Программа курса фонетика


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Для правильного выполнения Задания №1 необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по любым учебникам:

1. Артикли. Множественное число и притяжательный падеж имен существительных. Предлоги как показатели падежных отношений. Порядок слов в английском предложении. Использование существительных в функции определения.

2. Степени сравнения имен прилагательных и наречия. Сравнительные конструкции.

3. Числительные.

4. Местоимения: личные, притяжательные, вопросительные, указательные, неопределенные и другие.

  1. Формы настоящего, прошедшего и будущего времени

действительного залога изъявительного наклонения. Спряжение глаголов to be, to have в Present, Past, Future Indefinite.

6. Простое распространенное предложение: прямой порядок слов в

утвердительной и отрицательной форме; обратный порядок слов вопросительного предложения. Оборот "there + be".

  1. Словообразование - основные суффиксы и префиксы.

Словосложение. Использование слов, одинаковых по форме, представляющих собой различные части речи.

После изучения всего указанного выше материала можно приступить к выполнению задания.

^ READING MATERIAL

Text I (A) Economic Activity

Most people work in order to earn their living.

They produce goods and services.

Goods are either produced on farms, like maize and milk, or in factories, like cars and paper.

Such things as schools, hospitals and shops provide services.

Some people provide goods, some provide services.

Other people provide both goods and services. For example, in the same garage, a man may buy a car or he may buy some service, which helps him to maintain his car.

The work which people do is called their economic activity.

Economic activities make up the economic system.

The economic system is the sum-total of what people do and what they

want. The work which people undertake either provides what they need or provides them with money.

People buy essential commodities with money.

Notes: the sum-total - общая сумма
^ Text 1 (В) The Science of Economics

Economics is a science.

This science is based upon the facts of our everyday lives.

Economists study our everyday lives. They study the system, which affects our lives.

The economist tries to describe the facts of the economy in which we live. He tries to explain how the system works.

His methods should be objective and scientific.

We need food, clothes and shelter. If we could get food, clothes and shelter without working, we probably would not work.

But even when we have these essential things, we may want other things.

If we had them, these other things (like radios, books and toys for children) might make life more enjoyable.

The science of economics is concerned with all our material needs and wants. It is not just concerned with basic needs like food, clothes and shelter.

^

Text 1 (C) Microeconomics and Macroeconomics


Economics as a science consists of two disciplines, that is of microeconomics and macroeconomics.

Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies individual producers, consumers, or markets. It is concerned with scarcity, choice and opportunity costs, and with production and consumption. Microeconomics also studies how government activities such as regulations and taxes affect individual markets. Besides microeconomics tries to understand what factors affect the prices, wages and earnings. Principal emphasis is given by microeconomics to the study of prices and their relationship to units of economy.

Macroeconomics is the branch of economics that studies the economy as a whole. It examines questions such as how fast the economy is running; how much overall output is being generated; how much total income is. It also seeks solutions to macroeconomic problems such as how employment can be increased, and what can be done to increase the output of goods and services. It tries to understand the picture as a whole rather than small parts of it. In particular, it studies the overall values of output, of unemployment and of inflation.
^ Text 1 (D) The Limits of Economic Freedom

A person is economically free, if he can do what he wishes with his own property, time and effort. In all communities, of course, limits are set upon this personal freedom. In some countries the limits are complex; in others they are relatively simple.

All individual citizens must conform to the laws made by their governments. Complete economic freedom of action can cause great difficulties, because the freedoms of various individuals will conflict. If citizens were completely free, some landowners might build factories in unsuitable places. If there was no system of control, factory-owners might make their employees work too long each day.

If they were completely free, workers might stop working when they got their first pay, and come back to do more work only when they needed more money. Such economic freedom could create a very unstable economy. Laws related to economic conditions are sometimes concerned with workers' health, wages and pensions. They are sometimes concerned with contracts between employers and employees. They are sometimes concerned with the location of places of work. Sometimes they help the employers; sometimes they protect the interests of the workers.
^ Text 1 (E) Economic Strategies

Four Asian nations - Hong-Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan - are now called NICs, newly industrialized countries. Their new status is a product of outward-oriented development strategies.

In the 1950s and 1960s, the governments of the four countries protected domestic markets from foreign competition to stimulate domestic production for domestic consumption.

Taiwan was the first to replace an inward-oriented policy with an outward-oriented policy. The other three countries followed closely behind. Soon each country experienced rapid growth in exports and domestic national income.

These countries maintain some restrictions on the domestic economy, but operate with another set of rules for exporting firms. Production for export occurs in a free market setting, with no taxes or restrictions on imports of the materials needed to manufacture goods for export.

The governments have developed banking and financial institutions that can finance export production and sales.

Notes: setting- обстановка, условие
^ Text 1 (F) Why Study Economics?

You may be asking yourself, “Why should I study economics?” There are several very good reasons, all of which involve you. Some have to do with you as an individual, some with you as an earner and spender, and some with you as a citizen.

As a member of the society in which you live, there is no escaping economics.* The food you eat, the home you live in, the clothes you wear, and the way you spend your leisure time are all affected, in part, by economic forces. The study of economics will help you to understand these forces better and enable you to live a fuller life.

Economic forces also affect decisions in the world of business. In fact, one common definition of economics is “the study of how people make a living”. The more you know about the subject, the better career decisions you will be able to make.

Economics will also help you to fulfill your responsibilities as a citizen in a democracy.** Unlike other countries, in which government officials or dictators assume sole control over the nation’s affairs, really democratic countries expect their citizens to share in governing the country. As a voter, you will be asked to express your opinion on many questions involving economic issues. The study of economics will help you deal with these questions intelligently.

NOTES: * there is no escaping economics – зд. вы не можете существовать без экономических знаний; ** a democracyдемократическая страна

^ ВАРИАНТ I


  1. Перепишите данные ниже предложения. Определите по

грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи является слово, оформленное окончанием - s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем З лица ед. ч. в Present Indefinite,

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного,

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите на русский язык.

1.The lectures of Professor Nelson are very interesting. 2.He lectures on Mathematics. 3. What is your friend's profession? 4. Each lesson lasts 45 minutes. 5. In autumn leaves begin to fall from the trees. 6. The train leaves at nine.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите на русский язык.

  1. The more often you visit the Hermitage, the more you admire it. 2.

Winter is the coldest season of the year. 3. Moscow today is 5 times as big as at the beginning of the 20-th century. 4. St. Petersburg is the second largest city after Moscow. 5.The St. Petersburg University is not so old as the Moscow or Kazan Universities.

^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных местоимений и наречий.

  1. Everywhere in Moscow you will see new buildings. 2. The lecturer

will tell us something about the history of Great Britain. 3. Any station in our Metro is very clean and beautiful. 4. Some new districts appeared in St.Petersburg during the last 5 years. 5. You couldn't find this book anywhere. 6. Anyone who comes to St.Petersburg tries to visit the Hermitage. 7. No engineer can solve this problem without the help of computers.
^ 4. Перепишите данные предложения, определите в них видо-временные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

l. In 1712 St.Petersburg became the capital of Russia. 2. For citizens of St.Petersburg the embankment of the Neva is one of the most beautiful places in the world. 3. St.Petersburg got its name in 1703. 4. I shan't go out now as I have much work to do. 5. They do their shopping every day.
^ 5. Прочтите и устно переведите оба абзаца текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст до слов "Such an economic system ...".

Most people work to earn a living, and produce goods and services. Goods are either agricultural (like maize and milk) or manufactured (like cars and paper). Services are such things as education, medicine and commerce. Some people provide goods; some people provide services. For example, in the same garage a man may buy a car and some service, which helps him to maintain his car.

The work people do is called economic activity. All economic activities together make up the economic system of a town, a city, a country or the world. Such an economic system is the sum-total of what people do and what they want. The work people undertake either provides what they need or provides the money with which they can buy essential commodities. Of course, most people hope to earn enough money to buy commodities and services, which are non-essential, but which provide some particular personal satisfaction, like toys for children, visits to the cinema and books.
^ 6. Прочтите 2й абзац текста. Из приведенных ниже вариантов

ответов укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на вопрос What is an economic system the sum-total of?

  1. An economic system is the sum-total of what people need and what they want.

  2. 2) An economic system is the sum-total of what people do and what they want.

  3. 3) An economic system is the sum-total of what people need and what they provide.




  1. Выпишите из следующего текста словосочетания, которые содержат существительные в функции определения, и предложения, которые содержат прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степени. Переведите текст письменно на русский язык.


Abundance of natural resources and investment opportunities make Russia the nation with the greatest ultimate potential for foreign investors. Recent political and ethnic conflicts and a slow-moving bureaucracy create greater risks and lower the grade. The best opportunities are in energy, food processing, tourism, road construction, ceramics, and medicine.

^ ВАРИАНТ II
1. Перепишите данные ниже предложения. Определите по

грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи является слово, оформленное окончанием - s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3 л. ед. ч. в Present Indefinite,

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного,

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.The St. Petersburg Technical University trains specialists in many fields. 2. Trains from Moscow arrive in St.Petersburg at the Moscow Railway Station.3. Flats in new houses are very comfortable. 4. The Hermitage houses a big collection of Western European Art. 5. This problem needs a special approach. 6. Our country's needs in electricity will continue to grow.

^ 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1.There are more than 50 schools of higher learning in St.Petersburg. 2. Mathematics is as important for technical students as Physics. 3. This new apparatus is 4 times as powerful as the old one. 4. These machine tools are not so efficient as the new ones. 5. The more systematic are our studies the deeper is our knowledge.
^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения, обращая

внимание на перевод неопределенных местоимений и наречий.

  1. Some electric devices find wide application in every house. 2. You

will find this material nowhere but in the encyclopedia. 3. Something happened to my fountain pen. It does not write. 4. Any result in our experiment will be of great importance for the whole research. 5. If you have no money, you cannot buy anything. 6. She said nothing. 7. There was no one in the room.


  1. Перепишите данные предложения, определите в них видо-

временные формы глаголов, укажите их инфинитив. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.There is a wide system of extramural education in our country. 2. In two years, my friend will become a specialist in the field of economics. 3. She got up, washed, had breakfast and went to school. 4. Our classes begin at 8.30. 5. We saw an interesting film yesterday.

5. Прочтите и устно переведите оба абзаца текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст до слов "Our lives might be more....".
The science of economics is based upon facts of our everyday lives. Economists study our everyday lives and the general life of our communities in order to understand the whole economic system of which we are part. They try to describe the facts of the economy in which we live, and to explain how it works. The economist's methods should of course be strictly objective and scientific.

We need food, clothes and shelter. We probably would not go to work if we could satisfy these basic needs without working. But even when we have satisfied such basic needs, we may still want other things. Our lives might be more enjoyable if we had such things as radios, books and toys for children. Human beings certainly have a wide and very complex range of wants. The science of economics is concerned with all our material needs and wants.

6. Прочтите 2й абзац текста. Из приведенных ниже вариантов ответов укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на вопрос What is the science of economics concerned with?

  1. The science of economics is concerned with the facts of our everyday

life.

  1. The science of economics is concerned with all our material needs and

wants.

  1. 3) The science of economics is concerned only with basic needs and

wants.


  1. Выпишите из следующего текста словосочетания, которые

содержат существительное в функции определения, и предложения, которые содержат прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степени. Переведите текст письменно на русский язык.

Abundance of natural resources and investment opportunities make Russia the nation with the greatest ultimate potential for foreign investors. Recent political and ethnic conflicts and a slow-moving bureaucracy create risks and lower the grade. The best opportunities are in energy, food processing, tourism, road construction, ceramics, and medicine.

^ ВАРИАНТ III
1. Перепишите данные ниже предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи является слово, оформленное окончанием - s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3 л. ед. ч. в Present Indefinite,

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного,

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите на русский язык.

I .A friend of mine studies at our University. 2. This young engineer's projects are very interesting. 3. Students do their practical work in well-equipped laboratories and studies. 4. He used the results of these analyses in his work. 5. Electricity lights our streets and houses. 6. Their Institute houses both physical and chemical laboratories.

^ 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1.The nearer is the summer the longer are the days. 2. Winter in England is not so cold as it is in our country. 3. This new device operates several times faster than your old one. 4. To study well is as important as to work well. 5.The hottest days are in summer.

^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных местоимений и наречий.

1. Nobody missed lectures last week. 2. We didn't find this magazine anywhere. 3. He knew nothing about this discovery. 4. Something happened to my TV set. 5. Everybody in England is proud of his or her old traditions. 6. No one in the laboratory could tell us about the results of his experiments. 7. Professor told us about some interesting facts from his practical work.

^ 4. Перепишите данные предложения, определите в них видо-временные формы глаголов, укажите их инфинитивы, переведите на русский язык.

1.There were two universities in England in the early 13th century - Oxford and Cambridge. 2. They usually buy newspapers in the morning. 3. For a long time London University had no library. 4. The students will take an active part in the preparation for the conference. 5. My friend attends lectures, classes and seminars at the University three times a week.
^ 5. Прочтите и устно переведите оба абзаца текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст до слов "In Poland...".
The countries of Western Europe underwent radical political and

economic changes in 1990s, when they began to move from state control of the economy to free markets. In response, firms in the rest of the world began searching for new opportunities in Eastern Europe. They rate various countries on the current good growth opportunities and government attitudes to foreign investors.

The government of Hungary, for example, has actively recruited foreign

investors. Foreigners can purchase a less-than-50-percent interest in a firm with no government approval. With approval, foreigners can own 100 percent. In Poland labour is inexpensive and the government has welcomed foreign investors, allowing 100-percent ownership and the same rights as Polish citizens. The weak macroeconomic condition of the economy lowers the grade.
^ 6. Прочтите 2-й абзац текста. Из приведенных ниже вариантов

ответов укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на вопрос What opportunities does the government of Poland offer for foreign investors?

  1. The government has been slow to attract foreign investors.

  2. The government has welcomed foreign investors.

3) The government has substantial restrictions on foreign investments.


  1. Выпишите из следующего текста словосочетания, которые содержат существительные в функции определения, и предложения, которые содержат прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степени. Переведите текст письменно на русский язык.


Abundance of natural resources and investment opportunities make Russia the nation with the greatest ultimate potential for foreign investors. Recent political and ethnic conflicts and a slow-moving bureaucracy create greater risks and lower the grade. The best opportunities are in energy, food processing, tourism, road construction, ceramics, and medicine.

^ КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 2
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS. MODES OF PRODUCTION
Для правильного выполнения Задания №2 необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по любым учебникам:

1. Видо-временные формы глагола:

а) активный залог (the Active Voice) для форм Continuous (Present,

Past, Future) и Perfect (Present, Past, Future)

б) пассивный залог (the Passive Voice) для форм Indefinite,

Continuous, Perfect (Present, Past, Future). Особенности перевода пассивного залога на русский язык.

2. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты:

а) модальные глаголы can (could), may (might), выражающие возможность, и эквивалент глагола can - to be able to

б) модальный глагол must, выражающий долженствование, и его эквиваленты to be to, to have to.

3. Простые неличные формы глагола: Participle I (Present Participle),

Participle II (Past Participle), Infinitive в функциях определения и обстоятельства.

4. Основные правила согласования времен в английском языке. Перевод на русский язык главных и придаточных предложений при согласовании времен.

5. Функции и значение слов if, that, since, for, as. Выделение отдельных членов предложения при помощи оборота it is (was).,....... that (when, how, who, where). Функции глаголов to have, to be, to do.
После изучения материала можно приступать к выполнению задания.
^ READING MATERIAL
Text 2 (A) Economic Systems

Different economic systems answer the "what", "how" and "for whom" questions differently. The main economic systems today are capitalism, socialism, communism, mixed economies and traditional economies.

Capitalism - is an economic system characterized by private ownership of most resources, goods and services. Capitalism relies on the market system to allocate resources, goods and services to their most highly used value. Property is privately owned, businesses compete to earn profits, and resources are allocated by the market according to the laws of supply and demand. In capitalist economy what to produce is determined by consumers, how to produce is determined by profit-seeking entrepreneurs, who maximize profit by producing in the most sufficient manner, and for whom to produce is determined by income and prices. In a capitalist system workers are generally paid according to how productive they are, and the distribution of income is unequal because people differ in their abilities.

Socialism - is an economic system characterized by government ownership of resources other than labour and centralized economic decision-making. The principal means of production are owned by te state, and resources are allocated according to a plan. How much property is owned by the state and how much planning is used to allocate resources vary enormously from one socialist country to another. Under socialist system government authorities answer the "what", "how" and "for whom" questions. In a socialist system government planners set wages and though wages are not equal for all workers, incomes tend to be more evenly distributed than in capitalist countries.

In centrally planned economies government planners decide what goods will be produced and set the prices at which they are sold.

Communism - is an economic system in which all resources (including labour) are commonly owned and economic decisions making is centrally planned. According to communist theory, people contribute what they are able to the economy but receive what they need. In theory, this means that goods are produced for use rather than to earn profits and that everyone's needs are met. Communist countries have central planning boards that set prices. Communism is the form of socialism based on the writings of Karl Marx practiced in the Soviet Union, China and other countries.
^ Text 2(B) Mixed Economies

Mixed economies - are economies that have characteristics of more than one system. There may be both private and public ownership of property. There may also be common ownership of resources that are provided by government. Mixed economies answer the basic economic questions partly through the market and partly through government, with some decisions based on tradition as well.

It has been found necessary in many countries to control or regulate national economic conditions. Even the most dedicated free enterprise systems, such as the USA, have felt this need.

The under-developed countries of the world are usually interested in control and long-term planning.

Such countries as India have had a number of plans guided by the government. India makes a distinction between the public sector of the economy on the one hand and the private sector, on the other hand.

Britain today has a mixed economy. In the public sector of British economic life are the nationalized industries like coal and steel, British Rail and British Overseas Airways Corporation.* In the private sector are the majority of the nation's industries, both large and small.

The private sector includes giant companies like Imperial Chemical Industries** and British Petroleum*** and a great number of small family businesses.

In 1962 the government set up an official planning body to guide national economic policies. This body is called National Economic Development Council.

The members of this council are representatives of the employers, the employees and other interested people.

NOTES: * BOAC - British Overseas Airways Corporation - Британская корпорация зарубежных авиалиния

** ICI - Imperial Chemical Industries - "Империал кемикал индастриз" - Имперский химический трест (крупнейший в Великобритании и Западной Европе химический концерн)

*** BP - British Petroleum - "Бритиш петролеум" - Британская нефтяная компания
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