Закон справедлив для Read and translate the words


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ТипЗакон
Solar radiation

The vocabulary:

to wind

заводить (пружину часов)

visible

видимый

provide

снабжать

occur

иметь место, происходить

incident flux

падающий поток

harmful

вредный

dust

пыль

transparent

прозрачный

vapor

пар

incoming

поступающее излучение

albedo

альбедо, отражающая способность

greenhouse

теплица, парник

eventually

в итоге, окончательно

conversely

и наоборот, обратно

release

выделять (энергию)

the law holds for

закон справедлив для

^ Read and translate the words:

Ozone, spectrum, process, solar, toxic, lethal, mineral, hydrogen, oxygen, thermonuclear, ultraviolet, infrered.

Read the following numbers and units of measure:

½ - a (one) half

a0 – a to the power of zero

1/6 – a (one) six

a2 – a squared

¾ - three fourths

a3 – a cubed

o – nought= zero

102 – ten to the second (power) = ten squared

0.5 – (niught) point five

10-5 the minus fifth power of ten = ten to the minus fifth power

0.004 – (nought) point two noughts four = two oes four= point zero zero four

103 – ten to the third (power) = ten squared

0.28 nought point twenty eight

a=b a equals b = a is equal to b, a plus b, a and b

2.50 – two point five (nought)

a>b – a is greater than b

56.43 – fifty six point forty three

a

a+b – a plus b

a – a over b

b

axb – a times b = a multiplied by b

[a] – a in brackets

a-b – a minus b, a less b, a take away b

  1. -a in parentheses

a:b – a divided by b

52% - fifty two per cent

0.2 –zero point two, point two;

1 m – one meter

1.25 – one point twenty five;

1cm – centimeter

4 5/7 – four and five seventh;

1mm – one millimeter

32 – three squared, three square, three to the power of two

1 nm – one nano meter

10-7 – ten to the minus power

1 W/m2 – one watt per square meter

A+B=C – A plus B is C

A=BC – A is B multiplied by C

A=4B – A is four times greater than B

10:5=2 – ten divided by five equals two

A=90% of B – A makes up 90 per cent of B, A equals 90 per cent of B




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Read and translate the text:

Life would be impossible without Sun`s light. Energy received as solar radiation drives all life and meteorological processes on Earth. Like the hand that winds the spring of a clock, directly or indirectly, the Sun provides the external energy supporting the life activities within all ecosystems. Practically all the fuels that modern society uses – gas, oil and coal – are stored forms of energy received from the Sun as electromagnetic radiation millions of years ago.

The energy flux reaching the outer atmosphere of the Earth is called the solar constant. Solar radiation has been increasing steadily and now it is by 30% more than it was 3.8 billion years ago when life on Earth just emerged. At present, solar constant is about 1367 W/m2. Solar constant is the total radiation energy received from the Sun per unit of time per unit of area on a theoretical surface perpendicular to the Sun`s rays and at the Earth`s mean distance from the Sun.

Earth`s planetary albedo is defined as the fraction of the total incident solar radiation reflected by a planet back to space. At present albedo of the Earth is equal to 30% (=25% is the reflection of clouds and airborne particles of the atmosphere, and =5% is the reflection of the Earth`s surface.)

Clouds, water vapor, dust and gases of the atmosphere absorb about half of the solar radiation that might otherwise rich the Earth. Eventually, 150 W/m2 is the flux of the solar radiation that reaches the Earth`s surface.

The Sun is a thermonuclear reactor. Energy released in the form of electromagnetic waves of a wide range. These extend from X-rays of very short wavelength to radio waves of very long wavelength, but almost all Sun`s radiation falls within the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation bands. Nearly half of solar energy occurs in the visible part of the solar spectrum between 400nm and 700nm, about 25% - in the ultraviolet band, and the remaining solar energy occurs at near infrared wavelength, mostly from 700nm (1 nm=10-9 m: one nanometer equals ten to the minus ninth power metres or one billionth of a meter).

The near-ultraviolet radiation from the Sun produces the ozone (O3) layer, which in turn shields the Earth from such radiation. Almost all ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer and oxygen. This is vitally important for living things because ultra-violet is extremely harmful and potentially lethal to most forms of life.

The atmosphere is almost perfectly transparent to incoming radiation of the visible band. The Earth reradiates this energy as infrared (heat) waves. Water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and some other gases absorb infrared wavelengths, much of which gets reradiated back toward the Earth. The atmosphere therefore behaves like glass in a greenhouse, allowing passage of light rather than heat. This phenomenon is termed the “greenhouse effect”. If the Earth had no atmosphere (but the same reflectivity to solar radiation, or albedo, as it has now), its average surface temperatures would be -18oC instead of comfortable +15oC found today. Thus, the result of greenhouse effect ia a net warming of the earth-atmosphere system and of the Earth surface temperature.

The first law of thermodynamics states that when energy of one form disappears, an equivalent amount of energy appears in some other form. It means that, in any case, light energy can be neither created nor destroyed as it passes through the atmosphere. It may, however, be transformed into equivalent amount another type of energy, such as biochemical energy, energy of motion (kinetic energy), or heat.

According to the second law of thermodynamics the efficiency of any energy transformation is never “perfect”: when energy changes from one form to another, some of the energy is lost to the system as “useless” heat.

The laws of thermodynamics hold for all energy transformations, including those involving the biochemical energy of life. In accordance with these laws, the earth-atmosphere system balances absorption of short-wav e solar radiation by emission of long-wave infrared (heat) radiation to space.

EXERCISES

Ex. 1 Review questions:

  1. Why doesn`t all energy radiated by the Sun reach the Earth`s surface?

  2. What part of the Sun`s radiation falls in the visible band of the solar spectrum?

  3. What happens to the ultraviolet portion of solar radiation when it passes through the atmosphere?

  4. To what radiation is the atmosphere more transparent: to the visible sunlight or to heat (infrared) radiation?

  5. What would the average Earth`s surface temperature be if there were no greenhouse effect?

  6. Why do we call the first law of thermodynamics the law of energy conservation?

Ex. 2 Translate into English:

форы жизни




источники энергии




потоки энергии




длина волны




водяной пар




диапазон излучения




круговорот вещества




отраженное излучение






Ex. 3 Translate the phrases and use them in the sentences of your own:

life under certain conditions




pass through the atmosphere




transformed into thermal radiation




on the top of the atmosphere




in the visible part of the spectrum




back into space




average surface temperature




by clouds and airborne particles




without sunlight




from X-rays to radio waves




according to the law




absorbed by the ozone layer










transparent to incoming radiation




Ex. 4 Say it in English:

а) Жизнь на земле была бы невозможной без солнечной энергии. Солнечное излучение обеспечивает жизнедеятельность всех экосистем в биосфере, управляет системой климата и всеми метеорологическими процессами на земле, такими как ветер, дожди, волны в океанах и другими.

would be

provide for

drive

such as

б) Солнечная постоянная – это поток энергии, достигающий внешнего слоя атмосферы. Солнечная постоянная равна 1367 Вт/м2, но только 150 Вт/м2 достигает поверхности земли.

the outer layer

reach

с) Около половины энергии излучения солнца падает на землю в видимом диапазоне

длин волн, около 2% - в ультрафиолетовом диапазоне, а остальная часть – в ближнем инфракрасном.

Почти вся ультрафиолетовая радиация поглощается озоновым слоем и кислородом

атмосферы, что жизненно важно для биосферы.

the remaining part

d) Земля переизлучает солнечную энергию в космическое пространство в виде теплового излучения (тепла).

Атмосфера ведет себя подобно стеклу в теплице: она позволяет проходить свету, но препятствует уходу тепла.

reradiate

behave like glass

let light pass

prevent escape

e) Первый закон термодинамики – это закон сохранения энергии.

Энергия в замкнутой системе не может ни создаваться, ни уничтожаться; она преобразуется из одной формы в другую и ее общее количество является постоянной величиной.

conservation

neither …..nor

total amount

f) Согласно второму закону термодинамики, когда энергия преобразуется из одной формы в другую, некоторое количество энергии теряется системой как «бесполезное» тепло.

Законы термодинамики справедливы для всех процессов превращения энергии, включая биологическ5ие процессы.

according to

is lost to the system

useless

the laws hold for…..

including



i


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