|Political System of Russia.|
Russia is a democratic federative law-governed state with a republican form of government.
The Russian Federation consists of 83 constituent entities (republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, autonomous okrugs, which have equal rights).
The federal government consists of three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial.
Each of them is checked and balanced by President.
The President is the head of the state and determines the basic objectives of the internal and external policy of the state.
He is elected for six years on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for all eligible citizens.
One and the same person cannot serve as President for more than two terms in succession.
The President stops performing his duties ahead of time if he resigns, because of impeachment, or if he cannot continue to carry out his duties due to poor health.
The President appoints, with the consent of the State Duma the Chairman of the Government of the RF, adopts the decisions on the resignation of the government.
The President nominates to the State Duma a candidate for appointment to the post of the Chairman of the Central Bank, for the posts of the Constitutional and Supreme Court justices, Higher Arbitration Court justices.
He forms and heads the Security Council.
The President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief.
He has the right to show mercy and to introduce the state of emergency in the country.
The President has the right to dissolve the State Duma.
The highest legislative and representative organ of RF is the Federal Assembly (Parliament).
It consists of two chambers: the Federation Council and the State Duma.
The Federation Council includes two representatives from each constituent entity of the Russian Federation.
The State Duma consists of 450 deputies.
The main function of the chambers is to make federal laws.
At first bills are introduced in the State Duma.
If they are passed by the majority vote, the laws are submitted for consideration to the Federation Council within five days.
Having been approved by this chamber the law, within five days, is sent to President of the Russian Federation for signing and publication.
Federal laws adopted by the State Duma on the following issues must compulsory be examined by the Federation Council:
the federal budget
federal taxes and levies
the status and protection of the state border of the RF
war and peace.
The Federation Council also considers a set of other issues.
It approves decisions on changes of borders between constituent entities and sanctions the imposing of martial law and a state of emergency.
Without Federation Council approval, military forces cannot be used outside the country.
Within its competence, there is appointment and dismissal of the Prosecutor General and judges, the deputy Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber.
The Federation Council has the right of final decision on the impeachment of the President and the announcement of new elections of the President.
The following is within the jurisdiction of the State Duma:
consent to the appointment of the Chairman of the Government by the RF President
appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank, the Commissioner for Human Rights
announcement of amnesty
bringing charges against the President of the RF for his impeachment.
The executive power is exercised by the Government of the RF.
The Government consists of the Chairman of the Government of the RF, vice-chairman and federal ministers.
The Government introduces a draft budget to be discussed by the State Duma and it provides its implementation and realization of financial, credit and monetary policies.
It carries out measures to ensure the legality, rights and freedoms of the citizens, to protect property, public order and combat crimes.
It ensures state security and realization of foreign policy.
The Government ensures the implementation of a uniform state policy in the sphere of culture, science, education, social security, health and ecology.
It manages the federal property.
The judicial branch is represented by different kinds of courts.
The state symbols of Russia are: a three-coloured banner with white, blue and red horizontal stripes; a national anthem and a national emblem (a two-headed eagle).
The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow.