Emily (Jane) Bronte (1818-1848), and Anne Bronte (1820-1849), and their brother (Patrick) Branwell Bronte (1817-1848), were born in Yorkshire. Their father, Patrick Bronte, who had been born in Ireland, was appointed rector of a village on the Yorkshire moors. When their mother died, Charlotte and Emily were sent to join their older sisters Maria and Elizabeth at the Clergy Daughters' School; this was the original on which was modeled the infamous Lowood School of Jane Eyre.

The children's imaginations transmuted a set of wooden soldiers into characters in a series of stories they wrote about the imaginary kingdom of Angria and the kingdom of Gondal.

Charlotte went away to school again, returning home a year later to continue her education and teach her sisters. She returned to school as a teacher, taking Emily with her. At 24, conceiving the idea of opening a small private school of their own, and to improve their French, Charlotte and Emily went to Brussels, to a private boarding school. The death of their aunt, who had kept house for the family, compelled their return, however. In 1845 the family was together again.

Charlotte's discovery of Emily's poems led to the decision to have the sisters' verses published; these appeared, at their own expense, as Poems by Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell (1846), each sister using her own initials in these pseudonyms. Two copies were sold. Each sister then embarked on a novel.

Charlotte's Jane Eyre was published first, in 1847; Anne's Agnes Grey and Emily's Wuthering Heights appeared a little later that year. Speculation about the authors' identities was rife until they visited London and met their publishers.

On their return they found Branwell near death. Emily caught cold at his funeral, and died December 19, 1848. Anne too died, on May 28, 1849. Alone now with her father, Charlotte resumed work on the novel Shirley (1849). This was the least successful of her novels.

Charlotte married her father's curate, Arthur Bell Nicholls. Pregnant in 1855, she became ill and died that year of tuberculosis.

Since their deaths, new generations of readers have been fascinated by the circumstances of the sisters' lives, their untimely deaths, and their astonishing achievements. Jane Eyre's popularity has never waned; it is a passionate expression of female issues and concerns. The transcendent masterpiece, however, is almost certainly Emily's novel Wuthering Heights, a story of passionate love, in which irreconcilable principles of energy and calm are ultimately harmonized. Emily Bronte was a mystic, as her poetry shows, and Wuthering Heights dramatizes her intuitive apprehension of the nature of life.

Perhaps, the best known Victorian female poet was Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861). She was also political thinker and feminist. Browning was privately educated. She started publishing poetry at the age of 20. She was incapacitated for nearly a decade after 1838 as a result of a childhood spinal injury and lung ailment. She continued writing, however, and produced a volume of poems. These verses were so highly regarded that when William Wordsworth died, Browning was suggested as his successor as poet laureate of England.

She was 39 when the poet Robert Browning began to write to Elizabeth to praise her poetry. Their romance was bitterly opposed by her father. However, the couple eloped and settled in Florence, Italy, where Elizabeth regained her health and bore a son at age 43. Her Sonnets from the Portuguese, dedicated to her husband and written in secret before her marriage, was published in 1850. Critics generally consider the Sonnets, one of the most widely known collections of love lyrics in English, to be her best work.

First time he kissed me, he but only kissed

The fingers of this hand wherewith I write;

And, ever since, it grew more clean and white,..

Slow to world-greeting, quick with its 'Oh, list',

When the angels speak. A ring of amethyst

I could not wear here, plainer to my sight,

Than that first kiss. The second passed in height

The first, and sought the forehead, and half missed

Half falling on the hair. O beyond meed!

That was the chrism of love, which love's own crown,

With sanctifying sweetness, did precede.

The third upon my lips was folded down

In perfect, purple state; since when, indeed,

I have been proud and said, 'My love, my own'.
She expressed her intense sympathy with the struggle for the unification of Italy in her poems. Her longest and most ambitious work is the didactic, romantic poem in blank verse Aurora Leigh, in which she defends a woman's right to intellectual freedom and addresses the concerns of the female artist.

English lyric poet Christina Rossetti (1830-1894) wrote different kinds of verses. Much of Rossetti's work was religious in nature; the themes of renunciation of earthly love and concern with death shadow such favorite poems as “When I am dead, my dearest” and “Up-Hill.” Other poems are earthy, romantic, and sensuous. Rossetti's work encompasses a wide range of styles and forms. Her ballads, sonnets, love lyrics, and nonsense rhymes are all clearly products of an accomplished mind. A devout Anglican, Rossetti spent the last 15 years of her life as a recluse. At the same time, she wrote delightful verse for children.

Children's literature did not come out of the blue during the Victorian age. There had been a long way of its development in the preceding centuries. But there is no doubt that Victorian authors did contribute a lot to the treasure house of children's books. The authors to remember are Edward Lear, Charles Kingsley, and Lewis Carroll.

Edward Lear (1812-1888) was English painter and humorist, born in London. The excellence of his early drawings of birds brought him to the attention of the London Zoological Society, for which he illustrated scientific books. These illustrations are considered among the most precise and vivid of all ornithological drawings. He traveled throughout Europe and the Near East. Yet Lear's observant travel books have been overshadowed by the popularity of his light verse, such as the famous poem “The Owl and the Pussycat.”
The Owl and the Pussy-cat went to sea

In a beautiful pea-green boat,

They took some honey, and plenty of money,

Wrapped up in a five-pound note.

The Owl looked up to the stars above,

And sang to a small guitar,

"O lovely Pussy! O Pussy, my love,

What a beautiful Pussy you are,

You are,

You are!

What a beautiful Pussy you are!"

Pussy said to the Owl, "You elegant fowl!

How charmingly sweet you sing!

O let us be married! too long we have tarried:

But what shall we do for a ring?"

They sailed away, for a year and a day,

To the land where the Bong-tree grows

And there in a wood a Piggy-wig stood

With a ring at the end of his nose,

His nose,

His nose,

With a ring at the end of his nose.
"Dear Pig, are you willing to sell for one shilling

Your ring?" Said the Piggy, "I will."

So they took it away, and were married next day

By the Turkey who lives on the hill.

They dined on mince, and slices of quince,

Which they ate with a runcible spoon;

And hand in hand, on the edge of the sand,

They danced by the light of the moon,

The moon,

The moon,

They danced by the light of the moon.
Considered among the masters of the limerick, to which he gave the modern formula and metrical cadence, he wrote A Book of Nonsense, and a couple of other books.

English novelist and clergyman Charles Kingsley (1819-1875) was also an important novelist who wrote for the young. In his forties, he taught modern history at Cambridge. Liberal in his views, Kingsley was a leader in Christian socialism and Chartism. Kingsley's novels display his sympathy with the economically and politically oppressed classes of the England of his day. He was sympathetic to the idea of evolution, which was a hot issue of the day, and was one of the first to praise Darwin's On the Origin of Species.

Kingsley's concern for social reform is illustrated in his great classic, The Water-Babies (1863). The protagonist is Tom, a young chimney sweep, who falls into a river after encountering an upper-class girl named Ellie and being chased out of her house. There he dies and is transformed into a "water baby", and begins his moral education. Kingsley also uses the book to argue that England treats its poor badly, and to question child labor, among other themes. Grimes, his old – and bad – master drowns as well, and in his final adventure, Tom travels to the end of the world to attempt to help the man where he is being punished for his misdeeds. By proving his willingness to do things he does not like, if they are the right things to do, Tom earns himself a return to human form, and becomes "a great man of science" who "can plan railways, and steam-engines, and electric telegraphs, and rifled guns, and so forth".

The best known of all Victorian books for children is, of course the immortal fantasy Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (1832-98).

Carroll was born Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and was educated at Rugby and at Christ Church College, University of Oxford. For 25 years, he was a member of the faculty of mathematics at Oxford. He was the author of several mathematical treatises. In 1865 he published under his pseudonym Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Its sequel, Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, appeared six years later. These were followed by The Hunting of the Snark, and a novel, Sylvie and Bruno.

Always a friend of children, particularly little girls, Carroll wrote thousands of letters to them, delightful flights of fantasy, many illustrated with little sketches. Carroll gained an additional measure of fame as an amateur photographer. Most of his camera portraits were of children in various costumes and poses, including nude studies; he also did portraits of adults, including the actress Ellen Terry and the poets Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Christina Rossetti.

"Some people", said Humpty Dumpty, looking away from her as usual, "have no more sense than a baby!"

Alice didn't know what to say to this: it wasn't at all like conversation, she thought, as he never said anything to her; in fact, his last remark was evidently addressed to a tree – so she stood and softly repeated to herself:

^ Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall:

Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.

All the King's horses and all the King's men

Couldn't put Humpty Dumpty in his place again.

"That last line is much too long for the poetry," she added, almost out loud, forgetting that Humpty Dumpty would hear her.

"Don't stand chattering to yourself like that," Humpty Dumpty said, looking at her for the first time, "but tell me your name and your business".

"My name is Alice, but – "

"It's a stupid name enough!" Humpty Dumpty interrupted impatiently. "What does it mean?"

"Must a name mean something?" Alice asked doubtfully.

"Of course it must," Humpty Dumpty said with a short laugh: "my name means the shape I am – and a good handsome shape it is, too. With a name like yours, you might be any shape, almost."

The Alice stories, which have made the invented name – Lewis Carroll – famous throughout the world, and have been translated into many languages, were originally written for Alice Liddell, a daughter of Dean of Christ Church College. On publication, the works became immediately popular as books for children.

Their subsequent appeal to adults is based upon the ingenious mixture of fantasy and realism, gentle satire, absurdity, and logic. The names and sayings of the characters, such as the March Hare, the Mad Hatter, the Cheshire Cat, and the White Knight, have become part of everyday speech.

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