Программа курса фонетика


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КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3




LABOUR, CAPITAL AND THE MARKET



Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить Задание №4, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы грамматики английского языка по любым учебникам:

1. Основные сведения о сослагательном наклонении (Subjunctive Mood). Условные предложения.

2. Сложные формы инфинитива (Infinitive) и причастия (Participle).

3. Обороты, равнозначные придаточным предложениям:

a) Объектный инфинитивный оборот (Complex Object)

b) Субъектный инфинитивный оборот (Complex Subject)

c) Самостоятельный (независимый) причастный оборот (Absolute Participial Construction).

4. Эмфатические конструкции.

5. Многозначность that (those), once, only, since.
После изучения всего указанного выше материала можно приступить к выполнению задания.

^

READING MATERIAL




Text 3 (A) Utility and Prices


Our basic needs are simple, but our additional individual wants are often very complex. Commodities of different kinds satisfy our wants in different ways. A banana, a bottle of medicine and a textbook satisfy very different wants. The banana cannot satisfy the same wants as the textbook.

This characteristic of satisfying a want is known in economics as its utility. Utility, however, should not be confused with usefulness. For example, a submarine may or may not be useful in time of peace, but it satisfies a want. Many nations want submarines. Economists say that utility determines "the relationship between a consumer and a commodity".

Utility varies between different people and between different nations. A vegetarian does not want meat, but may rate the utility of bananas very highly, while a meat-eater may prefer steak. A mountain-republic like Switzerland has little interest in submarines, while marine nations rate them highly.

Utility varies not only in relation to individual tastes and to geography,

but also in relation to time. In wartime, the utility of bombs is high, and the utility of pianos is low. Utility is therefore related to our decisions about priorities in production -particularly in a centrally planned economy. The production of pianos falls sharply in wartime.

The utility of a commodity is also related to the quantity, which is available to the consumer. If paper is freely available, people will not be so interested in buying too much of it. If there is an excess of paper, the relative demand for paper will go down. We can say that the utility of a commodity therefore decreases as the consumer's stock of that commodity increases. A special relationship exists between goods and services on the one hand, and a consumer and his money, on the other. The consumer's desire for a commodity tends to diminish as he buys more units of that commodity. Economists call this tendency the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility.*

NOTES: *the Law of Diminishing Utility - закон убывающей предельной полезности
^
Text 3 (В) Supply and Demand

Economists talk about the Law of Supply, in which a rise in prices tends to increase supply, while a fall in prices tends to reduce it. If prices rise for a particular commodity, the rise will of course encourage producers to make more.

On the other hand, if prices fall either locally or throughout the world, producers will reduce production. This can result in serious difficulties for many producers, and may cause them to go out of business completely. Over-production of any commodity can also create difficulties, because it can lead to a glut on the market, which may cause prices to fall sharply.

Changes in prices lead to changes in the quantity of a particular commodity, which is made available to consumers. In such instances supply is said to be "elastic ", because it can be increased or decreased rapidly in response to market prices.

Elasticity of supply, as a response to changes in price, is related to demand. Economists define "demand" as a consumer's desire or want, together with his willingness to pay for what he wants. We can say that demand is indicated by our willingness to offer money for particular goods or services. Money has no value in itself, but serves as a means of exchange between commodities, which do have a value to us.

Usually we have to decide carefully how to spend our income. We do it according to our personal scale of preferences. In this scale of preferences essential commodities come first (food, clothing, shelter, medical expenses etc.), then the kind of luxuries, which help us to be comfortable (telephone, special furniture, insurance etc.), and finally those non-essentials, which give us personal pleasure (holidays, parties, visits to theatres or concerts, chocolates etc.).

Elasticity of demand is a measure of the change in the quantity of a good, in response to demand. The change in demand results from a change in price. Demand is inelastic when a good is regarded as a basic necessity, but particularly elastic for non-essential commodities. Accordingly, we buy basic necessities even if the prices rise steeply, but we buy other things only when they are relatively cheap.

^ Text 3 (С) The Price System

The utility of a commodity is related to the Laws of Supply and Demand.

When economists talk about a Law of Supply, they mean that a rise in prices tends to increase the supply of a commodity, while a fall in prices tends to reduce it.

When they talk about a Law of Demand, they mean that the fall in prices tends to increase the demand for a commodity, while a rise in prices tends to decrease the demand. In any economic situation, a consumer will decide to buy a commodity only in terms of its particular utility to him.

So changes in market prices lead to changes in the quantity of a particular commodity made available to consumers.

Equilibrium is a combination of price and quantity at which the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied are the same. Once equilibrium is achieved, there is no incentive for producers or consumers to move away from it. An equilibrium price changes only when demand or supply changes - i.e., when the determinants of demand or the determinants of supply change.

A price that is above the equilibrium price creates a surplus, because producers are willing and able to offer more for sale than buyers are willing and able to purchase.

A price that is below the equilibrium price leads to a shortage, because buyers are willing and able to purchase more than producers are willing and able to offer for sale.

When demand changes, price and quantity change in the same direction.

When supply changes, price and quantity change, but not in the same direction. When both demand and supply change, the direction of the change depends on the relative sizes of the changes in demand and supply.

Markets may not always be in equilibrium because price changes may be costly, buyers and sellers fix prices for long periods of time, or the government may regulate prices.

^ Text 3(E) Labour

Money is not only a means of exchange but is also a means of measuring the value of men's labour. In economic theory, "labour" is any work undertaken in return for a fixed payment. The work undertaken by a mother in caring for her children may be hard, but it receives no fixed payment. It is not therefore labour in the strict economic sense.

As a scientist, the economist is interested in measuring the services, which people render to each other. Although he is aware of the services, which people provide for no financial reward, he is not concerned with these services. He is interested essentially in services, which are measurable in terms of money payments for a fixed and/or regular nature. In economics, money is the standard by which the value of things is judged. This standard is an objective and scientific one.

Human labour produces both goods and services. The activities of a farm worker and a nurse are very different, but both are measurable in terms of payments received. Labour in this sense is not concerned with distinctions of social class, but simply with the payment of wages in return for work. The national labour force are those people who are available for work within the nation, i.e. the working population.

It should be noted that any person engaged in private business is self-employed and his activities are partly those of an employer and partly those of an employee. If however he employs an assistant, to whom he pays a fixed wage, his new employee provides labour in return for payment. The employer receives the surplus (large or small) from the whole business. This surplus is the reward of private enterprise and is known as profit.

^ Text 3(F) Capital

Labour is any work performed for an employer at a negotiated rate while profit is the surplus, which accumulates as a result of productive work. The employer obtains this surplus after he pays the necessary expense of his business and the wages of his employees. He may be required to share the surplus with others who have provided the capital with which he started his business.

Most businesses need capital in order to start productive work, and the capital pays for the accommodation, machinery and other items, which the business needs.

There is always an element of risk in providing capital and starting a business. The business may not be successful. The employees of the business do not bear this risk, but the employers and the providers of capital do bear it. If the business is successful, the risk has been justified and the invested capital earns part of the profits as a return on the investment.

The capital, which people provide to help new business, is an accumulation of previous surpluses on previous business activities. In this way the past is used to Finance the future. Such capital is accumulated by a deliberate policy of saving surpluses. This policy may be personal, or it may be collective. As such, it is common to many economic systems. A certain part of the profit is "ploughed back" into the system in order to create capital.

In general, capital can be defined as (1) a factor of production (for example, machinery or cash); (2) the assets possessed by a person, a company or a nation. Land, houses and shares in a business are capital. All railways, docks, airports and state funds of money are part of the nation's capital.

^ Text 3 (G) Markets and Monopolies

The term market, as used by economists, is an extension of the ancient idea of a market as a place where people gather to buy and sell goods. In those days part of a town was kept as a market, and people would travel long distances on special market-days in order to buy and sell various commodities. Today, markets such as the world sugar market, the gold market and the cotton market do not need to have any fixed geographical location. Such a market is simply a set of conditions permitting buyers and sellers to work together.

In a free market, competition takes place among sellers of the same commodity, and among those who wish to buy that commodity. Such competition influences the prices prevailing on the market. Prices fluctuate, and such fluctuations are affected by current supply and demand.

In a perfect market, communications are easy, buyers and sellers are numerous and competition is completely free. There can be only one price for any given commodity: the lowest price, which sellers will accept, and the highest, which consumers will pay. There are, however, no really perfect markets. It can be said that the price ruling in a market indicates the point where supply and demand meet.

In some markets there may only be one seller or a very limited number of sellers. Such a situation is called a monopoly, and may arise from many different causes. It is possible to distinguish in practice four kinds of monopoly: (a) state monopolies, (b) natural monopolies, (c) legal monopolies and (d) sole traders.

State, natural and legal monopolies are distinct from the sole trading which takes place because certain companies have obtained complete control over particular commodities. This action is often illegal in many countries. In the USA anti-trust laws operate to restrict such activities, while in Britain the Monopolies Commission examines all special arrangements and mergers, which might lead to understand monopolies.
ВАРИАНТ 1
1. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что инфинитив в функции определения и особенно Complex Object и Complex Subject часто соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

1. There is no time to be lost with the delivery. 2. The manufacturers expected their goods to be in great demand. 3. Basic human needs seem to be very simple, but individual wants may be very complex. 4. New brands were reported to have been sold well. 5. We believe our people to restore the level of economic development during the shortest time period. 6. Labour power is man's ability to work. 7. Though abolished in America slavery did not disappear.
2. Перепишите и письменно переведите данные ниже предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастного оборотов

  1. Launching your own business you should have initial capital. 2. New

business having been launched, they worked day and night. 3. A new Board of Directors was formed, with R. Brown being in charge of finance. 4. The contract having been signed, the partners shook hands. 5. In many underdeveloped countries people suffer most from the rising cost of living. 6. An economy manufacturing products for exchange is called a commodity economy. 7. The total sum of money received over a certain period (a year) is called the country's national income.


^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая разные возможности перевода герундия на русский язык.

1. They regretted having lost the cargo. 2. People buy essentials even if this means spending all their money. 3. Britain's industry was protected by prohibiting the colonies from producing certain goods. 4. In primitive times people lived for centuries without exploiting each other. 5. Anarchy in production prevails in a society of individual commodity producers as they all work without planning their production.

^ 4. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, содержащие причастия, герундий и инфинитив или конструкции с ними.

1. Any person engaged in private business is known to be paid a fixed sum of money. 2. Everyone believes economy to be a rather difficult science. 3. We consider money to be a means of measuring the value of men's labour. 4. Human labour is supposed to produce both goods and services. 5. The activities of a farm worker and a nurse being very different, the payment received by the two should be different too. 6. The work having been finished in time, all the salesgirls got their salaries. 7. Many economists believe the wages to be the price of labour. 8. The report will be discussed at the conference to open in Moscow soon. 9. Known as simple commodity production, this sort of economy is based on private ownership. 10. Saving means not spending income on consumption. Simply leaving money in a current account or in a jar on the mantelpiece, as long as it represents non-spending of current income, is saving.
^ 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите данные предложения, содержащие условные придаточные предложения.

1. If the exchange rate changes the parties will renegotiate the price. 2. If the exchange rate changed the price would be renegotiated. 3. If the demand had risen they would have produced more of that commodity. 4. Had there been a license the tax police would not have closed your business. 5. If the president employs an assistant his new employee provides labour in return for payment. 6. If the new employee had received the surplus from the whole business, he himself would have received his wage.7. If we talked about the "national labour force", we would mention all those people who are available for work within the nation. 8. If you fire your bookkeeper, you'll have many difficulties in finding another one of the same qualification. 9. If it is hard work, you should be paid properly.
^ 6. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык предложения, содержащие усилительные (эмфатические) конструкции.

1. And he did maintain himself though he was very young. 2. It is labour that creates the use-value (потребительская стоимость) of a commodity. 3. It is under simple commodity production when the owner of commodities sells his goods to purchase others. 4. It is the worker's ability to create surplus value that the employers are most interested in. 5. It is oil that is becoming too expensive for generating electrical power; therefore the percentage of energy obtained from coal does increase.
^ 7. Прочтите и устно переведите 1 и 2 абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите З абзац.
The Open Market

In addition to being a means of exchange, money is also a means of measuring the value of men's labour. Labour, in economic theory, is any work undertaken in return for a fixed payment. A mother may work very hard for her children, but she receives no fixed wages for her work. It is not therefore labour in the strict economic sense. Economists are interested in measuring the services, which people render to each other. They are not concerned with such services, which people provide for nothing. In economics, money is the standard by which the value of things is judged.

Human labour produces both goods and services. The activities of a farm worker and a nurse are very different, but each is measurable in terms of payment received. If however a farmer is self-employed and does not receive a fixed wage from anyone else, he is in a different category from the nurse and from his own farm workers. His activities are not wholly labour. His workers receive their wages, but he receives whatever surplus (large or small) emerges from his farming. This surplus, like any surplus in industry or commerce, is what we usually call profit.

Employers obtain their net profits only after they have paid all expenses arising out of their business activities: interest, rentals, payments for machinery, wages and overheads generally. The surplus is not usually available only for employers and their families. Normally part of it goes to those who have provided the initial capital needed to start a business. There is always an element of risk in providing capital for new businesses. Such businesses may fail. Both those who have provided the capital and those who run the businesses agree to bear risk, but employees of such businesses are not expected to bear any risk. If the business is successful, the risk-taking has been justified, and invested capital earns part of the profits as a return on the investment and the period during which the capital was at risk.

^

ВАРИАНТ II



1. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что инфинитив в функции определения и особенно Complex Object и Complex Subject часто соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

1. This is the contract to be signed first of all. 2. They found the advertising campaign to have worked very well. 3. The goods seemed to be of excellent quality. 4. Supply is said to be elastic when it is regulated according to market prices. 5. The entrepreneur wants the wageworker to be skilled and to acquire qualifications on his own expenses. 6. We have no intention to order these goods. 7. Established, at the end of the 14th century in Italy and in the 16th century in other countries, the first large enterprises were capitalist manufactories.
^ 2. Перепишите и письменно переведите данные ниже предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастного оборотов.

1. Circulating capital is spent on the purchase of labour power. 2. An economy producing goods for direct consumption and not for sale is called a natural economy. 3. The value of the commodity manufactured has two components. 4. Having been promoted the goods sold well. 5. The goods having been promoted, the sales increased. 6. The company flourished, with a new image found. 7. A meeting ground having been reached, both parties were satisfied.
^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая разные возможности перевода герундия на русский язык.

1. We are greatly interested in buying computers and office equipment. 2. Over­production resulted in decreasing the price. 3. The Letter of Credit was made valid by having been extended for another term. 4. Labour spent on finishing, transporting and packaging commodities adds a new value to the already existing one. 5.Studying the laws governing goods production and distribution is a subject matter of economics.
^ 4. Перепишите и письменно переведите данные предложения, содержащие условные придаточные предложения.

1. If prices fall the manufacturers will reduce the production. 2. If prices fell the production would be reduced. 3. If business had been going well the company would have survived. 4. Were there an excess of these goods, however, the individual cannot change the prices of the commodities he wants. 5.When planning his expenditures, he must therefore accept these fixed prices. Relative demand would go down, then. 6. If it is a free market, the competition takes place among sellers of the same commodity.7. If you fired this bookkeeper, you would be very sorry. 8. If you had put services into effect quickly, you would not have failed. 9. If you start your own business you need capital. 10. If we examine the monetary history of Greece and Rome, we'll find a very complex manipulation of standards and currency.
^ 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, содержащие конструкции с причастиями, герундием и инфинитивом.

1. This kind of business seemed to be successful. 2. The Island of Britain is known to have been revealed to the Roman world by Julius Caesar in the year 55 ВС 3. The manager made his employees start productive work. 4. We consider such a risk to have been justified. 5. In the American economic system the type and quality of goods produced are determined largely through the interaction of supply and demand. 6. With the sphere of culture still remaining profitable, the aim of the "cultural" capitalist is to cut down the cost of production to a minimum. 7. Selling commodities on foreign markets entrepreneurs are able to expand production and thereby to increase profit. 8. The amount of money to be paid included the cost of packing. 9. The planning process requires a large bureaucracy with the resulting problem of securing administrative efficiency faced by any large organization. 10. The government can influence the money supply by buying and selling its own securities.

^ 6. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык предложения, содержащие усилительные (эмфатические) конструкции.

1. Workers do restore the physical strength because they have all the vital necessities needed. 2. It is abstract labour that forms the value of a commodity. 3. It is only the value of the workers' labour that they are paid for. 4. It is under private ownership of the production means when the law of value results in the emergence of capitalist relations. 5.I believe he does know the subject well.
^ 7. Прочтите и устно переведите текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1 и З абзацы.

The Open Market

Capital invested in business is simply the accumulation of previous surpluses on previous business activities. In this way the past is used to finance the future. The accumulation of capital is almost always deliberate, either on the part of individual citizens or on the part of the state. Even in non-capitalistic societies a certain part of the surplus achieved in any enterprise is "ploughed back" into the system in order to promote further growth.

When capital, labour and enterprise combine to make a new business successful, the business must still continue to compete on the market with other companies producing the same type of commodity. The term market, as used by economists, is a logical extension from the idea of a place set aside for buying and selling. In the past, part of a town was kept as a marketplace, and country people would come in on market-days to buy and sell. Markets today need not however to be located in any fixed place: the sugar market and the cotton market are not geographical locations, but simply sets of conditions which permit buyers and sellers to work together.

In a free market, competition takes place among sellers in order to sell their commodities at the best possible price, and among buyers in order to obtain what they want at a price, which suits them. Such competition influences prices. Changes in supply and demand have their effects, and it is not surprising that considerable fluctuations in price can take place over periods of weeks and months.
^ ВАРИАНТ III


1. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что инфинитив в функции определения и особенно Complex Object и Complex Subject часто соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

1. Goods not to be stored for a long time are called perishable goods. 2. Do you want us to revise the price? 3. The new business was expected to give considerable profit. 4. The first use of the symbol to decorate a shawl appears to have been in the Indian province of Kashmir in the late 17th century. 5. We know labour power to exist only as long as its owner remains alive. 6. There is every reason to suppose that the machinery will arrive in time. 7. When exchanged, articles of different value are equaled to each other.
^ 2. Перепишите и письменно переведите данные ниже предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастного оборотов.

1. The part of capital spent on production means is called constant capital. 2. Looking at varicoloured cars, lorries and buses rushing from traffic lights to traffic lights, from one jam to another, it is hard to imagine that Japan entered the automobile age only 30 years ago. 3. 1960 was a historic year in aviation making the passage from propeller flight to the jet era. 4. Having made an investment they expected to obtain good interest. 5. The investment having been made, they gained high profit. 6. The assortment was varied, with the customers being satisfied. 7. The discount having been given, the contract was drawn up.

^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая разные возможности перевода герундия на русский язык.

  1. Factors of production include labour, capital and natural resources

used in producing goods and services. 2. The change of the exchange rate resulted in renegotiating the price. 3. The cameras sold well after having been promoted. 4. In determining the probability of this enterprise, the entrepreneur sets surplus against the capital spent. 5. After revealing the secret of capitalist exploitation, Marx discovered the basic law of capitalist mode of production.

^ 4. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, содержащие конструкции с причастиями, герундием и инфинитивом.

1. Every enterprise would like fuel and raw materials to be cheap. 2. Being a commodity, labour power also has a use-value, which includes the wage, that is worker's capacity to create value greater than the value of his labour during production. 3. Historians suppose the name "London" to come from a Celtic word. 4. The new method is believed to have given good results. 5. Speculation is buying and selling with a view to buying and selling after when prices have changed. 6. The Physiocrats regarded the state's role as simply that of preserving property and upholding the natural order. 7. Communications being easy, buyers and sellers are numerous and competition is completely free. 8. Transfer costs should include all costs of achieving these physical transfers, including loading and unloading costs, administrative costs, etc. 9. Having created products to meet present and future needs, we must ensure that they provide optimum cost performance (оптимальную характеристику стоимости).


  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите данные предложения,

содержащие условные придаточные предложения.

  1. If prices increase we shan't be able to buy more fuel from you. 2. If

you gave us a 5% discount we would increase our purchase of fuel. 3. If there had been an excess of this commodity the demand would have fallen. 4. Had the terms been reasonable the contract would have been signed immediately. 5.If you think we are living in an age of technology, you are perfectly right. If you think this is a phenomenon of recent years or centuries, you are entirely wrong. 6. If we look at the structure of societies, it will be seen that they are divided into different levels, or strata. 7. If we could go back thousands of years, we should find that people who lived at that time also had to think of necessary supplies of food and clothing, and of suitable shelter. 8. Trade would have developed, if some surplus had been produced. 9. The great development of industry that occurred in the 19th century would not have been possible if it had not been for the invention of steam.


  1. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык предложения, содержащие

усилительные (эмфатические) конструкции.

  1. The quality and quantity of the necessary means of substance do

depend on certain factors. 2. It is the development of the forms of value that led to the appearance of money itself. 3. It is the working people who suffer most from the inflation. 4. It was two years ago when the firm built this factory. 5. It was the mechanized cotton mills of the North of England that were making wealth.

  1. Прочтите и устно переведите 1 абзац текста. Перепишите и

письменно переведите 2 абзац.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

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