The Judicial System of the usa


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  1. The Judicial System of the USA.


Let me tell you a few words about the judicial system of the USA. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the US and it meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and eight Associate Justices. They are all appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress or any order issued by the President. This right of veto is widely used to block the passage of any progressive bills.

The USA is divided into eleven judicial circuits and each one is served with a Federal Court of Appeals. As a rule the Court of Appeals sits with three judges on the bench. There are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts. The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used, and witnesses are called. There are about two hundred district judges in the USA. Cases tried in the district court may be appealed in one of the eleven Courts of Appeal and in the Supreme Court. The decision of the Supreme Court is final. In the US the judiciary is divided into the federal and state judiciary. Jurisdiction of particular courts or judges is determined by either the national or state constitutions and laws. The state courts are organized in a system that looks like the system of Federal courts with a Supreme Court at the top. In most of the states the lowest courts are the magistrates, or police courts.
^ New words:
Chief Justice — главный судья

to approve— одобрять

circuit— округ

bench — (зд.) состав суда

judiciary— судоустройство

existing — существующий

to pass a law — принять закон

to issue— издавать (о приказе)

2. How Much Power does the US President Have?

2. How Much Power does the US President Have?

Most people are totally unaware of exactly how much power the president of the USA has. I'll attempt to break it into its effective pieces.

• Within the executive branch, the POTUS (our acronym for "President of the United States") is effectively dictator (albeit a benevolent one). As long as he operates within the confines of the law, he can direct any executive agency to do anything he desires. Typically presidents are aware of their limited tenure and the Congress's ability to remove him (as yet, only "him", but one day a "her"), so they don't abuse the power overly. But it's there for them to use.

• Building on the previous point, The President is "Commander in Chief" of military and can direct it as he sees fit. Congress can de-fund his project, but as Teddy Roosevelt discovered, Congress is loath to leave our soldiers and sailors stranded halfway around the world. Because he is commander in chief of the military, he is effectively the absolute authority on military policy, including all the massive number of bases and members around the world.

• He is the head of state (meaning he is the figurehead of the nation of people called "the United States of America") and he is the head of government (meaning he is the political head of the apparatus of government of the United States of America). In many countries these positions are split into their two parts, but in the USA they are joined, giving the president a significantly higher level of authority than that seen in other world leaders.

• The president appoints numerous powerful positions like the cabinet secretaries (like State & Defense), ambassadors and directors of semi-autonomous agencies (like the CIA, NSA and FBI). He also appoints the chairman of the Federal Reserve bank (who can be dismissed by the president and who, effectively holds the most powerful economic position in the country). Lastly, he appoints judges to the various courts and justices to the Supreme Court, the ramifications of which are not to be underestimated since the Supreme Court holds the power to decide and interpret all laws within the USA. All of these appointments must be confirmed by the Senate, but despite what you've heard, the president enjoys great latitude in choosing who he likes and his pick is typically approved (except in inferior court judges, which are held up for eons due to our broken political system).

• The president is the de facto leader of the free world. As much as other countries hate this fact, inevitably they turn to the US for permission and guidance when engaging in any number of activities. Take a look at Libya for example. The French and British attempted to coordinate and bomb Libya RIGHT IN THEIR OWN BACK YARDS, but couldn't accomplish this without American support and aid. Right down to something tiny like using the coordinating infrastructure they had in place-- they soon discovered that it was so antiquated and so incapable of projecting their power a scant 1,000 miles from home that they had to turn to the US Sixth Fleet in Italy to help coordinate the effort and inevitably turn to American sea and land power to make the mission a success. All this happened at the President's direction and at his discretion.

• The president has the ability to veto any bill that the Congress sends to him. Unless they have 2/3 votes within both houses (which, let's face it, they rarely do), it is effectively dead.

• The president is also the "spy in chief" in that he receives the largest array of intelligence available to any leader on earth. He is the head of 16 major spy agencies, all of whom distill and send their intelligence to him on a daily basis. How big is the us intelligence community? Enormous. The US intelligence community receives more funding than any other MILITARY on earth. That is:The USA spends more on just its intelligence gathering than any other nation does (save, possibly for China) on their entire military aparatus. The numbers were recently published in 2010:

--$80 billion pear year goes to the US Intelligence gathering systems (+/- $700 billion on defense, excluding intel.).

--China (No. 2) spent $114 billion on its entire military, (though that number may be as low as $80 billion, since the Chinese are known to inflate military figures)

--France (No. 3) spent $61 billion on defense

--The UK (No. 4) spent $57 billion on defense

--Russia (No. 4) spent $53 billion on defense (though Russian purchasing power parity would likely make that $53 billion closer to $75 billion)

Keep in mind that most countries spend a scant $1-4 billion per year on intelligence gathering. Numbers are typically kept under-cover, but the British (who are the world's best spies, wrote the book on spying and more than likely outspend anybody but the US-- and they are the US's closest allies) recently published their intelligence spending numbers from 2010 at £2.1 billion ($3.3 billion). That means that the US spent 24 times than the British did on intelligence. My guess is that Canada and Australia spend about half that. Together, with New Zealand, they form the UK/USA pact (an intelligence sharing and gathering alliance), which puts their combined efforts upwards of $90 billion per year.

• The president is the "court of last appeal" for crimes against the USA. He can even override (so to speak) a conviction upheld by the US Supreme Court and pardon, commute or reduce a sentence of which the person has duly been convicted. We saw this, in fact, when Ford pre-emptively pardoned Nixon to close down the Watergate fiasco.

And these are just the few powers the President has that I can think of. Without a doubt, there are much much more

Перевод

Большинство людей совершенно не знают точно, сколько власти президент США имеет. Я буду пытаться разбить его на части ее эффективной.

• В рамках исполнительной ветви власти, POTUS (наша аббревиатура от "Президент Соединенных Штатов") эффективно диктатора (хотя и доброжелательного один). Пока он действует в рамках закона, он может направить любой орган исполнительной власти делать все, что пожелает.Обычно президенты осознают свои ограниченные способности владения и Конгресса, чтобы удалить его (пока только «его», но в один прекрасный день "ее"), поэтому они не злоупотребляют властью чрезмерно. Но это там для них использовать.

• Опираясь на предыдущий пункт, президент "Главнокомандующий" военной и может направить его, как он считает нужным. Конгресс может де-финансировать его проект, но, как Тедди Рузвельт обнаружил, Конгресс не желает, чтобы оставить наши солдаты и матросы мель на полпути во всем мире. Потому что он является главнокомандующим вооруженными силами, он фактически является абсолютной власти по вопросам военной политики, включая все огромное количество баз и членов по всему миру.

• Он является главой государства (то есть он является номинальным нации людей называют "Соединенные Штаты Америки"), и он является главой правительства (то есть он является политическим главой аппарата правительства Соединенных Штатов Америке). Во многих странах эти должности разделены на две части их, но в США они присоединились, дав президенту значительно более высокий уровень власти, чем видели в других мировых лидеров.

• Президент назначает многочисленные мощные позиции, как шкаф секретарей (например, государственный и обороны), послы и руководители полу-автономные учреждения (например, ЦРУ, АНБ и ФБР). Он также назначает председателя Федерального резервного банка (которые могут быть уволены президентом и который, фактически имеет место самого мощного экономического положения в стране). Наконец, он назначает судей в различные суды и судей в Верховном суде, последствия которых нельзя недооценивать, поскольку Верховный суд имеет право решать и интерпретировать все законы в США. Все эти назначения должны быть подтверждены сенатом, но, несмотря на то, что вы слышали, президент пользуется большой свободой в выборе, который он любит, и его выбор, как правило, утвержденные (за исключением уступает судей суда, которые проводятся за счет эоны наши разбитые политической системы).

• Президент является де-факто лидером свободного мира. Столько, сколько других стран ненавидит этот факт, неизбежно они превращаются в США для разрешения и указания при участии в любом количестве мероприятий.Посмотрите на Ливию, например. Французские и британские пытались координировать и бомбить Ливию правыми, со своей ярдов назад, но не могли сделать это без американской поддержки и помощи. Вплоть до что-то крошечное, как с помощью координации инфраструктуры они были на месте - они скоро обнаружили, что это было настолько устаревшими и поэтому неспособна проектирование свою власть скудную 1000 миль от дома, что они должны были обратиться к Шестому флоту США в Италии помощь в координации усилий и неизбежно обращаются к американским морских и сухопутных силах, чтобы миссия успехом. Все это произошло по указанию президента и по своему усмотрению.

• Президент имеет возможность наложить вето на любой законопроект, который Конгресс посылает к нему. Если у них есть 2/3 голосов в обеих палатах (которые, будем откровенны, они редко делают), то практически нет.

• Президент является также "шпионские главный" в том, что он получает крупнейший массив интеллекта доступны для любого лидера на земле. Он является главой 16 крупнейших агентств шпионов, все из которых перегонять и отправить их интеллект с ним на ежедневной основе.Насколько велик нас разведывательного сообщества? Огромную.Разведывательное сообщество США получает больше финансирования, чем любых других военных на земле. То есть: США тратит больше денег на только сбор разведывательных ее, чем любая другая нация не имеет (за исключением, возможно, для Китая) на всей военной аппаратуры.Номера были недавно опубликованы в 2010 году

- $ 80 млрд груши год идет в США Intelligence систем сбора (+ / - 700 миллиардов долларов на оборону, за исключением Intel.).

- Китай (№ 2) потратили $ 114 млрд на весь военных (хотя это число может быть как $ 80 млрд, так как китайская, как известно, раздувать военные деятели)

- Франция (№ 3) потратил $ 61 млрд на оборону

- Великобритания (№ 4) провел 57 миллиардов долларов на оборону

- Россия (№ 4) потратили $ 53 млрд на оборону (хотя русский паритету покупательной способности, скорее всего, сделать это $ 53 млрд. ближе к $ 75 млрд)

Имейте в виду, что большинство стран проводят скудные $ 1-4 млрд. в год на сбор разведывательной информации. Номера, как правило, хранятся под покрова, но британцы (которые являются лучшими шпионами в мире, написал книгу о шпионаже и, скорее всего, перерасходовать никого, кроме нас, - и они являются американские ближайших союзников) недавно опубликовали их количество интеллекта расходов из 2010 в £ 2,1 млрд ($ 3,3 млрд). Это означает, что США потратили 24 раз, чем британские сделали на интеллект. Я думаю, что Канада и Австралия потратит около половины.Вместе с Новой Зеландией, они образуют Великобритания / США договора (обмен разведывательной информацией и сбора альянса), что ставит их совместным усилиям свыше 90 миллиардов долларов в год.

• Президент является "судом последней инстанции" за преступления против США. Он может даже изменить (если можно так выразиться) убеждений оставлено в силе Верховным судом США и помилования, коммутируют или уменьшить предложение которого лицо надлежащим образом было осуждено. Мы видели это, на самом деле, когда Форд упреждающие помиловал Никсона закрыть Watergate фиаско.

И это только несколько полномочий Президента есть, что я могу думать. Без сомнения, есть многое, многое другое.



3. The English System of Law.

There are three separate systems of law in the United Kingdom: the legal systems and law courts of 1. England and Wales; 2. Scotland; 3. Northern Ireland. However, there are some common features to all systems in the United Kingdom: the sources of law, the distinction between civil law and criminal law. The sources of law include: 1. written law (i. e. statutes); 2. unwritten law (i. e. Common law and Equity) based on judicial precedent. The common law is also called as "case law" or "judge-made" law. It means that when one judge had decided a point of law, any judge who has the similar set of facts must decide the case in the same way as in the earlier judgment.

The structure of courts in England and Wales looks like this.

^ HOUSE OF LORDS

COURT OF APPEAL COURT OF APPEAL

CRIMINAL DIVISION CIVIL DIVISION

CROWN COURTS HIGH COURT

Judge 1—3 judges

2 Magistrates COUNTY COURT

Jury Judge and Jury

MAGISTRATES' COURT MAGISTRATES' COURT

3 Magistrates 3 Magistrates 1 Stipendiary Magistrate

It is the Magistrates' Courts (sometimes called police courts) that try the majority of all criminal cases and some civil cases. Magistrates' courts are presided over by lay magistrates (also called justices of the peace — J.P.s) who work part-time and are unpaid. The courts consist of between 2 and 7 magistrates. In a few large cities there are also stipendiary magistrates who sit alone and have legal training. County courts are the main civil courts and the Crown Court deals with all the more serious criminal cases. It also hears appeals from magistrates' courts. The accused has the right to trial by jury. There is the Central Criminal Court in London (the Old Bailey). The High Court hears all those civil cases that cannot be decided by county courts. The Court of Appeal hears both criminal and civil appeals and the House of Lords is the final appellate tribunal. The judges in the House of Lords are the ten "Lords of Appeal in Ordinary" (the "law lords").

^ New words:

to do everything possible — сделать все возможное

judicial— судебный

civil law — гражданское право

criminal law — уголовное право

common law — общее право

judgement — судебное решение

lay — непрофессионал

justice of the peace — мировой судья

county — графство

crown — королевский

accused [ə'kju:zd] — обвиняемый

trial [traiəl] — судебное разбирательство

jury— присяжные

to try — разбирать в судебном порядке


4. The Problem of Violence.
I'm going to tell you about the problem which faces our society now. I mean the problem of violence. The latest statistical data says that violent crime is rising constantly in the USA. Even staying at home isn't a guarantee for safety. Violence has become an accepted way of life in America. There are different explanations for this phenomenon. One of them is the possibility to buy any kind of weapons at gun shops everywhere in the US. The weapon is being bought not only by criminals but by law-abiding citizens too to protect themselves.

The growth of using drugs is one more reason. To buy drugs teenagers need money, so they try to get it by robbing, committing burglary or even murdering people. Another reason is the propaganda of violence by mass media and especially television and films. Watching TV you are being fed with all kinds of killings, beatings, gunfights and so on. Even the special programs for children are full of scenes of violence. And it's not surprising that juvenile crime record is constantly growing.

^ New words:

to face — сталкиваться (с проблемой)

to violate ['vai leit] — нарушать

violence — насилие

violent — насильственный

to rob — грабить

neighbour— сосед

to kill — убивать

to murder— убивать

murderer— убийца

possibility — возможность

criminal — преступник

burglary— кража со взломом

to watch TV — смотреть телевизор

juvenile— несовершеннолетний

reason — причина

5. The Judicial Profession in England.

There are two classes of lawyers — Barristers and Solicitors. Solicitors are lawyers who take legal business for ordinary people. Their business is to give advice to non-professional clients and to prepare all the necessary documents for the barrister. It's the barrister who conducts the case in the higher courts.

A barrister must pass the special legal exams and become a member of a legal corporation called "Inn of Court". Barristers are either "juniors" or "King's (Queen's)". Practising barristers are divided into Queen’s Counsel (Q.C.s) and junior barristers. A barrister who wishes to become a Q.C. must have had long experience and must be recommended by the Lord Chancellor. When a barrister becomes Q.C. he "takes silk". It means that he can wear a silk gown. Participating in a trial, a barrister may be counsel for the plaintiff (counsel for the prosecution) or counsel for the defendant (counsel for the defence)".

All serious crimes are tried in a superior court before a jury. Most men and women between the ages of 21 and 60 can be jurors. According to English law the jury is to return only one of two verdicts — Guilty or Not Guilty. The judges are appointed from the barristers. The judge's functions are to conduct the proceedings, put questions to the parties and witnesses, examine the documents and evidence and to pass the sentence (judgement)".

^ New words:

solicitor [sa'hsita] — поверенный

to give advice — давать совет

to pass an exam — сдать экзамен

junior [djuinja] — младший

councel ['kauns(a)l] — советник

plaintiff ['pleintifj — истец

defendant — ответчик

age — возраст

juror ['djuars] — присяжный

guilty ['gilti] — виновный

to appoint — назначать

to examine — (зд.) изучать

to add — добавлять

guest — гость

probably — вероятно

6. The Problem of Human Rights.

The evolution at the national and international level has resulted in a modern concept of human rights. Human rights must today be understood as those rights which are contained in the international instruments: the Universal Declaration and the International Covenants, as well as the regional human rights conventions.

The notion of human rights is intimately linked to the notion of "State". Only in the context of an organised society with organs of authority does the notion of human rights make sense. The concept refers to the relationship between the individual and the State: the freedoms the individuals should enjoy, their right to legal justice, their rights to political participation, and their claims on the State in terms of satisfaction of basic needs and an adequate standard of living.

There are several ways of classifying the different human rights. These are the most important components:

a. The right to physical and mental integrity: the right to life and to liberty and security of person -including freedom from torture and cruel or inhuman treatment, freedom from slavery, servitude and forced labour; freedom from arbitrary arrest and other deprivations of liberty.

b. Freedom of conscience and action: freedom of religion, of opinion and expression, and freedom of information; freedom of assembly and freedom to form and join trade unions; freedom of movement, including the right to leave and to return to one's own country,

с. The right to legal justice: fair trial in criminal cases, the right to defense counsel, prohibition of the use of criminal laws retrospectively.

d. Privacy and family rights: the right to respect for one's privacy, respect and protection of the family.

e. Political rights: the right to take part in the conduct of public affairs, the right to vote and to be elected.

f. Social and economic rights: the right to work, to adequate living and social security, the right to health services.

g. Equality and non-discrimination.

New words:

1. to adopt - принимать

2. claim - иск

3. conduct - поведение

4. conscience ['konjsns] - совесть

5. controversial - противоречивый

6. Covenant - соглашение

7. deprivation - лишение

8. equality– равенство

9. fair [fes] - справедливый

10. freedom - свобода

11. integrity - неприкосновенность

12. intimately - (зд.) тесно


13. legal justice - правосудие

14. link - связь

15. notion - понятие

16. previous generations - предыдущие поколения

17. prohibition - запрещение

18. to refer - относиться

19. relationship - отношение

20. satisfaction - удовлетворение

21. self-determination - самоопределение

22. servitude - служба

23. slavery - рабство

24. torture [- (зд.) пытка

25. treatment - обращение



7. The Constitutional Protection of Human Rights.

8. The Laymen and the Courts.

9. The Duties of a Juror.

10. The Duties of a Witness.

7. The Constitutional Protection of human Rights.

Together with the expansive process of human rights constitutional declarations, in addition to the writ of habeas corpus and of habeas data, Latin American constitutions created a specific judicial remedy for the protection of constitutional rights, known as the suit, action, recourse, or writ of amparo. After spreading throughout Latin America, it was incorporated in the American Convention of Human Rights. It is similar to the 'injunctions' and the other equitable remedies of the United States legal system. This book examines, with a comparative constitutional law approach, the most recent trends in the constitutional and legal regulations in all Latin American countries regarding the amparo proceeding. It is an up-to-date abridged version of the course of lectures the author gave at the Columbia Law School analyzing the regulations of the seventeen amparo statutes in force in Latin America, as well as the regulation on the amparo guarantee established in Article 25 of the American Convention on Human Rights.

Перевод

Вместе с экспансивной процесс конституционных прав человека декларации, в дополнение к хабеас корпус и хабеас дата, латиноамериканских конституциях созданы конкретные средства судебной защиты для защиты конституционных прав, известный как костюм, действия, обращение или судебный приказ ампаро. После распространения по всей Латинской Америке, она была включена в Американской конвенции о правах человека.Это похоже на «запреты» и других справедливых средств системы США легально. В этой книге рассматриваются, с подхода, сравнительного конституционного права, самые последние тенденции в конституционных и правовых норм во всех странах Латинской Америки в отношении разбирательства ампаро. Это до современных сокращенная версия курса лекций автор дал в Школе права Колумбийского анализа положений из семнадцати уставы ампаро в силу в Латинской Америке, а также положения о гарантии ампаро установлены в статье 25 Американской конвенции о правах человека.





11. The System of Elections in Russia and the USA.

In November voters in each state give their votes for candidates. Before voting in November every citizen must register in accordance with the laws of his state. This gives him the right of participating in "primaries"2. The US constitution guarantees every citizen the right to vote but the states with the help of numerous qualifications deprive a lot of people of this right. The national presidential elections really consist of two separate campaigns: one is for the nomination of candidates at national party conventions3. The other is to win the actual election. The nominating race is a competition between members of the same party. They run in a succession of state primaries and caucuses4. The party convention then votes to select the party's official candidate for the presidency.

In November of the election year the voters across the nation go to the polls. If the majority of the popular votes in a state go to the Presidential (and vice-presidential) candidate of one party, then that person is supposed to get all of that state's "electoral votes." These electoral votes are equal to the number of Senators and Representatives each state has in Congress. The candidate with the largest number of these electoral votes wins the election. Each state's electoral votes are formally reported by the "Electoral College." In January of the following year, in a joint session of Congress, the new President and Vice-President are officially announced. And those who do vote can only make their choice practically between two sets of candidates — Democrats and Republicans whose political platforms are practically alike.

1. universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot — всеобщее, равное и прямое

избирательное право при тайном голосовании

2. "primaries" — первичные выборы

3. convention - съезд

4. caucus - партийное собрание

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