Учебное пособие по юридическому английскому: лексический аспект


НазваниеУчебное пособие по юридическому английскому: лексический аспект
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part / partial performance частичное исполнение договора

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pecuniary compensation денежная компенсация / возмещение

убытков

penalty неустойка / штраф

perform a condition выполнить условия

perform a contract выполнять договор

performance исполнение договора

privity of contract частный характер договорной связи

promisee кредитор по договору

promisor должник по договору

punitive = exemplary damages штрафные убытки / штрафная

компенсация

rejection of the offer отказ от предложения

reliance damages компенсация расходов, понесенных в

надежде на исполнение договора

remedy = relief средство судебной защиты

repudiate the contract расторгнуть договор

restitution реституция, возмещение убытков

set the contract aside приостанавливать действие договора

severability clause самостоятельность положений

договора (оговорка о

действительности договора в случае

недействительности отдельных

частей (несущественных условий))

sign a contract подписать договор

special damages возмещение убытков, определяемых

особыми обстоятельствами дела

specific performance исполнение в натуре / реальное

исполнение

subject matter предмет договора

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subject matter предмет договора

substantial performance исполнение всех существенных

условий договора

successors наследники / правопреемники

sue for damages подавать иск о возмещении убытков

/ ущерба

survival clause пункт договора о сохранение

юридической силы договора

terminate the contract расторгнуть договор

time of the essence clause пункт договора о том, что время

исполнения является существенным

условием договора

unenforceable contract не имеющий исковой силы договор

the United Nations Convention on

Contracts for the International Sale of

Contract (Vienna Convention of 1980)

Конвенция ООН о договорах

международной купли-продажи

товаров (Венская конвенция 1980 г.)

unqualified agreement безоговорочное принятие / акцепт

vest rights in a person наделять правами

violate a contract нарушать договор

void contract ничтожный договор

voidable contract оспоримый договор

warranty простое условие

1. Match the definitions on the left with the words on the right.

1. implied terms a. monetary compensation for loss

awarded by a court

2. remedy

b. the act of transferring a right / rights

to another party

3. breach of a contract c. deny the existence of the contract

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and refuse to perform the duty or

obligation under the contract

4. specific performance d. a contract which contradicts public

policy at common law

5. damages

e. any breach of this term gives a nonbreaching

party the right to terminate

the contract

6. non-breaching party

f. a party which suffers some damage

in the result of a breach

7. breaching party

g. a party which fails to perform some

obligations under the contract

8. warranties

h. a relief which is intended to

compensate the injured party for any

damage they sustained

9. repudiate the contract

i. a court order which requires a

person to perform a specified

obligation under the contract

10. assignment j. terms of a contract that, in case of a

breach, do not allow to terminate the

contract but sue for damages

11. express terms

k. terms which are not set out directly

in the contract and result from custom,

statute and common law

12. unenforceable contract l. terms which are stipulated directly

in the contract

13. acceptance

m. a contract which is capable of

being set aside

14. void contract

n. a failure to perform contractual

obligations

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15. voidable contract

o. an act to agree to the terms of a

contract and form an enforceable

contract

16. essential terms p. release parties from contractual

obligations

17. terminate a contract

q. a valid contract which cannot be

enforceable by court

^ 2. Rearrange the jumbled letters in bold in the sentences below.

A.

1. Oral contract may be flercnbeaoe in some circumstances.

2. The contract is danlivi because the company has been taken over.

3. The service contract is still being ddtaefr but we hope to gnis it next Monday.

4. Your son had no alegl pycaiatc to enter into contract so the contract is ivdo.

5. You can’t turn to nsgaienmst without their prior written consent.

6. There is a eacbrh of contract when a party to a contract fails to carry out its

giltiaonbos under the contract.

7. The type of feirel depends on the type of breach and the applicable law.

8. Is a iondoncit an tseeansil term of a contract?

9. What’s a tubsecj atrtme of the contract?

10. The contract has two paeniepcds.

B.

1. The court dadewra eaeinclr damages to the claimant.

2. My solicitor advised me to seek socnqluetenia damages in court.

3. The parties to the contract must give their prior consent for nnoiatvo.

4. Consequential damages are awarded considering the principle of yoereiseatbfil.

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5. ituiqlddae gdaemsa are set out in the contract when the amount of loss caused

by the breach will be difficult to calculate.

6. If there is a vcefideet performance, the cnnneiot party can deapeurit the

contract.

7. You cannot taereitnm the contract if the ynarwatr is breached.

8. To underline that the time of performance is a condition, the time of the secesen

clause must be stipulated in the contract.

9. The rslivuav clause sets out that the parties to the contract wish to continue

duties and obligations after the termination of the contract.

10. Contract disputes involve nttrpnireeoati and implied terms.

^ 3. Complete sentences with the first part of an expression taken from the first

box, and the second part taken from the second box.

voidable … enter into … special… defective …

delegate … draw up … substantial … set the contract …

specific … partial ... legal … essential … innocent …

… (a) contract (x3) … performance (x4) …terms … duties

… grounds … aside … damages … party

1. Our advisor informed us that we have no ______________________ to

terminate the contract.

2. Under the contract a party cannot _______________________ to the third party

without prior written consent of the other party.

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3. _________________ is a contract with some defect in its formation. If so, either

party can use the defect to __________________________ .

4. If all the terms of the contract are entirely carried out, we can talk about

_________________________ .

5. If their company accepts ________________, they can claim for remuneration.

6. It is a solicitor who ______________________ and other official documents.

7. In case of _________________ we can terminate the contract and sue for

_____________________ .

8. Mentally disabled people cannot ____________________ .

9. We are going to try to get a court to award __________________ to make them

perform what we have agreed upon.

10. Breach of _________________ can result in rescinding the contract. If so,

_______________ can sue for damages.

^ 4. Choose the best variant in bold to complete definitions.

A.

1. Breach of warranty does not give legal capacity / legal grounds to terminate

the contract.

2. A contract is void / voidable even if one of the parties has no legal capacity to

consent to a contract.

3. Specific performance / Substantial performance presupposes an entire

performance of all terms.

4. A non-breaching party can be awarded / can be sued for damages.

5. Unqualified agreement / Qualified acceptance means that an offeree accepts

subject matter but without any variations.

6. Express terms / Implied terms are set out by custom, statute or by common

law.

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7. A breach of a condition / a warranty does not allow an innocent party to

repudiate a contract.

8. A contract by deed / A simple contract does not require consideration.

9. Under assignment clause contractual rights are referred to the third party which

is known as an assignee / an assignor with prior written consent.

10. The party can use the defect in the contract to set it aside / carry it out.

B.

1. Reliance damages / Liquidated Damages are a fixed amount of damages in

case of a breach stated in the contract.

2. Survival clause / Severability sets out that even if some provisions of a

contract are invalid or unenforceable, the rest of the agreement can continue to

have effect.

3. Incidental beneficiary / Intended beneficiary gets a benefit although not

specifically named in the contract.

4. The rights cannot be assigned / delegated without a prior written consent of all

parties to the contract.

5. The injured party must mitigate damages / recover damages - make all

reasonable efforts to lessen the losses.

6. Under the contract a wide range of duties is conferred / is imposed.

7. Pecuniary compensation / Non-monetary relief includes injunction and

mandatory orders.

8. Under assignment / novation one of the initial parties to the contract

disappears.

9. While awarding special damages / general damages the court applies the rule

of foreseeability.

10. Penalty provision / The provision on stipulated damages is set out in the

contract to compensate for losses resulting from a breach.

^ 5. Correct the words in bold.

39

1. A breached party can seek remedy in court.

2. Defecting performance may involve breaching Terms of Payment.

3. Integrated clause means that there are no conditions, warranties and terms

between the parties other than those set out in the contract.

4. The function of examplary damages is twofold: punishing and preventive.

5. Expecting damages are also called ‘benefit of the bargain’ damages.

6. A contract by deed is binding on contracted parties.

7. Capability to contract means the legal competence of a person to enter into

contractual relations.

8. Non-monetary relieve is awarded by a court ordering a party to do something or

refrain from doing something.

9. The doctrine of foreseeing is used to limit the award of special damages to those

which are the predictable consequences of a breach of contract.

10. An expressive contract is a contract which terms are explicitly set out.

^ 6. Read the sentences replacing expressions in bold with their synonyms.

1. Liquidated damages are contractual provisions which state a fixed amount

necessary to compensate a non-breaching party in case of a breach.

2. The purpose of a merger clause is designed to ensure that prior or oral

warranties, terms or conditions between the parties to the contract cannot vary

the written provisions of the contract because all such agreements have been

stipulated in the contract.

3. A breach of a condition can lead to terminating a contract.

4. Conditional acceptance results in counter offer.

5. In some cases court may grant specific performance for partial performance of

a contract.

6. Breaching Party means a party that fails to carry out obligations under the

contract.

40

7. A non-breaching party can seek an appropriate remedy in court against a

defaulting party.

8. General damages are immediate and direct result of the breach of contract.

9. Expectation damages are awarded to a non-breaching party only in case if

those damages can be calculated with reasonable certainty.

^ 7. Replace expressions in bold with appropriate variants.

1. – Our attorney says that if our contract has been performed only in some

parts we can’t end it.

- Oh, what a shame! I thought under the law you have all reasons to deny it.

2. – How old is your son?

- 14.

- Do you know that a minor has no legal rights to conclude a contract by

himself? Otherwise, the contract has no legal force.

3. – Have you negotiated all points yet?

- Yes, we have. But they said that they want to change some of them.

4. – Any of the parties which conclude a contract can sue for damages in case of

a breach.

- I hear that you can even fix these damages in the contract before any breach.

5. – I’ve missed the lecture on Introduction to Contract Law. Could you go through

it with me.

- No problem. It was just clarifying the basic element of every contract/ They are

offer, acceptance, intention and the last one, ^ I don’t remember exactly, but it is

something of value given by both parties in exchange … for some promise, for

example.

- Ok. Got that.

- The professor went on to talk about terms of a contract. There are express terms

which are set out directly in the contract, and the terms which are presupposed

by custom, statute and common law.

6. – Have you consulted at a law clinic. What did they say?

41

- Good news. They say that you cannot be forced to perform the contract

because of lapse of time.

7. – I’m going to sue for damages.

- Why? What’s happened? Haven’t they carried out the contract?

- They have. But their performance does not fully satisfy all requirements of the

contract.

8. Complete the table with the appropriate parts of speech. Translate them.

A.

verb noun noun (person) adjective

acceptance

perform

offer

contractor

binding

consider ---------

force / enforcement

terminated

breach --------

^ B.

verb noun noun (person) adjective

promise

obligee

--------- intended

assign

restitution

foresee

relief

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delegated

confide

severability ----------

punish ----------

rely ----------

9. A. Complete the table using the words and expressions which collocate with

the nouns contract, party, performance and terms. Translate the collocations.

1   2   3   4   5   6

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