The russian federation

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НазваниеThe russian federation
Дата публикации31.07.2013
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ТипДокументы > Военное дело > Документы

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth's surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Byelorussia, the Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.

There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers - - the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena — flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.

Russia displays a variety of landforms and environments. In the mountain zones of the south and east the pattern is more complex because altitude rather than latitude is the dom­inant factor, and there are striking changes over relatively short distances. Within Russia there are six main envi­ronmental belts (some with subdivisions): Arctic desert , tundra, taiga, mixed and deciduous forest, wooded steppe, and steppe.

Its chief are the Russian Plain, The Ural Mountains, The West Siberian Plain, The Central Siberian Plateau and The Far East.

The Russian Plain occupies northwestern, or European Russia and consists of series of low, rolling uplands and broad river basins. The north half of the plain is covered by glaciers and the relief is mainly represented by lakes and swamps.

There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers - the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena — flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean

The Russian Plain contains the most economically important rivers, chief among them the Don and Volga. On the South the Russian Plain is bordered by the Caucasus Mountains between the Black Sea and the Caspian sea.

The West Siberian Plain merges in the east with The Central Siberian Plateau, which lies mainly between the Yenisey and the Lena river basins.

This plateau is bordered on the South by minor mountains ranges that are centered on Lake Baikal. The eastmost portion of Russia is bounded by the Pacific Ocean and is rounded by various mountain chains. The Far East area also includes The Kamchatka and Chukchi and the Kuril and Sakhalin islands.

Russia's climate is markedly continental, with cold winters and mild or warm summers, depending on latitude. Continental weather extremes increase eastward and are particularly pronounced in eastern Siberia.

Russia's vegetation reflects its different latitudinal climatic regimes. Almost 10 % of Russian territory is the tundra, a treeless, marshy plain. Tundra soils are extremely poor, they are frozen for much of the year and poorly drained. Vegetation changes from north to south, and three subdivisions are recognized: arctic tundra, with extensive area of mosses and lichens; shrubby tundra, with mosses, lichens, dwarf arctic birch and shrub willow; wooded tundra .The main animals species are, the Arctic fox, ox, snowy owl, beaver.

Arctic desert. The Arctic desert is completely barren land with little or no vegetation. Considerable areas are ice-covered.

The taiga.

South of the tundra stretches the vast taiga zone. It is the largest of the environmental regions. A distinction is commonly made between the western taiga, where climate is less extreme and the eastern taiga beyond the Yenisey. The taiga is rich in fur-bearing animals, such as the sable, squirrel, fox. It is the home of bear, wolf and elk. The taiga remains the world's timber reserve. There are large stands of birch, alder, and willow.

In European Russia, the taiga gives way to a zone of mixed coniferous and deciduous forest growing on swampy ground.

As conditions become warmer deciduous species appear in greater numbers and eventually become dominant. The mixed and deciduous forest belt is triangular in shape, widest along the western border and narrowing toward the Urals. Oak and spruce are the main trees, but there are also growths of ash, aspen, birch, pine. East of the Urals as far as the Altai, a narrow belt of birch and aspen woodland separates the taiga from the wooded steppe.Much of forest zone has been cleared for agriculture and as a result the wildlife is less plentiful.

Deciduous forest gives way in the South to mixed forest-steppe and finally to true steppe, which is grass -covered and almost treeless. The natural steppe vegetation is composed mainly of turf grasses. The absence of natural shelter on the open steppe has conditioned the kind of animals that inhabit it. Typical species are various mice and burrowing animals.

Russia is considered to be one of the world's biggest producers of coal, petroleum and natural gas, as well as of iron, ore, copper, zinc, lead, nickel and tin.

Russia has among the world's richest lodes of mineral resources, being one of the world's biggest producers of coal. petroleum, ural gas, as well as of iron ore, copper zinc. lead, nickel, aluminum, and tin. Russia's heavy industries are particularly produce much of the nation's steel and heavy machinery, such as steam boiler grain-harvesting combines, automobiles, lookomotives, and machine tools. Russia's chemic industry is also well developed.

Ethnic composition

Of all of the 15 former union republics of the U.S.S.R.. Russia displays the greatest ethnic diversity, with about 75 distinct nationalities. Most of these are small: Russians constitute about 82 percent of the total, and only three others (Tatars, Ukrainians, and Chuvash) make up more than 1 percent each. The multiplicity of peoples is re­flected in 24 minority republics, 3 autonomous provinces and 4 autonomous districts. Those parts of the republic that do not form autonomous territories are di­vided into six regions and 49 provinces.

Linguistically, the population of Russia can be divided into the Indo-European group, comprising East Slavic and Language Iranian speakers.

altitude высота

belt пояс

swamp болото,топь

marshy болотный; болотистый, топкий

soil почва

poorly drained

moss мох

lichen ['laɪkən] лишайник

shrub willow карликовая ива

birch береза

alder ольха

ash ясень

aspen осина

pine ель

beaver бобер

sable соболь

elk лось

squirrel белка

coniferous and deciduous forest хвойные и лиственные леса

turf торф

lode залежь,жила


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