Программа курса фонетика


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What Are The Causes of Inflation?



Economists use the terms purchasing power, or value, to describe the quantity and quality of goods and services we can buy with our money. When prices rise, the value of money falls; when prices fall, its value increases.

An extended period of rising prices is called inflation. One in which prices are falling is called deflation.

If prices and income rise by the same percentage, inflation is not a problem. And inflation is very much a problem when income rises at a slower rate than prices.

Economists often classify inflation according to the source of the inflationary pressure.

^ Demand-Pull Inflation. A situation in which there is "too much money chasing too few goods" is described as demand-pull inflation. When demand increases faster than industry's ability to satisfy that demand, prices will increase.

Cash-Push Inflation. A period of rising prices due to an increase in the cost of production is called cost-push inflation. For instance, efforts by producers to increase profits by increasing prices rather than by reducing costs could trigger an inflationary spiral.

Although these notions explain how certain rounds of inflation begin, there are other factors to consider, for example, sudden unexpected shortage of a basic commodity can cause price increase.

NOTES: Demand-pull inflation - инфляция, вызванная превышением спроса над предложением

Cash-push inflation инфляция, вызванная ростом издержек производства

^ ВАРИАНТ II
1. Перепишите следующие предложения и письменно переведите их на русский язык. При переводе обратите внимание на место предлога в русском языке.

1.The new discovery is being much spoken about. 2. At present tests are usually relied on to supply the data. 3. Many materials now commonly used were not even thought of thirty years ago. 4. This simple rule is followed by the majority of scientists. 5. The use of metals is affected by a number of factors. 6. The proposal will be dealt with later.
^ 2. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, выбирая русские глаголы с дополнением без предлога.

1. The working method of science may be dealt in several ways. 2. The exceptions are not easily accounted for. 3. Some urgent problems have been touched upon here.
^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующий текст. Обратите внимание на место Participle II в качестве определения и способы его перевода.

Overtime hours are the hours worked in excess of the standard number

of hours of week laid down in the conditions of employment. Hourly-paid employees are normally paid at a higher rate per hour for overtime than for standard hours, and it is therefore in their interests to get the number of standard hours reduced. The amount of overtime worked fluctuates in response to movements in aggregate demand. From 1968 to 1975 the standard number of hours worked per week in the UK fell by about 1 per cent to just under forty hours, whereas the number of hours actually worked per week has fallen by 5 per cent to a little over forty-two.


  1. ^ Перепишите следующие предложения. Выделите в них придаточные

предложения, подчеркните их и определите тип. Предложения переведите.

  1. Modern man lives in a crowded world with the benefits and

inconveniences large crowds imply. 2. People find it profitable to trade the things they possess in overabundance for the things they want more urgently. 3. A student takes into consideration the market potential for the training he chooses to acquire. 4.Lowell died in 1817, but by this time the industry he had founded was firmly established. 5. You are deeply involved in economics whether you have taken a course in it or not. Every time you buy a can of beans or collect a paycheck or put $20 in your savings account, you affect not only your own economic life, but also the lives of others. 6. Some people say American great cities are monuments of progress; others say they are symptoms of social disease. 7. The value of the dollar is determined by how much it will buy. Money is as "good" as the amount of food, electricity, clothing, etc', you can get in exchange for it.

  1. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обратив

внимание на порядок слов в придаточных предложениях.

1. The movement would have remained ineffective, had it not found an army in the recently developed class of industrial workmen. 2. Had the antifascist, antiwar forces been able at that time to unite, World War II could have been prevented; fifty million would not have had to die. 3. Only if we bear the future in mind, will we be able to guide and correctly invest our energies at the present time". (P. Kapitsa)

^ 6. Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите, в каком значении употребляются в них глаголы should / would. Предложения переведите.

  1. In principle, the price increases should eliminate the excess demand.

The idea that we should consume less, in order to save and invest more was much criticized. 3. The bulk of company's reserves would be invested in the business. 4. An industry with low concentration would be one, which contained a hundred firms each of approximately the same size. 5. The firm's demand for labour would be determined by a complex of factors. 6. To judge by these factors would be risky. 7. It would be wrong to think that the intellectual capacities of an individual man are inexhaustible.
^ 7. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык

приводимый ниже текст.
Who Suffers Or Benefits From Inflation?
Inflation affects people differently: some suffer, while others benefit.

Those most likely to suffer from inflation are people living on relatively fixed incomes, savers, lenders and business.

During periods of inflation the cost of living increases. Therefore it is necessary to earn more just to maintain your present living standard. How much of an increase is necessary? At least as much as the rate of inflation.

Some people put their money into savings accounts or bonds that guarantee a fixed rate of returns (usually called "interest"). Unless the rate of return is at least as high as the inflation rate, the money returned to a saver will purchase less than the sum he or she set aside. Those who lend money are in the same position as those who save.

Business is hurt by inflation because it causes uncertainty and makes it hard for managers to predict future costs. Besides, it raises production cost.

Those who can easily increase their incomes, borrowers and government, can benefit from inflation.

Certain professions, industries and labour groups find it easier to increase prices and wages during periods of inflation than at other times. A case in point is the retail jewelry trade. During periods of inflation the price of jewelry has generally increased faster than the cost of living. The result has been higher profit margins for jewelers.

^ ВАРИАНТ III

1. Перепишите следующие предложения и письменно переведите их на русский язык. При переводе обратите внимание на место предлога в русском языке.

1. The nature of the problem is such that empirical approach can be relied upon. 2. Old traditions cannot be easily done away with. 3. These days the Conservative Party is often referred to as the party of business directors. 4. This discovery was followed by the others in Europe and North America. 5. The migration of workers to the United Kingdom in recent times has been influenced more by the demand in labour in Britain than by unfavorable conditions at home.
^ 2. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, выбирая русские глаголы с дополнением без предлога.

1. The problem of pollution was not even touched upon some fifty years ago. 2. The British Minister of Education said that that the government had been concerned about the ability of British children to speak other languages. 3. The best-known example of an artificial language is Esperanto. A young Warsaw doctor who in 1887 published a book called «International Language» created it.

^ 3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующий текст. Обратите внимание на место Participle II в качестве определения и способы ею перевода.

Overtime hours are the hours worked in excess of the standard number of hours of week laid down in the conditions of employment. Hourly-paid employees are normally paid at a higher rate per hour for overtime than for standard hours, and it is therefore in their interests to get the number of standard hours reduced. The amount of overtime worked fluctuates in response to movements in aggregate demand. From 1968 to 1975 the standard number of hours worked per week in the UK fell by about 1 per cent to just under forty hours, whereas the number of hours actually worked per week has fallen by 5 per cent to a little over forty-two.
^ 4. Перепишите следующие предложения; выделите в них придаточные предложения, подчеркните их и определите тип. Предложения переведите.

  1. It is important to find out how the goods the trading entity possesses

are acquired. 2. The storeowner has to pay the bank interest on the money he has borrowed. 3. Robinson Crusoe had to make himself the things he wanted to consume. 4. Few people realize a Spaniard named Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513. 5. Let us suppose the news is true. 6. It is no doubt wars affect the economy. 6. Personally I believe it was the Spaniards rather than Indians who first brought horses and ponies in America. 7. It is thanks to an Englishman that table tennis is the fast and skilful game it is today.


  1. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обратив

внимание на порядок слов в придаточных предложениях.

1. In 1908 the "Tungus meteorite" struck Central Siberia. Had it come five hours later, Earth would have turned enough in its orbit to allow a direct hit on St. Petersburg. 2. Gold cannot be manufactured. Could it be possible, it would lose its special utility as a means of exchange. 3. A. Einstein is best known for his work on relativity. Had he never written a line on this subject, he would still be regarded as a scientist of the first rank.
^ 6. Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите, в каком значении употребляются в них глаголы should/would. Предложения переведите.

  1. It should be noted that the market for Euro-dollars is not confined in

Europe. 2. This process should be completed by the end of 1999. 3.The exchange rate would depend on supply and demand conditions for the relevant currencies in the market. 4. Most economists would agree that under present conditions complete freedom of trade would not be desirable. 5. Some economists would prefer to see a higher proportion of the dividends distributed and then rechannelled back to investment. 6. Countries devote home resources to exports because they can obtain more goods and resources by international exchange than they would obtain from the same resources devoted to direct home production.
^ 7. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык приводимый ниже текст.

Public Finance

The government collects money from citizens through taxes. Income tax is the tax collected on wages and salaries. Inheritance tax is collected on what people inherit from others. Customs or excise duties have to be paid on goods imported from other countries. VAT or value added tax is a tax paid on most goods and services when they are bought or purchased. Companies pay corporation tax on their profits. If you pay too much tax, you should be given some money back, a tax rebate.

The government also sometimes pays out money to people in need, e.g. unemployment benefit, disability allowances and student grants (to help to pay for studying). Recipients draw a pension or an unemployment benefit or are on social security.

Every country may sell shares to members of the public who are then said to have invested in that company. They should be paid a regular dividend on their investment, depending on the profit or loss made by the company.

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