Программа курса фонетика


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ТипПрограмма курса
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Wholesaling

Wholesalers e the institutions which stand between the manufacturer and the retailer. The wholesaler buys goods in bulk from producers and sells them in small quantities to retailers. In doing so he helps to the production process. If you had an intention to be a successful manufacturer, you would make high quality products at a reasonable price for selected markets. If you intended to be a wholesaler, you would learn how to serve the market.

Wholesaler economizes the distribution. The most important function of a wholesaler is to contact manufacturers and potential customers.

Wholesalers are used for information and advice. Suggestions which customers make to the retailer are passed to the wholesaler who conveys them to the manufacturer. Thus the latter can improve his product.

The wholesaler keeps stocks. Shoppers like to obtain goods immediately. This requires stocks. Often, however, neither the producer nor the retailer has extensive storage facilities and responsibility falls on the wholesaler.

The wholesaler cannot rely on retailers visiting him to see goods and place orders. Representatives, or travelers, go out to visit retailers with catalogues, price lists and order forms. They also carry samples.

Moreover he arranges imports from abroad. Foreign manufacturers can rarely bother to ship small parcels to individual retailers abroad. They prefer to deal with a wholesaler, an import merchant with established trade connections.

The wholesaler normally allows a certain period of credit. Not to delay payment, cash discount is allowed within a month. A trade or quantity discount, which increases with the amount of goods ordered, encourages retailers to place large orders.

Wholesalers may be classified into three groups: manufacturer-owned operations, merchant wholesalers and merchandize agents and brokers. Manufacturers can establish their own wholesaling office or branch, the latter providing more services to its customers. Depending on the industry or geographical location merchant-wholesalers are called distributors, jobbers, or dealers. Among merchandize agents there are selling agents, brokers, commission agents and action companies. They are all compensated by either a commission or a brokerage fee. (1925 t.un.)

NOTES: jobber – человек, работающий сдельно, посредник; merchant-wholesaler- оптовик; merchandize agent – торговый агент
4 семестр

Money and Banking

Money is important to the operation of the economy at two levels. First, it is the means of financing the purchases of goods and services and of storing values. Second, the quantity of money in the economy helps to determine total spending and the general level of price.

Almost every society now has a money economy based on coins and paper bills. However, this has not always been true. In primitive societies a system of barter was used. Barter was a system of direct exchange of goods. Somebody could exchange a sheep, for example, for anything in the market-place that they considered to be of equal value. Barter, however, was a very unsatisfactory system because people’s needs seldom coincided. People needed a more practical system of exchange, and various money systems developed, based on goods such as cattle, grain, shells, salt, etc. Precious metals gradually took over, because, when made into coins, they were portable, durable and divisible into larger and smaller units of value.

A coin is a piece of metal, usually discshaped, which bears lettering, designs or numbers showing its value.

Most governments now issue paper money in the form of bills, which are really “Promises to pay”. Paper money or “bank-notes” are easier to handle and much more convenient in the modern world. Checks and credit cards are being used increasingly.

At the end of the U. K. Banking system is the Bank of England, which is also known as the Central Bank. It is also the Government’s Bank and holds all surpluses of the various government departments. (1306 t.un.)
^ The Stock Exchange

If you are a shareholder and you want to get back the money you have put into a company, you must sell your shares at the Stock Exchange. The Stock Exchange is a place where shares are bought and sold.

The price of shares is controlled by the amount of people willing to pay for them.

If the company is making a profit, other people may want to buy shares in it, so you may be able to sell the shares at a higher price than you paid for them. If you bought 100 shares at $ 1.00 each and you sold them later at $ 1.50 each, you would make $ 50 profit on the 100 shares, as well as keeping any dividend paid during the period when you owned the shares.

But if business is not going well, other people may not be willing to pay as much as $ 1.00 a share. If they think the company may do well in the end, they might pay 80 p. A share. If the business is really failing no one will buy the shares at all and you risk losing all your money.

The first Stock Exchange was established in 1773 in London. It was the biggest in the world until 1914. Now it is the third to Tokyo and new York. The building as it stands today dates from 1969. (916 t.un.)
^ Britain’s Banking and Financial Institutions

Britain is the world’s leading financial center and the home of international banking and financial markets. The city of London holds the greatest concentration of banks in the world and is responsible for about a fifth of total international bank lending. It also accommodates the world’s largest insurance and reinsurance industry and one of the world’s largest stock exchanges.

The daily turnover of money in London Foreign exchange Markets alone is about $303 billion compared to $192 billion in New York and $128 billion in Tokyo.

Over the last Britain’s income from banking, financial and business services, life and general insurance, investment management and leasing has risen sharply, accounting for some 14 per cent in 1990.

During the 1980s – a decade marked by unprecedented growth - financial institutions entered a new and challenging era. Reforms also brought specific areas of service into line with Member States in the European Union. Major retail banks serving the personal and commercial sectors have extended and improved their product and service range. The interests of individual investors have been protected and financial service institutions have submitted to guidelines.

London has built much on this success in the 1990s. Sterling joined Europe’s exchange-rate mechanism in 1990, reassuring skeptics about the British commitments to fight inflation. The regulatory system strikes a better balance between light self-regulation and effective statutory rules than those applied in other financial centers.

Britain’s leading position owes much to the traditionalism of the City and Port of London as centres for trade; also to the City’s responsiveness to new challenges. The City offers:

  • The world’s biggest international financial markets.

  • A time-zone advantage in 24-hour global dealings.

  • Comprehensive financial expertise and innovation.

  • International professional advisers.

  • Liberal financial regulations.

  • World-wide communications.

  • A stable political climate.

  • A compact location with first rate amenities (and new, prime office developments in nearby Docklands).

  • World-class cultural entertainment. (2019 t.un.)

NOTES: retail bank – банк, занимающийся обслуживанием мелкой клиентуры; reinsurance – перестрахование, страхование заново; amenities – удобства
^ Banking and Finance

Banking and financial market operations in Britain involve a number of special institutions and financial markets which, as a result of deregulation and new legislative frameworks, are increasingly integrating. Many banking and financial institutions are unique to Britain and offer highly specialized services to individuals, companies and sovereign bodies all over the world.

^ Commercial Banks

This is the broad title for institutions authorized under the Banking Act 1987 as deposit-taking institutions involved in the classic banking business of tailing deposits and lending money, both in the retail and wholesale markets. In Britain, they include the retail banks and institutions which offer banking services.

^ Special Financing Institutions

Operating in both the public and private sectors, there are a number of different special financial institutions offering loan finance and equity capital. In the private sector they include finance houses; special leasing houses; factoring companies and venture capital companies, each providing an alternative to retail bank funding.

^ The Financial Markets

The city of London has long been the nexus of international activity in a number of highly organized financial markets. These include the London Stock Exchange, the sterling money and bond markets; the foreign exchange markets; eurocurrency markets; financial futures; bullion; commodities; shipping and freight. (1214 t.un.)

NOTES: deregulation – дерегулирование, сокращение объема вмешательства правительства в экономику; to tail deposits – принимать вклады (выстроившихся в очередь вкладчиков); to authorize – уполномочивать, разрешать; equity capital – капитал в форме акций; leasing – лизинг, долгосрочная аренда; factoring – факторинг (приобретение требований к должнику и взыскание долга); nexus – центр; futures – фьючерсы, срочные контракты, срочные сделки

CОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Программа и структура курса…………………… 1

Методические указания…………………………..4

Первый год обучения

Контрольное задание 1……………………..……11

Контрольное задание 2……………………..…….21

Второй год обучения

Контрольное задание 3…………………….……..34

Контрольное задание 4…………………………...47

Тексты для дополнительного чтения

Первый год обучения……………………………..59

Второй год обучения…...……..…………………63

Содержание……………………………...………..68





 Подсчёт количества печатных знаков: число печатных знаков (считая знаки препинания) в полной строке умножается на количество строк. Обычно на странице бывает 1800 – 2000 знаков.



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