Программа курса фонетика


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Text 2 (C) First Socio-Economic Formations


The first socio-economic formation was the primitive-communal system, which covered the period of many hundred years. At first people were in a semi-savage state, powerless against nature. They gathered nuts, wild fruit and berries, roots and plants. Man's first instruments were roughly chipped stones and sticks. Later people learnt to make the simplest tools.

The basis of production relations was communal ownership of the primitive labour instruments and production means. People lived together in communes. With the advance of cattle breeding and agriculture there arose a social division of labour: animal husbandry* separated from agriculture. This led to higher productivity and productive forces growing.

Productive forces continued to expand and man began to produce more. It became possible to use workmen obtained through warfare.** Captured prisoners became slaves. There followed the first division of society into classes known as slavery. Slave-owners possessed both the means of production and the people engaged in production. The ancient world achieved considerable progress in economy and culture. But time passed, and the necessity to replace the slave-owning relations arose: the new feudal mode of production began to take shape.

NOTES: *animal husbandry скотоводство; **through warfare - в войнах
^ Text 2 (D) Feudalism

The feudal system existed in almost all countries. The epoch of feudalism covers a long period. In China the feudal system existed for more than two thousand years. In the West-European countries feudalism spread over some centuries, from the fall of the Roman Empire to the bourgeois revolutions in England and France. In Russia it lasted from the 9th century to the abolition of serfdom in 1861.

The production relations of feudal society were based on the private landed property of the lords and their incomplete property rights over the serf. He was not a slave; he had his own holding. The peasant holding was the means by which the landlord secured his labour force.

The towns, inhabited mainly by craftsmen and traders, were subjected to the authority of the feudal lord on whose land the town was built.

Under feudalism the productive forces reached a higher level than those under the slave system. Production technique in agriculture was improved; new branches of field cultivation arose, market gardening developed considerably.

But the feudal system acted as a brake on the productive forces development, so capitalist relations of production began to appear. The abolition of feudalism became a historical necessity.

NOTES: * holding – хозяйство
^ Text 2 (E) Capitalism

The development of capitalism dealt a crushing blow* to natural economy. Under capitalism everything, including man's labour power, took the form of a commodity. Commodity production became dominant and universal.

Once commodity production under capitalism had become the prevailing form of production, the relations between people in the process of production, i.e. their production relations, took the form of commodity relations. To exploit the worker the capitalist has to hire him while the worker has to sell his labour power, which is not a commodity. The worker receives a wage with which he buys his means of subsistence** - commodities.

NOTES: * dealt a crushing blow - нанесли сокрушительный удар; ** means of subsistence - средства существования

^ ВАРИАНТ I


  1. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните глагол-сказуемое в каждом из них и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Например: will be saidFuture Simple Passive. В разделе (B) обратите внимание на особенности перевода пассивных конструкций.

А). 1. In centrally planned economies government planners decide what goods will be produced. 2. Many nations of Eastern Europe are undergoing transition from communism to capitalism. 3. Before 1988 Hungary had taxed successful companies in order to provide subsidies for inefficient companies. 4. Some nations of Eastern Europe took steps to join the ranks of Western developed nations in becoming mixed economies.

B). 1. Such economies are called traditional economies. 2. Some countries exhibit elements of traditional economies in their tendency to make economic decisions according to how things have been done in the past. 3. Profitable companies are allowed to keep a large share of their profit. 4. In centrally planned economies government planners set the prices at which goods are sold. 5. The work people do is called economic activity. 6. Once the simple tools of labour were made, the need arose among the primitive men to communicate with one another. 7.1 have just been told I shall get better wages next month. 8. Nothing more will be said about the matter. 9. This door must be kept shut. 10. The market is being investigated.

2. Перепишите предложения; подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и установите функции каждого их них, т.е. укажите, будет ли оно определением, обстоятельством или составной частью глагола-сказуемого. Предложения переведите.

1. People, working in fanning, take a great risk if they decide to use untried new techniques. 2. The transition from a system of common ownership to a system of private ownership has never occurred before' on a wide scale. 3. So far the experiment in farming is doing well in Poland. 4. Shifting from communism to capitalism many countries have to overcome serious economic problems. 5. Producing in the most sufficient manner entrepreneurs get high profits.

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

  1. A traditional economy may have elements of capitalism or socialism.

2. According to communist theory people contribute what they are able to the economy, but receive what they need. 3. People could decide how the fruits of their labour and capital would be shared. 4. Nearly half of the working people of the plant will probably have to find new jobs. 5. If a person works harder, he must get a higher salary.

^ 4. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов it, that, since, one, for, as.

1. I consider it important to do this work today. 2. It is at the club that I usually meet him. 3. One must read very much. 4.1 haven't got such a textbook, I must buy one. 5.1 have lived in that street for ten years. 6. As the child was too young to travel by herself, they arranged for her to travel in the care of a friend of the family.

^ 5. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов to do, to be, to have. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Our task is to study well. 2.He wasn't at the last meeting. 3. He was sent to Moscow. 4. The train is to arrive at 5. 5. He has finished his work. 6.1 have to do it. 7. 1 want to have a smoke. 8.1 had my shoes repaired. 9. Don't come at 9 tomorrow. 10. Does he do his work well?
^ 6. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. To develop high standards of products is to stay competitive. 2. The problem was impossible to solve. 3. We agreed to be helped. 4. I need time to consider your proposal. 5. He will enter the University to study Economics.
7. Перепишите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание правила согласования времен и бессоюзное подчинение. Переведите предложения на русский язык. При переводе обратите внимание на тот факт, что в русском языке правила согласования времен отсутствуют.

1. She asked if he'd like to go to the concert and I said that I was sure he

would. 2. He asked what the weather had been like during my holiday and I said it had been awful. 3.1 asked her if she'd like to borrow the book but she thanked me and said she had already read it and hadn't liked it very much. 4. He said it made no difference.


  1. Переведите текст "The Traditional Есоnоmу" письменно, используя словарь.

The Traditional Economy

In many developing countries long-established custom provides answers to the "what", "how" and "for whom" questions. In these economies ways of doing things are passed down from generation to generation. If your father was a carpenter, you are likely to be a carpenter. If your parents were poor, you are likely to be poor. Economic and other decisions may be made by a group of elders, who follow the beliefs and practices of previous generations. Such economies are called traditional ones.

Developing nations such as Ethiopia, the Sudan and Bolivia exhibit elements of traditional economies in their tendency to make economic decisions accordingly to how things have been done in the past. The answers to the "what", "how" and "for whom" questions in these countries are: produce what they have always produced; produce the way they have always produced; and distribute income and wealth as they have been distributed in the past.

A traditional economy may have elements of capitalism or socialism, but it is predominantly traditional in the way economic decisions are made. Traditional economies exist because people lack the opportunities to learn new ways - they simply learn how to do the job their parents do. People living on subsistence incomes take a great risk if they try a new technology or change production strategies. Farmers whose families’ lives depend directly on the success of their crops take a great risk if they decide to use untried "new" techniques in their farming. In addition new technologies often involve capital expenditures well beyond the cash available to farmers in the less developed countries.

^ ВАРИАНТ II


  1. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них

глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Например: has been found Present Perfect Passive. В разделе (B) обратите внимание на особенности перевода пассивных конструкций.

А) 1. It has been found necessary in many countries to control or regulate national economic conditions. 2. India makes clear distinction between the public and private sectors. 3. Economics is constantly developing. 4. The State provides all the services, which the citizens require. 5. In 1962 an official planning body was set up by the government to guide national economic policies.

B) 1. Such systems are sometimes called "mixed economies". 2. The word "capital" is often used to describe financial backing. 3. People who provide labour services are paid wages and salaries. 4. Economics is referred to as the science studying such everyday problems as inflation, unemployment, and international trade. 5. The science of economics is based upon the facts of our everyday lives. 6. The serfs working time was divided into necessary and surplus time. 7. The plan hasn't been at all well thought out by the leader. 8. Many of these products will be exported to the Pacific countries, especially Japan and the West of the US. 9. This notice must be altered. 10. Heavy industry is being reorganized.

2. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, будет ли оно определением, обстоятельством или составной частью глагола-сказуемого. Предложения переведите.

  1. India has had a number of plans guided by the government. 2. If

declared bankrupt, a person may not obtain any credit. 3. Britain is producing a lot of goods to the national market. 4. The under-developed countries of the world are inevitably interested in control and long term plans guided by the government. 5. It is not possible to plan ahead with any certainty even in a rigidly controlled economy, because natural disasters, political changes and other factors can affect the general plan in unexpected ways.
^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол и его эквивалент.

  1. Any government must set up an official planning body to guide

national economic policies. 2. Many countries, even such strongholds of free enterprise as the USA, had to control or regulate national economic conditions. 3. Natural disasters, political changes and other factors can affect the general plan in unexpected ways. 4. There are different problems that economics has to solve. 5. The national economy must be planned ahead over years.
^ 4. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов it, that, since, one, for, as.

1. He made it clear that the question should not be discussed now. 2. It was on Saturday that he rang me up. 3. One mustn't read in bed. 4. This notebook is too thin, I need a thicker one. 5. He was in prison for 2 years. Since that time he became interested in pigeons. 6. It is a long time since I had a good meal.
^ 5. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов to do, to be, to have. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The students will have to stay after classes. 2. Molly had a child in her arms. 3. I have never been to Paris. 4. You'd better have your car painted. 5. I am to make a report at our next meeting. 6. John was reading when we came. 7. They will be sent on business trip soon. 8. I wasn't at the lecture last Monday. 9. Don't allow the children to play in the street. 10. Did you buy flowers?
^ 6. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. We were too tired to continue our way. 2. It is difficult to translate such texts. 3. His wish was to be given this work. 4. Nick was the last to come to the finish. 5. Is to climb a high mountain an easy or a difficult task?
7. Перепишите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание правила согласования времен и бессоюзное подчинение. Переведите предложения на русский язык. При переводе обратите внимание на тот факт, что в русском языке правила согласования времен отсутствуют.

1. They said that while they were bathing they saw someone examining their cloths. 2. He said he thought my electric iron was unsafe and advised me to have it seen to. 3.1 told her to stop making a fuss about nothing and said she was lucky to have got a seat at all. 4. He said I mustn't mind if the first one wasn't very good.

^ 8. Переведите следующий текст письменно, используя словарь.

It has been found necessary in many countries, even such dedicated strongholds of free enterprise as the USA, to control or regulate national economic conditions. The under-developed countries of the world are inevitably interested in control and long term plans guided by the government. India has had a number of such plans. India makes clear distinction between the public and private sectors. Systems of this type are sometimes called "mixed economies".

Britain nowadays has a mixed economy. In the public sector of Britain economic life are the nationalized industries like coal and steel, British Rail and BOAC*. In the private sector are the majority of the nation's industries, both large and small, from giants like ICI** and BP*** to small family businesses.

In 1962 the government set up an official planning body to guide national economic policies. This body is known as the National Economic Development Council (NEDC). The members of the NEDC are representatives of the employers' federations, and the Trades Union Congress, together with members of the government, eminent industrialists and leading economists.

The main function of the NEDC is planning national production and setting up production targets. It is however a very difficult matter to plan ahead in a mixed economy. It is not possible to plan ahead with any certainty even in a rigidly controlled economy, because natural disasters, political changes and other factors can affect the general plan in unexpected ways.

NOTES: * BOAC - British Overseas Airways Corporation - Британская корпорация зарубежных авиалиния

** ICI - Imperial Chemical Industries - "Империал кемикал индастриз" - Имперский химический трест (крупнейший в Великобритании и Западной Европе химический концерн)

*** BP - British Petroleum - "Бритиш петролеум" - Британская нефтяная компания
^ ВАРИАНТ III


  1. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них

глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Например: are paidPresent Simple Passive. В разделе (B) обратите внимание на особенности перевода пассивных конструкций.

А). 1. Governments usually require all individuals to conform to the laws they make. 2. The consumption of coal and steel has increased greatly in recent years. 3. The city authorities are providing many services for their citizens. 4. The government policy will depend upon the political and economic ideology adopted by the government. 5. Income is used to purchase goods and services.

B). 1. Great difficulties can be created by complete economic freedom of action. 2.The new machines were needed to increase the production output. 3. People who provide labour services are paid wages and salaries. 4. The price at which goods are sold depends on what the seller thinks he can get. 5. The science of economics is concerned with all our needs and wants. 6. The towns, inhabited mainly by craftsmen and traders, were subjected to the authority of the feudal lord. 7. He has already been told to report for duty at six. 8. The paintings will be exhibited till the end of the month. 9. A special edition for children must be written. 10. A competition problem is being studied.

2. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, будет ли оно определением, обстоятельством или составной частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Laws related to economic conditions are sometimes concerned with the workers' health, wages and pensions. 2. In all communities, of course, the limits are set upon the personal freedom of their citizens. 3. Being completely free, workers might stop working when they got their first pay, and come back only when they need more money. 4. Laws protecting the interests of the workers may be beneficial towards the employers at other times. 5. Production of goods intended for sale is called "production for the market".
^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент.

1. Economists say that a man is economically free if he can do what he wishes with his own property, time and energy. 2. The government policy may be biased towards employers and capital on the one hand, or workers and the problems of labour, on the other. 3. All individual citizens must conform to the laws made by the government. 4. Complete economic freedom can lead to economic anarchy. 5. People have to work to keep themselves and their families.
^ 4. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов it, that, since, one, for, as.

1. I find it necessary to help them. 2. It is Mr. Black whom I want to see. 3. One can get this book everywhere. 4. This room is larger than that one. 5. As I don't know Mr. Smith very well, will you introduce me to him? 6. It's three years since I did any skiing. 7. The astronauts have already been in the orbit for 2 days.

^ 5. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов to do, to be, to have. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. I want to have a bite right now. 2. You will have to go there alone. 3.

John has to do it. 4. He has finished his work. 5.1 have no shares of this company. 6. Our task is to buy all their equipment. 7. He was sent to London in 1996. 8. You are to make a report. 9. Don't do it! 10. Do you take a bus or a tram?
^ 6. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Let's hurry so as not to be late. 2. Our task is to master English. 3. Illiteracy had to be done away with. 4. The questions to be discussed at tomorrow's meeting are important. 5. Who was the last to speak at yesterday's meeting?
7. Перепишите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание правила согласования времен и бессоюзное подчинение. Переведите предложения на русский язык. При переводе обратите внимание на тот факт, что в русском языке правила согласования времен отсутствуют.

1. Не said two days previously an enormous load of firewood had been dumped at his front gate and that since then he hadn't been able to get his car out. 2.1 asked him if he had enjoyed hunting and he said he hadn't. 3. My employer hoped I wouldn't be offended if he told me that, in his opinion, I would go better in some other kind of job. 4. She said sadly she was to leave.

^ 8. Переведите следующий текст письменно, используя словарь.

If a person can do what he wishes with his own property, time and energy, then economists say that he is "economically free". In all communities, of course, the limits are imposed upon the personal freedom of their citizens and these limits are in some cases very complex but in other relatively simple. All individuals must conform to the laws made by the government.

Complete economic freedom of action can create great difficulties, because the freedoms of various individuals often conflict. If citizens were completely free some landowners might build factories in unsuitable places, while same factory-owners might make their employees work too long each day. If they were completely free, workers might stop working when they got their first pay, and come back only when they needed more money. Such economic anarchy could cause instability (unemployment, loss of production, etc.) in the whole economy of the country.

Laws related to economic conditions are sometimes concerned with contracts between employers and employees. Sometimes they are concerned with the workers' health, wages and pensions, and sometimes with the location of places of work.

Sometimes they protect the interests principally of the workers, while at other times they may be beneficial towards the employers. The government policy towards both employers and employees will depend upon the political and economic ideology adopted by the government, and may be biased towards employers and capital on the one hand, or workers and the problems of labour on the other.

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