Unit 3 Class relationships (2)

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Unit 3 Class relationships (2)


When we write we have to take into account the fact that our reader may not always understand the meaning of the more specialized words and expressions we wish to use. If we think this is the case, we will supply the reader with our definition of these terms. Here are some examples of writers defining terms for the reader:

1 In writing a paper on noise pollution, the writer needs to define the technical term 'perceived noise
decibels' (PNdB):

. . . aircraft noise is measured in PNdB (perceived noise decibels) - a unit which measures all the different sounds that make up a noise, and gives most importance to those that people actually find most annoying when they hear them.

2 Some words have different meanings in different special subjects, or have different meanings in different
areas of one subject. These are often particularly difficult for the reader. In this example, the fairly
common word 'interaction' is defined by the writer to make sure that both he and his readers are talking and
thinking about the same thing:

It will be convenient to end this introduction with some definitions that are implied in what has gone before and required for what is to follow. For the purpose of this report interaction (that is, face-to-face interaction) may be roughly defined as the reciprocal influence of individuals upon one another's actions when in one another's immediate physical presence.

Task 1

Discuss the following sentences with a partner and decide which are acceptable definitions. Try to work out why the other definitions are not acceptable.

  1. A capital city is like London.

  2. A man is an animal with eight fingers and two thumbs.

  1. Biochemistry is the study of biochemistry.

  2. Socialism is what they have in the USSR.

  3. Rust is a reddish brown coating formed on iron by the action of water and air.

Defining concrete terms is usually relatively easy. Such terms as 'copper', 'thermometer', etc. can usually be defined in the following way:

concept class special feature(s)

form of

…… is a species of which



This definition structure is known as a formal definition.

Task 2

These formal definitions have their parts mixed up. See if you can rewrite them correctly. Check your rewritten sentences with one or two other students.





wh-word. . .


a dentist




which is used in the manufacture of cloth





political system

which has four equal sides and four right angles


an atom




who takes care of people's teeth






which aims at public ownership of the means of production


a restaurant




where food is bought and eaten


a square




that still has the same qualities, and can combine with other substances





smallest piece of a simple substance

which is easily shaped, and allows heat and electricity to pass through it

Another definition structure, the naming definition, has the same parts but in a different order:

class special feature(s) concept
who called

which is known as


e.g. A person who studies living organisms is called a biologist.

A book which has soft covers and is relatively cheap is known as a paperback.

Many definitions can be written both ways.
Task 3

Not all the formal definitions in Task 2 can be rewritten as naming definitions. Rewrite those that can and suggest reasons why the remainder would make unsatisfactory naming definitions.
Task 4

Think of three ordinary subjects that you use or see every day. For each of them write both kinds of definition. Test them out on another student by blanking out the 'concept' word(s) and seeing whether she or he knows what you have defined.

e.g. A writing instrument which contains a lead and can be erased by a
rubber is called a ... (pencil)
In academic writing we tend to draw on other people's definitions of particular terms in order to help establish our own definition. When we follow this procedure we are obliged to make clear to the reader how we are using another writer's definition, i.e. do we accept it / accept part of it / reject it etc.?
Read the following passage, which has been taken from an article called 'How animals learn:

psychology vs ethology'. Then:

  1. using information from the text, write a formal definition of a 'conditioned reflex';

  2. using information from the text, write a definition of 'learning';

  3. compare your definitions with those of another student.

Until recently, learning was almost exclusively the prerogative of ex­perimental psychologists, follow­ing the tradition established by I.P. Pavlov and his famous dogs. Pavlov found that dogs salivated when they heard a bell that signal­led the arrival of food. Such a response was called a conditioned reflex and was supposed to demon­strate that the dog had in some way associated the bell with the food. Decades of subsequent research were based on the principle that all learning was a matter of forming associations between one stimulus and another, or between a stimulus and a response, under the influence of a "reinforcer" - reward or punishment. The animals that were studied were readily available and easy to handle in the lab - usually rats and pigeons. (New Scientist)

Defining abstract concepts (words such as 'truth', 'beauty' and 'justice') is harder than defining concrete objects. Often such concepts cannot be adequately defined in a simple, one-sentence definition.

Task 6
What do you understand by the term 'social responsibility'? What does it involve? How do we recognize it? Who should be socially responsible?

Discuss these questions about social responsibility with some other students, then write your own definition of the term 'social responsibility' as you think it would be meant in a statement like:

Scientists, above all, should be socially responsible.
^ About writing
We have seen that to define something we need to name it, classify it, and state its most important (i.e. defining) characteristics. Because definitions are used to explain words we need, they are almost always only part of a text and not a whole text. We find definitions inside most serious writing, usually when something is being introduced for the first time.
Task 7

Read this text and find the definitions in it.

The type of electricity that discharges from a solid material after it has been rubbed with another material is known as static electricity. One of the most common meth­ods of demonstrating static electricity is by simply combing your hair. After it has passed through dry hair, a comb acquires the ability to attract small pieces of paper and similar objects to its surface. Two types of charge exist; no electrical phenomena are known that suggest the existence of more than these two types. Benjamin Franklin is responsible for the convention that an electrical charge is negative when it has been generated by rubber rubbed with fur, while the charge is positive when it has been generated from glass rubbed with silk. A charge generated in any other fashion can then be compared to these two results.

The force of attraction, or the force of repulsion, of one type of charge for another one is called an electrostatic or coulombic force. Charles Coulomb first reported the results of such observations as a statement that has become known as Coulomb's law. Like charges repel: unlike charges attract.

Task 8

Rewrite Coulombs law as a formal definition.

Task 9

Write formal definitions of:

  1. static electricity;

  2. positive charge;

  3. electrostatic force.

Using grammar in writing

It is often necessary to expand the defining description of a concept by adding extra information to the definition. This can be done by using brackets or dashes. Study the examples.

  1. A prehistoric animal is an animal which lived in a time before recorded history.
    A prehistoric animal (a brontosaurus, a pterodactyl, a mammoth, etc.) is an animal which lived in a time
    before recorded history.

  2. Courtship is an innate pattern of behaviour which certain vertebrates carry out before mating.

Courtship is an innate pattern of behaviour - such as dancing, preening, or bringing nesting materials -
which certain vertebrates carry out before mating.

The additional information should be placed near the main information it clarifies.

Task 10

Use the information below these sentences to write expanded definitions of each underlined concept.

  1. Tungsten is a metal which retains hardness at red heat.
    add: used in filaments in electric light bulbs

  2. A conversation is a social event.

add: two or more people speaking to each other

Task 11

Expand these definitions by adding your own examples; discuss the possibilities with another student.

  1. Cereal is a plant which is grown to produce food.

  2. A gas is a substance which is neither solid nor liquid.

A definition can also be expanded by giving an example of the use of the object or idea being defined, as in the example below:

Aluminium is a metal which is light in weight. Consequently, it is used in

the manufacture of aircraft.

When you expand a definition by giving an example of its use, you can use the following pattern:
Definition Marker

…………. Therefore, it is used ...


As a result, one or its main uses is ...
The decision whether to use a marker or not will depend on whether or not you think the reader needs to be explicitly told of the relationship between the definition and its use: in this case, that one is an effect of the other.

Task 12

Expand the following definitions by giving an example showing how the item being defined is used.

  1. Glass is a substance which has the property of being transparent.

  2. Stainless steel is an alloy which is resistant to corrosion.

  3. A thermometer is a device for measuring temperature.

A definition can also be expanded by stating the main characteristics of the object or concept, as in the example below:

Aluminium is a metal which is used in the manufacture of aircraft.

^ It is very light and resistant to corrosion.

When you expand a definition by stating its characteristics, you may use explicit markers to show the relationship between the definition and its expansion:

Aluminium is a metal which is used in the manufacture of aircraft

because it is very light and resistant to corrosion.

In this case, one is a reason for the other.

Task 13

Expand the following definitions by stating the main characteristics of each item being defined.

  1. Tobacco is a drug which is commonly used by human beings.

  2. Cloth is a material made by weaving fibres such as wool, silk or cotton.

  3. Binocular vision is that type of vision which allows distances to be judged
    and shapes to be perceived in depth.

In writing expanded definitions, relative clauses are very useful. Relative clauses allow a writer to avoid writing a series of very short sentences. They also allow the writer to show clearly which information she or he thinks is the most important and which is secondary. The information in the relative clause is always the secondary information. Look at these examples:

  1. Aluminium, which is light and resistant to corrosion, is used in the manufacture of aircraft.

  2. Aluminium, which is used in the manufacture of aircraft, is light and resistant to corrosion.

In the first example the use is the most important aspect for the writer, while in the second example the characteristics are most important.

Task 14

Use the notes, and other information if you wish, to write expanded definitions of each of the items in italics, using relative clause structures.

a) caffeine - substance - addictive - powerful effect on the heart - found in coffee

  1. substance - not animal or plant - naturally occurring - includes ores,
    petroleum, natural gas and coal - often obtained by mining - mineral

  2. spacecraft - vehicle - rocket engine - for travelling in space - capable of
    carrying astronauts - also known as spaceship - may carry missiles

Task 15

Complete the following short texts with the alternative that seems preferable to you.

a) Experimental psychology traditionally was interested in relationships between events.

As a matter of fact. . .

i) the forming of associations between one stimulus and another was defined by such psychologists as

ii) learning was defined by such psychologists as a matter of forming associations between one
stimulus and another.

b) People should use potassium bromide only under a doctor's direction because this form of bromide may cause skin rashes. It can also disturb the mind. . . .

i) Silver bromide is a form of bromide used in photography to make plates and film more sensitive to

ii) In photography, a form of bromide called silver bromide is used to make plates and film more
sensitive to light.

c) Brocade designs are woven by hand or machine into cloth to make fabrics for bedspreads, curtains, etc…

i) Cloth that has designs woven into it with heavy yarns is called brocade,

ii) Brocade is a cloth that has designs woven into it with heavy yarns.

d) Bubble gum (. . .) is a major cause of tooth decay among children.
i) bubble gum is a form of chewing gum

ii) a form of chewing gum


A Study the expanded definition of 'civilization' below. Then write your own expanded definition of one of the following:
literacy science mechanics

economics medical ethics agriculture

Civilization has received many definitions, but is often associated with cities. The words civic, civil, and civilized come from the Latin civis (citizen) and relate to obligations of people in a civitas (city-state). Civilization implies complex government. Usually a civilization also uses metals. Finally, a civilization develops arts of some matur­ity and creates some form of writing.

B Define, in at least three sentences, an abstract concept (e.g. 'beauty', 'honour', etc.) that has some influence on the way you live. Show your work to a partner and work together to judge how far your ideas have been communicated successfully. Make any changes necessary to enable your partner to fully understand your text.

C Quoted below you will find a passage from a well-known British novel, Lewis Carroll's ^ Through the Looking Glass, in which Humpty Dumpty gives his opinions on defining words.

1. Discuss Humpty Dumpty's ideas in groups of three or four. For example, can you use words in any way
you want? Are there some words which can be used in different ways? Do some groups of people
define particular words or groups of words in their own ways? If so, which words and in what ways?

". . . that shows that there are three hundred and sixty'four days when you might get un-birthday presents."

''Certainly/' said Alice.

"And only one for birthday presents, you know. There's glory for you!"

"I don't know what you mean by 'glory'," Alice said.

Humpty Dumpty smiled contemptuously. "Of course you don't—till I tell you. I meant 'there's a nice knock-down argument for you!'"

"But 'glory' doesn't mean 'a nice knock-down argu­ment'," Alice objected.

"When I use a word," Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, "it means just what I choose it to mean-neither more nor less."

"The question is," said Alice, "whether you can make words mean so many different things."

"The question is," said Humpty Dumpty, "which is to be master—that's all."

2. Write a text giving your own views on how words and their meaning(s) might be defined and organized.
What is meaning, anyway?

Looking back

Now that you have finished this unit you should understand how we use definitions in English, and should be able to recognize and produce them in sentences. You should also be familiar with ways of defining in texts.


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