Программа курса фонетика


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The Open Market


Monopoly is one of the peculiar factors, which can affect the sale, and purchase of certain commodities. In some markets, there may be only one seller or a cartel of sellers working very closely together to control prices. The result of such monopolistic activity is to fix prices at a level suitable to the seller, a level, which may bring him artificially high profits. Many governments dislike this procedure and have taken legal action to restrict or halt any business activities directed towards "cornering the market". In the US, anti-trust laws operate to limit cartels and mergers, while in Britain the Monopolistic Commission examines all special arrangements and mergers referred to them by the Board of Trade which appear to operate against the public interest.

This type of monopoly is not the only possibility, however. There are three other forms: state, legal and natural. State monopolies are quite common nowadays, where the authorities in a particular country control industries like steel and transport or important and prestigious services like national airlines. Legal monopolies are rather different, because the law permits certain individuals to benefit solely from their special inventions, discoveries or processes. No other person may infringe their rights in respect to such monopolies. Finally, natural monopoly arises where a nation or individual possesses most of a particular mineral for reasons of geography and geology. Canadian nickel and South African gold are two well-known examples of this kind of monopoly.


^ КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4
MONEY AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Для правильного выполнения Задания №4 необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по любым учебникам:

1. Особенности перевода страдательного залога английских глаголов, имеющих предложное дополнение или дополнение без предлога.

2. Место Participle II, выступающего в функции определения, и способы его перевода на русский язык.

3. Бессоюзные дополнительные и определительные придаточные предложения.

4. Бессоюзные условные предложения (Инверсия).

5. Многозначность should / would.

После изучения указанного материала можно приступать к выполнению задания.

^ READING MATERIAL

Text 4 (A) Functions of Money

All values in the economic system are measured in terms of money. Our goods and services are sold for money, and that money is in turn exchanged for other goods and services. Coins are adequate for small transactions, while paper notes are used for general business. There is additionally a wider sense of the word money, covering anything, which is used as a means of exchange, whatever forms it may take. Originally, a valuable metal (gold, silver or copper) served as a constant store of value, and today the American dollar is technically "backed" by the store of gold, which the US government maintains. Because gold has been universally regarded as a very valuable metal, national currencies were for many years judged in terms of the so-called gold standard.

Paper notes have generally replaced valuable metals. These notes are used by governments and authorized banks, and are known as legal tender. Other arrangements such as checks and money orders are not legal tender. They perform the function of substitute money and are known as instruments of credit. Credit is offered only when creditors believe that they get a good chance of obtaining legal tender when they present such instruments at a bank or other authorized institution. If a man's assets are known to be considerable, then the credit will be good. If his assets are in doubt, it may be difficult for him to obtain large sums of credit or even to pay for goods with a check.

The value of money is basically its value as a medium of exchange, or, as economists put it, its purchasing power. This purchasing power is dependent on supply and demand. The demand for money is the quantity needed to effect business transactions. An increase in business requires an increase in the amount of money coming into general circulation. But the demand for money is related not only to the quantity of business but also to the rapidity with which the business is done. The supply of money, on the other hand, is the actual amount in notes and coins available for business purposes. If too much money is available, its value decreases, and it does not buy as much as it did, say, five years earlier. This condition is known as inflation.

^ Text 4 (В) Banks and Banking

Banks are closely concerned with the flow of money into and out of the economy. They often co-operate with governments in efforts to stabilize economies and to prevent inflation. They are specialists in the business of providing capital, and in allocating funds on credit. Banks originated as places to which people took their valuables for safekeeping, but today the great banks of the world have many functions in addition to acting as guardians of valuable private possessions.

Banks normally receive money from their customers in two distinct forms: on current account, and on deposit account. With a current account, a customer can issue personal checks. The bank on this type of account pays no interest. With a deposit account, however, the customer undertakes to leave his money in the bank for a minimum specified period of time. Interest is paid on this money.

The bank in turn lends the deposited money to customers who need capital. This activity earns interest for the bank, and this interest is almost always at a higher rate than any interest, which the bank pays to its depositors. In this way the bank makes its main profits.

The primary function of a bank today is to act as an intermediary between depositors who wish to make interest on their savings, and borrowers who wish to obtain capital. The bank is a reservoir of loanable money, with streams of money flowing in and out. For this reason, economists and financiers often talk of money being liquid, or of the liquidity of money. Many small sums which might otherwise be used as capital are rendered useful simply because the bank acts as a reservoir.

The system of banks rests upon a basis of trust. Innumerable acts of trust built up the system of which bankers, depositors and borrowers are part. They all agree to behave in certain predictable ways in relation to each other, and in relation to the rapid fluctuations of credit and debit. Consequently, business can be done and checks can be written without any legal tender visibly changing hands.

^ Text 4 (С) International Banking

Large banks today are truly transnational enterprises. International banks, like domestic banks, act as financial intermediaries. But they operate in different legal environment.

The laws regulating domestic banking in each nation are typically very restrictive, yet many nations allow international banking to operate largely unregulated. Because they are not hampered by regulations, international banks typically can offer depositors and borrowers better terms than could be negotiated at a domestic bank.

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), referred to as the World Bank, provides development aid to the world's poorest and underdeveloped countries. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) concentrates on providing advice and temporary funds for countries with economic difficulties.

The major role of the World Bank, the world's greatest development bank, is to provide a helping hand to countries in need. Its first activity, after being set up in Washington, D.C., in 1945, was to channel funds from the United States and other nations to rebuilding Europe after World War II.

The World Bank often relies on the IMF to encourage countries to make difficult economic reforms. The economic medicine prescribed by the IMF is painful. For example, it often insists on strict anti-inflationary measures, such as increasing the prices on basic goods and services.

Besides supervising the international monetary system and providing financial support to member countries, since the early 1990s the IMF has been concentrating its efforts in two areas. First, it has mounted a massive campaign to assist the countries of Eastern Europe in difficult transition from centrally planned to market economies. It is providing not only money but, what is more important, expertise in establishing those financial and economic Structures (central banks, tax systems, currency convertibility, tariff regimes, etc.) indispensable for functioning of a free-enterprise system. Second, it is continuing to assist its poorer members in creating environment for economic growth.
^ Text 4 (D) Common Market

The European Economic Community (EEC; Common Market) was established by the six member states of the European Atomic Energy Community – France, Spain, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Italy. The controlling bodies of these three communities merged in 1967 to form the Commission of European Communities and the Council of European Communities. The European Parliament and the European Court of Justice were formed in accordance with he Treaty of Rome in 1957.

At present the European Common Market has almost 50 years of history behind it. It has grown to 12 member states, and some other countries would like to join it.

It is a fact of modern life that trade, economic, social and technological projects would be impossible without international cooperation. In the EC countries there are no trade barriers. The capitals and goods flow freely. Besides their national currencies the member states had the common currency called ECU (European Common Unit).

In January 1999, the Common Market began official operations with the new currency – EURO. Since 1999 it has been more expensive than the US dollar but used only in the banks. In 2003 it was internationally accepted and became the major European currency.
ВАРИАНТ 1
1. Перепишите следующие предложения и письменно переведите их на русский язык. При переводе обратите внимание на место предлога в русском языке.

1. The terms were agreed upon. 2. The data can be relied on. 3. This method was done away with many years ago. 4. The introduction was followed by a list of illustrations. 5. Character is influenced by heredity and environment. 6. People are influenced by the pronunciation and words they hear on the radio and TV or in spoken motion pictures,

^ 2. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, выбирая русские глаголы с дополнением без предлога.

1. This phenomenon will be commented upon in the following paragraph. 2. Some urgent problems have been touched upon here. 3. These matters will not be dealt with here.
^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст. Обратите внимание на место Participle II в качестве определения и способы его перевода.
Overtime hours are the hours worked in excess of the standard

number of hours of week laid down in the conditions of employment. Hourly-paid employees are normally paid at a higher rate per hour for overtime than for standard hours, and it is therefore in their interests to get the number of standard hours reduced. The amount of overtime worked fluctuates in response to movements in aggregate demand. From 1968 to 1975 the standard number of hours worked per week in the UK fell by about 1 per cent to just under forty hours, whereas the number of hours actually worked per week has fallen by 5 per cent to a little over forty-two.

^ 4. Перепишите следующие предложения; выделите в них придаточные предложения, подчеркните их и определите тип. Предложения переведите на русский язык.

1. Man exchanges his services for the goods he wants to consume. 2. The number of people this planet can support is limited. 3. The choice we make depends on our preferences. 4. In 1812 a young Bostonian, Francis Calot Lowell, had returned from a trip to England determined to set up in the United Sates a textile factory of the kind he had seen in Lancashire. 5. He raised capital, bought a site in the Charles River, and launched a factory that succeeded in the mass production of coarse sheeting. 6. Most people believe the chief reason for going to school is to learn something. 7. I think there is a great deal of merit in wanting to conserve energy. 8. Many of the rights English people enjoy today were won at a great sacrifice, first by the rising bourgeoisie against feudalism, and later by the working class.
^ 5. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обратив внимание на порядок слов в придаточном предложении.

1. Could the ice of the poles be melted, Antarctica might be the home of new nations and new civilizations. 2. Columbus did not find in the Americas a civilization that was technically more advanced than that of Europe. Had there been one there, it would have discovered Europe. 3. Japan's large population could not have been self-supporting for so long, had soil and climate not been favourable.

^ 6. Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите, в каком значении употребляется в них глаголы should / would. Предложения переведите.

1. More attention should be paid to reducing the quantity of money in the economy. 2. Guaranteed wage should be followed by permanent employment. 3. In principle, the price increases should eliminate the excess demand. 4. At different stages of research the scientist would be interested in different questions. 5. Both private and public companies would not make public certain information about their business. 6. Private companies would place certain restrictions on the transfer of shares. 7. The discovery of life on another planet would be a monument to our age. 8. There is no problem, which would be more exiting to everybody than that of life on other planets.

^ 7. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык приводимый ниже текст.
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