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^ LOW COST AIRLINES

It is possible that no single factor has changed tourism as much as the introduction of air travels. Initially, the airline industry was built around a limited number of airlines. All activity was strictly regulated by the international air authorities. Today the industry is divided into: traditional and low-cost airlines.

A low cost carrier is an airline that generally has lower fares and less comforts.

The low cost strategy is based on limited turnaround times at airports. This means that the airline can get more flights out of a day. Some low-cost carriers also use secondary airports with much lower landing and take-off charges. Paperless tickets and sales over the Internet also keep costs down. They also sell single tickets and there are no first class or business class seats. No free newspapers, no free food. In fact no free anything, although you can buy most things during the flight.

Low-cost carrier business model practices include:

  • a single passenger class;

  • a single type of aircraft reducing training and servicing costs;

  • a simple fare scheme;

  • flying to cheaper, secondary airports and/or flying early in the morning or late in the evening to avoid air traffic delays and taking advantages of lower landing fees;

  • fast turnaround times;

  • unreserved seating (encouraging passengers to board early and quickly);

  • direct sales of tickets, especially over the Internet;

  • employees working in multiple roles;

  • no refunds or transfers to later flights in the event of missed flights.

The price policy of the low cost carriers is usually very dynamic, with discounts and tickets in promotion. Even if the advertised price may be very low, sometimes it does not include charges and taxes.
carrier перевозчик

fare стоимость проезда

landing charges сбор за посадку

take-off charges сбор за взлет

delay задержка

refund возмещение

^ TOURIST INFORMATION OFFICE
Tourist information comes in a variety of forms, but the two most important are probably Tourist information Centres (TICs) and websites.

TICs are found in city centres, major resorts, and transport termini. Tourist information offices, which may be smaller than TICs, are also found in smaller towns and rural areas. Inside the TIC there will be displays of leaflets and brochures on local attractions, entertainment venues and events, transport information such as timetables and schedules, and listings of accommodation providers. Many TICs have touch-screen facilities and interactive information displays, as well as trained staff.

Staff will be expected to provide information on a range of areas-such as which restaurant provides a high chair for a baby, the best place for a scenic walk or drive, how to get to local sights, and where the nearest toilets are. Some TICs will have an accommodation booking service, including booking accommodation at the next destination for tourists who are travelling around the region. They may also be able to reserve theatre tickets, arrange car rental, book an excursion or a guide, change currency, and even make an emergency dental appointment.

To work in a TIC, a pleasant and helpful personality is essential. You should have a good telephone manner, be able to work with computers, a have good written skills. Knowledge of a foreign language is also useful.
rural area сельская местность

leaflet листовка

venue место проведения

to arrange организовывать, договариваться

to book заказывать

emergency неотложный, срочный

dental appointment встреча со стоматологом

essential существенный

^ HOLIDAY REPRESENTATIVE

Resort representative are the first point of contact for holidaymakers at their destination. They represent the tour operator and ensure the success the clients’ holiday.

Representatives meet each party of holidaymakers on their arrival at the airport and accompany them by coach to their accommodation. Usually they hold welcome meetings after arrival to give the holidaymakers information about resort facilities and attractions. Resort representatives arrange regular times to meet holidaymakers to make announcements and deal with enquiries and problems. They keep an information board, and they also may arrange, book, and sometimes accompany excursions and sightseeing trips and arrange car or ski hire.

Resort reps need to be available at almost any time to give advice, solve problems, and deal with emergencies such as loss of passport or money, illness, or difficulties with accommodation. The completion of paperwork is an important aspect of the job. This involves keeping records and writing reports of complaints and incidents such as illness.

Representatives’ work is seasonal. Hours of work are variable. Representatives often work from early morning to late evening and at weekend and can be on call 24 hours a day.

holidaymaker отдыхающий

party группа

arrival прибытие

to make an announcement сделать объявление

variable подвижный

coach автобус

^ RURAL TOURISM
Rural areas have attracted tourists for well-over two hundred years and, nowadays, rural tourism is a significant sector of the overall tourism market in many countries - over a quarter of all Europeans, for example, spend their main holiday in the countryside. However, as rural tourism has become increasingly popular, the number of activities in which tourists participate has also grown, putting greater pressure on the rural resource base. At the same time, the economic and social structure of the countryside has been transformed; income and employment in the agricultural sector has declined dramatically and, as a result, tourism has become a favoured means of regenerating the rural economy.
There are two key characteristics of the countryside:

  1. It is not natural. That is, most rural areas have been influenced or transformed by human intervention.

  2. In many countries, it is a multi-purpose resource. That is, a number of different demands (including tourism) compete for a share of the countryside.


The demand for rural tourism is considered from a variety of perspectives:

  1. Volume. This is measured in terms of tourists (i.e. overnight stayers) and day-visitors to areas/places defined as rural.

  2. Characteristics of demand. Rural tourists are often more affluent, better educated, although surveys show that all socio-economic groups visit the countryside.

  3. Activities. Visitors to the countryside participate in variety of activities, some of which are more 'traditional', such as hiking, horse-riding or fishing, and others which are not rural in character but depend upon the rural environment.

  4. Motivation. It is assumed that tourists visit the countryside primarily to experience its intrinsic qualities. Although for significant numbers of visitors, it is the opportunity to participate in specific activities.


to participate принимать участие

to put pressure on оказывать давление на

to decline ухудшаться

human intervention вмешательство человека

multi-purpose многоцелевой

to compete конкурировать

affluent богатый

volume объем

to assume допускать, предполагать

intrinsic присущий, свойственный

^ FOOD TOURISM

It used to be that people traveled to distant lands in order to see historic monuments or to have an adventure. Now, however, some people are heading to distant lands in order to eat historic food or have a culinary adventure. Food tourism is sweeping the world and is becoming something that everyone should know and understand.

Culinary tourism or food tourism is experiencing the food of the country, region or area, and is now considered a vital component of the tourism experience. Dining out is common among tourists and "food is believed to rank alongside climate, accommodation, and scenery" in importance to tourists.

The increase in culinary travel goes along with a rise in emphasis on food throughout the American and European cultures. Today's typical tourist is much more educated than their predecessors 20 years ago; they are constantly searching for new experiences and adventures and want to experience the local culture when they go on holiday.

Extra-ordinary restaurant experiences, wine tasting and cooking classes have always played an important role in traditional gastro destinations like France, Italy. More and more specialized operators offer food and wine holidays in these countries, and also in various emerging food tourism markets like Australia, Chile, Mexico, Turkey, Croatia, Austria and Switzerland.

Most of these tours are guided; but some operators offer self-drive versions, too. The guided tours typically include wine tasting, lunches and dinners in special locations, demonstrations by chef cooks, visiting local markets and sightseeing. Special tours offer hiking or biking in wine regions, a visit to European Christmas Markets and various other experiences related to cooking and eating.

After all, there's not much that beats an evening at a wonderful holiday location, eating mouth-watering delicatessen and drinking a fine glass of wine. Hopefully I have managed to whet your appetite for food travel.
adventure приключение

to head to направляться

to sweep охватывать

emphasis значение, ударение

gastro destination гастрономические дестинации

to emerge появляться

mouth-watering аппетитный

to whet one’s appetite возбуждать аппетит

^ BUSINESS TRAVEL
Travelling on business has been one of the growth sectors of the travel industry in the past decade. Yet a decade ago many business travelers were still being forced to share aircraft cabins with squalling children and laid-back tourists.

Now the trend is to provide the executives not only with their own accommodation away from tourists but to give business travelers greater control over their environment — eating when they want to, for example - as well as acknowledging the demands of work.

The bulk of business travel is carried out on a more mundane level: virtually all employees at a managerial or executive level within companies travel at some time on company business.

Leading international hotel chains now find that business travelers account for over 60 per cent of their occupancy, a significant rise on a decade ago when business travelers accounted for under 50 per cent of average international hotel occupancy.

Improved travel management is one of the areas of most corporate interest as the benefits of controlling business travel costs become more apparent.

American Express points out that business travel costs are part of a cycle of activity: this starts with planning travel, physical arrangements of the trip and the travel itself; payment; reviewing the cost; and reconciliation of the costs.

Although the state of the world's economy is clearly a large determinant for business travel, there are also other factors that influence its development. The creation of the European single market, the opening up of Eastern Europe has led to a considerable increase in business travel.

As the world's economies become ever more integrated, and the ability to travel becomes both cheaper and easier, business travelers are increasingly achieved by a travel industry anxious to win their customs.
executive управленец, руководитель

to carry out реализовываться

mundane рутинный, обычный

to account for насчитывать

apparent очевидный

reconciliation согласование, сверка

average средний

determinant определяющий фактор


^ TALKING ABOUT MUSEUMS
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities, towns and even the countryside.

Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts. These were often displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities.

Types of museums vary, from very large collections in major cities, covering many of the categories below, to very small museums covering either a particular location in a general way, or a particular subject, such as an individual notable person. Categories include: fine arts, applied arts, craft, archaeology, anthropology and ethnology, history, science, technology, children's museums, maps, natural history, numismatics, botanical and zoological gardens and philately. Within these categories many museums specialize further, e.g. museums of modern art, local history, aviation history, agriculture or geology, etc.

Another type of museum is an encyclopedic museum. Commonly referred to as a universal museum, encyclopedic museums have collections representative of the world and typically include art, science, history, and cultural history. An encyclopedic museum can also be a specific type of museum but whose collection is not limited to works of its region, i.e. the British Museum is an example of an encyclopedic museum while the Art Institute of Chicago is an example of an encyclopedic art museum.

A museum normally houses a core collection of important selected objects in its field. Objects are formally accessioned by being registered in the museum's collection with an artifact number and details recorded about their provenance. The persons in charge of the collection and of the exhibits are known as curators.
exhibit экспонат

permanent постоянный

temporary временный

fine arts изобразительные искусства

applied arts прикладное искусство

craft ремесло

philately филателия

core основной

provenance происхождение

^ DESCRIBING A FESTIVAL

The Glastonbury Festival

One of the world’s biggest outdoor pop music festivals takes place every June on a farm in the countryside in the south-west of England. The Glastonbury Festival, which first took place in 1970, lasts three days and attracts around 140,000 people.

The festival has many different kinds of music, including rock, dance, folk, jazz and, in the last few years, hip-hop. Among the most famous performers at the 2009 festival were Bruce Springsteen, Blur, Black Eyed Peas and The Prodigy. Other big names in recent years include Oasis, The Killers, Björk, Radiohead, Coldplay, Kings of Leon and Jay-Z.

The festival isn’t only about music, though, as there are also theatre and comedy performances, a circus, and many other events. The festival is so popular that the 140,000 tickets, which people mostly buy online and this year cost 175 pounds (about 290 US dollars), often sell out in only a few hours. In some years there have been problems with lots of people getting in without paying by climbing over the fence around the fields where the festival takes place, but this hasn’t happened recently because security has improved.

You probably wouldn’t expect to find many families at most pop festivals, but there are lots of them at Glastonbury – in fact there is even a field with activities especially for young children. However, the organiser of the festival, Michael Eavis, says he is worried it is becoming too ‘middle-aged’ and wants to see more teenagers in the crowd.

Almost all the people who go to the festival stay for all three days and sleep in tents in the fields. This means there have to be hundreds of portable toilets and also some places where people can have a shower (usually with a very long queue).

If there is a lot of rain during the festival many of the fields become very muddy, which is why many people take rubber boots (in Britain people call them Wellington boots or ‘wellies’) – they wouldn’t look cool normally, but at Glastonbury, for three days only, they are very fashionable.

to take place происходить

folk music народный фольклор

performer исполнитель

performance представление

circus цирк

tent палатка

portable переносной

queue очередь

muddy грязный

rubber boots резиновые сапоги

fashionable модный
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