The United States is the world's oldest surviving


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Structure of Government.

USA. The United States of America  is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.S. Constitution.  In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government, federal, state, and local; the local government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. The federal government is composed of three branches:

The west front of the United States Supreme Court Building

The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing a congressional districtfor a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. As of the 2000 census, seven states have the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, has fifty-three. The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The president serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice. The president is not elected by direct vote, but by an indirect electoral collegesystem in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia. The Supreme Court, led by the Chief Justice of the United States, has nine members, who serve for life.

Today, the presidential nominee is effectively determined by the voters relatively early in the nominee process. That nominee, indicates his choice for a vice presidential candidate before the convention meets.The winning candidate controls the drafting of a party platform. Convention viewership has declined in recent years as have the number of hours that the major broadcast network air the proceeding during prime viewing hours. The convention still receive attention on news shows and in newspapers. The major reforms that the Democrats instituted have encouraged most of the states, which make the election laws for their residents, to hold primary elections. As currently constituted, a primary is an election among supporters of the same party to choose that partys nominees to run in the general elections. Voters may cast ballots for a partys presidential candidates themselves, or indirectly for conventions delegates who are “pledged for those candidate”.

The Electoral College consists of the electors appointed by each state who formally elect the President and Vice President of the United States. The voters of each state, and the District of Columbia, vote for electors to be the authorized constitutional participants in a presidential election. Electors are free to vote for anyone eligible to be President, but in practice pledge to vote for specific candidates and voters cast ballots for favored presidential and vice presidential candidates. The constitutional theory behind the indirect election of both the President and Vice President of the United States is that while the Congress is popularly elected by the people,[30] the President and Vice President are elected to be executives of a federation of independent states.

In the Federalist No. 39James Madison argued that the Constitution was designed to be a mixture of state-based and population-based government. The Congress would have two houses: the state-based Senate and the population-based House of Representatives. Meanwhile, the President would be elected by a mixture of the two modes.[31]

Additionally, in the Federalist No. 10, James Madison argued against "an interested and overbearing majority" and the "mischiefs of faction" in an electoral system. He defined a faction as "a number of citizens whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community." Republican government (i.e., federalism, as opposed to direct democracy), with its varied distribution of voter rights and powers, would countervail against factions. Madison further postulated in the Federalist No. 10 that the greater the population and expanse of the Republic, the more difficulty factions would face in organizing due to such issues as sectionalism.[32]

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and theHouse of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.

Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election. Each of the 435 members of the House of Representatives represents a district and serves a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population. Each state, regardless of population, has two senators; since there are fifty states, there are one hundred senators who serve six-year terms. The terms are staggered, so every two years, approximately one-third of the Senate is up for election. Most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90%. Congress has authority over financial and budgetary policy through the enumerated power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States. Congress has an important role in national defense, including the exclusive power to declare war, to raise and maintain the armed forces, and to make rules for the military. Congress can establish post offices and post roads, issue patents and copyrights, fix standards of weights and measures, establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court, and "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers. The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The Senate has several exclusive powers not granted to the House, including consenting to treaties as a precondition to their ratificationand consenting or confirming appointments of Cabinet secretaries, federal judges, other federal executive officials, military officers, regulatory officials, ambassadors, and other federal uniformed officers,[2][3] as well as trial of federal officials impeached by the House. The inauguration for the first U.S. president, George Washington, was held on April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City.

Today, there are two major political parties in the United States, the Democratic and the Republican. The Democratic Party evolved from the party of Thomas Jefferson, formed before 1800. The Republican Party was established in the 1850s by Abraham Lincoln and others who opposed the expansion of slavery. The Democratic Party is considered to be the more liberal party, and the Republican, the more conservative. Democrats generally
believe that government has an obligation to provide social and
economic programs for those who need them. Republicans are not necessarily opposed to such programs but believe they are too costly to taxpayers. Republicans put more emphasis on encouraging private enterprise in the belief that a strong private sector makes citizens less dependent on government.

Election day. Election Day in the United States is the day set by law for the general elections of public officials. It occurs on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. For federal offices (President, Vice President, and United States Congress), Election Day occurs only in even-numbered years. Presidential elections are held every four years, in years evenly divisible by four, in which electors for President and Vice President are chosen according to the method determined by each state. Elections to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate are held every two years; all Representatives serve two-year terms and are up for election every two years, while Senators serve six-year terms, staggered so that one-third of Senators are elected in any given general election. General elections in which presidential candidates are not on the ballot are referred to as midterm elections. Terms for those elected begin in January the following year; the President and Vice President are inaugurated ("sworn in") on Inauguration Day, usually January 20.

GB.  The Queen is officially head of all the branches of government, but she has little direct power in the country. The constitution has three branches: Parliament, which makes lows, the government, which "executes" laws (puts them into effect) and the courts, which interpret laws. Parliament has two parts: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Members of the House of Commons are elected by the voters of 650 constituencies. They are known as Members of Parliament. The Prime Minister is advised by a Cabinet of about twenty other ministers. 
   The Prime Minister, or leader of the Government, is usually the leader of the political party. The Cabinet includes the ministers in charge of major government departments or ministries. 
   Departments and ministries are run by civil servants, who are permanent officials. Even if the Government changes after an election, the same civil servants are employed. Members of the House of Lords are not elected. About 70 per cent of them are "hereditary peers" because their fathers were peers before them. The 30 per cent are officially appointed by the Queen, on the advice of the Government, for various services for people. 

General elections. When Parliament is dissolved every seat in the House of Commons becomes vacant and a general election is held. Each constituency (избирательный округ) in the UK elects one MP (Member of Parliament) to a seat in the House of Commons. The political party that wins a majority of seats in the House of Commons usually forms the Government.

Traditionally the dates of general elections are not fixed in advance, and the time is chosen by the governing party to maximise political advantage. The 2010 election was held on May 6, 2010.[61]

Candidates aim to win particular geographic constituencies in the United Kingdom. Each constituency elects one MP by the first past the post system of election. At the 2005 general election, there were 646 constituencies, thus 646 MPs were elected to Parliament. Boundary changes in Scotland reduced the number of MPs from 659 at the 2001 election to 646. The party with the most seats, i.e. the most MPs, usually forms the government, and the second largest party forms Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition. Almost all successful candidates are members of a political party, with only one independent elected in the 2010 election and only four independent candidates in the entire country gaining more than a hundred votes. Canvassing is the systematic initiation of direct contact with a target group of individuals commonly used during political campaigns.

Nomination is part of the process of selecting a candidate for either election to an office, or the bestowing of an honor or award.

In the context of elections for public office, a candidate who has been selected by a political party is normally said to be the nominee of that party. The party's selection (that is, the nomination) is typically accomplished either based on one or more primary elections or by means of a political party convention or caucus, according to the rules of the party and any applicable election laws.

The main parties in the UK are the conservative party (right wings), the labour party (left wings). And the liberal Democrats. The Conservative party believes in free enterprise and the importance of a capitalist economy, with private ownership preferred to state control. The Labour party believes that private ownership and enterprises should be allowed to flourish, but not at the expense of their traditional support of the public services.There has been Liberal party in GB since 1868 when the name was adopted by the Whig party. The whig party was created after the revolution of 1688 and aimed to subordinate the power of the Crown to that of Parliament and the upper classes.The Liberal party believe that the state should have some control over the economy, but that there should be individual ownership.

The Parliament of the United Kingdom) is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, located in London. The parliament is bicameral, with an upper house, the House of Lords, and a lower house, the House of Commons.[2] The Queen is the third component of the legislature.[3][4] The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual(the senior bishops of the Church of England) and the Lords Temporal (members of the Peerage) whose members are not elected by the population at large, but are appointed by the Sovereign on advice of the Prime Minister. Under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011Parliament is dissolved automatically 17 days ahead of a general election. Elections ordinarily take place five years after the previous general election, but may be held sooner if the Prime Minister loses a vote of confidence, or if two-thirds of the members of the House of Commons vote in favour of an early election.

General elections always take place on Thursday . polling stations are open from seven in the morning till ten at night to give everybody the opportunity to vote. Each voter has to vote at particular polling station. After being ticked off on the electoral register , the voter is given a ballot paper. Elections in the UK are always very fairly conducted. After polls close, the marked ballot papers are taken to a central place in the constituency and counted.

Russia. The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) take place in a framework of a federal semi-presidential republic. According to theConstitution of Russia, the President of Russia is head of state, and of a multi-party system with executive power exercised by the government, headed by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President with the parliament's approval. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, while the President and the government issue numerous legally binding by-laws.The Government of the Russian Federation (RussianПрави́тельство Росси́йской Федера́ции) exercises executive power in theRussian Federation. The members of the government are the prime minister (Chairman of the Government), the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law . The prime minister is appointed by the president of the Russian Federation and confirmed by the State Duma

The government is the subject of the 6th chapter of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. According to the constitution, the government of the Russian Federation must:

  1. draft and submit the federal budget to the State Duma; ensure the implementation of the budget and report on its implementation to the State Duma;

  2. ensure the implementation of a uniform financial, credit and monetary policy in the Russian Federation ;

  3. ensure the implementation of a uniform state policy in the areas of culture, science, education, health protection, social security and ecology;

  4. manage federal property;

  5. adopt measures to ensure the country's defence, state security, and the implementation of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation;

  6. implement measures to ensure the rule of law, human rights and freedoms, the protection of property and public order, and crime control;

  7. exercise any other powers vested in it by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and presidential decrees.[2]

The Federal Assembly of Russia (Russian: Федеральное Собрание, transliteration: Federalnoye Sobraniye or Federalnoje Sobranije) is the legislature of the Russian Federation (Russian: Федеральное Собрание, transliteration: Federalnoye Sobraniye or Federalnoje Sobranije) is the legislature of the Russian Federation. As the upper house of the Federal Assembly, the Federation Council is viewed as a more formal chamber than the lower house State Duma. The Council is charged in cooperating with the State Duma in completing and voting on draft laws. Special powers that accorded only to the Federation Council are:

  • Approval of changes in borders between subjects of the Russian Federation;

  • Approval of a decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of martial law;

  • Approval of a decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of a state of emergency;

  • Deciding on the possibility of using the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation outside the territory of the Russian Federation;

  • Declaring of elections of the President of the Russian Federation;

  • Impeachment of the President of the Russian Federation;

  • approving the president's nomination of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, of the Highest Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation;

  • approving the president's nomination of the Attorney General of the Russian Federation;

  • Appointment of Deputy Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounting Chamber.

For laws to pass the Federation Council, a vote of more than half of its 166 senators is required. When considering federal constitutional laws, three-fourths of the Council’s votes are required for passage. If the Council vetoes a law passed by the State Duma, the two chambers are mandated to form a Conciliation Committee in order to form a compromise document, which would again go under vote by both houses. The Federation Council's veto can be overcome by two-thirds majority in the Duma.

Nomination is part of the process of selecting a candidate for either election to an office, or the bestowing of an honor or award.

In the context of elections for public office, a candidate who has been selected by a political party is normally said to be the nominee of that party. The party's selection (that is, the nomination) is typically accomplished either based on one or more primary elections or by means of a political party convention or caucus, according to the rules of the party and any applicable election laws.

Main political parties.
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